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IGNOU MSW 032 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , MSW 032 Social Work and Criminal Justice Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : MSW 032 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , IGNOU MSW 032 Assignment 2022-23, MSW 032 Assignment 2022-23 , MSW 032 Assignment , MSW 032 Social Work and Criminal Justice Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- MASTER DEGREE IN SOCIAL WORK Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MASTER DEGREE IN SOCIAL WORK Programme for the year 2022-23. MSW course or Master of Social Work is a post-graduation course majoring in the field of social work. MSW course is imparted with a two-year duration, which is typically divided into four semesters. Aspirants can pursue MSW courses after completing a Bachelor degree in the relevant field. A career in social work is all about giving and helping others in need. From various NGOs (non-government organizations) across the nation to social development, a Master of Social Work (MSW) course provides comprehensive knowledge about the work put into the development of humanity and social welfare. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. IGNOU solved assignment 2022-23 ignou dece solved assignment 2022-23 ignou ma sociology assignment 2022-23 meg 10 solved assignment 2022-23 ts 6 solved assignment 2022-23 , meg solved assignment 2022-23 .

IGNOU MSW 032 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU MSW 032 Solved Assignment 2022-23. You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Download Question Paper 

Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

Answer any five of the following questions in about 300 words each:

All Questions carry 20 marks:

 


1) What do you mean by ‘offence’? Classify offender for the purposes of different criminal justice process.

Characteristics of offenders

Knowledge of the types of people who commit crimes is subject to one overriding limitation: it is generally based on studies of those who have been arrested, prosecuted, and convicted, and those populations—which represent only unsuccessful criminals—are not necessarily typical of the whole range of criminals. Despite that limitation, some basic facts emerge that give a reasonably accurate portrayal of those who commit crimes.

Gender patterns

Crime is predominantly a male activity. In all criminal populations, whether of offenders passing through the courts or of those sentenced to institutions, men outnumber women by a high proportion, especially in more-serious offenses. For example, at the beginning of the 21st century, in the United States, men accounted for approximately four-fifths of all arrests and nine-tenths of arrests for homicide, and in Britain women constituted only 5 percent of the total prison population. Nevertheless, in most Western societies the incidence of recorded crime by women and the number of women in the criminal-justice system have increased. For instance, from the mid- to late 1990s in the United States, arrests of males for violent offenses declined by more than one-tenth, but corresponding figures for women increased by the same amount. To some analysts, those statistics indicated increasing criminal activity by women and suggested that the changing social role of women had led to greater opportunity and temptation to commit crime. However, other observers argued that the apparent increase in female criminality merely reflected a change in the operation of the criminal-justice system, which routinely had ignored crimes committed by women. Although arrest data suggested that female criminality had increased faster than male criminality, the national crime victim survey showed that violent offending in the United States by both males and females had fallen in the same years. At the beginning of the 21st century, the rate of murders committed by women was about two-fifths below its peak in 1980.

Age patterns

Crime also is predominantly a youthful activity. Although statistics vary between countries, involvement in minor property crime generally peaks between ages 15 and 21. Participation in more-serious crimes peaks at a later age—from the late teenage years through the 20s—and criminality tends to decline steadily after the age of 30. The evidence as to whether this pattern, widely found across time and place, is a natural effect of aging, the consequence of taking on family responsibilities, or the effect of experiencing penal measures imposed by the law for successive convictions is inconclusive. Not all types of crime are subject to decline with aging, however. Fraud, certain kinds of theft, and crimes requiring a high degree of sophistication are more likely to be committed by older men, and sudden crimes of violence, committed for emotional reasons, may occur at any age.

Social-class patterns

The relationship between social class or economic status and crime has been studied extensively. Research carried out in the United States in the 1920s and ’30s claimed to show that a higher incidence of criminality was concentrated in deprived and deteriorating neighbourhoods of large cities, and studies of penal populations revealed that levels of educational and occupational attainment were generally lower than in the wider population. Early studies of juvenile delinquents also showed a high proportion of lower-class offenders. However, later research called into question the assumption that criminality was closely associated with social origin, particularly because such studies often overlooked white-collar crime and other criminal acts committed by people of higher socioeconomic status. Self-report studies have suggested that offenses are more widespread across the social spectrum than the figures based on identified criminals would suggest.

Racial patterns

The relationship between racial or ethnic background and criminality has evoked considerable controversy. Most penal populations do contain a disproportionately high number of persons from some minority racial groups relative to their numbers in the general population. However, some criminologists have pointed out that this may be the result of the high incidence among minority racial groups of characteristics that are commonly associated with identified criminality (e.g., unemployment and low economic status) and the fact that in many cities racial minority groups inhabit areas that have traditionally had high crime rates, perhaps as a result of their shifting populations and general lack of social cohesion. Other explanations have focused on the enforcement practices of the police, which may be influenced by racial discrimination.

Characteristics of victims

Knowledge of the types of people who are victims of crime requires that they report their crimes, either to the police or to researchers who ask them about their experiences as a victim. Some crimes are greatly underreported in official statistics—rape is an example—but may be more accurately reported in victim surveys. Yet just as those who are caught or admit to committing crimes do not necessarily represent all criminals, those who report being victims of crime are not necessarily typical of the whole range of victims. Nevertheless, some basic facts gathered from official reports and victim surveys give a reasonably accurate portrayal of crime victims. Probably the most important basic fact is that patterns of offending and patterns of victimization are quite similar. That is, the groups that are most likely to be crime victims are the same groups that are most likely to commit crimes. In particular, crime victims are more likely to be male, young, part of a lower socioeconomic class, and members of ethnic or racial minority groups. (See victimology.)

David A. ThomasThomas J. Bernard

 

Theories of causation

As discussed above in the section Characteristics of offenders, because criminals who are caught are not necessarily representative of all those who commit crime, reaching robust explanations of the causes of crime is difficult. Nevertheless, criminologists have developed several theories of the phenomenon. Although some criminologists claim that a single theory can provide a universal explanation of criminality, more commonly it is believed that many different theories help to explain particular aspects of criminality and that different types of explanation contribute to the understanding of the problem of crime. A brief discussion of criminological theories follows. For a more detailed analysis, see criminology.

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, there was great interest in biological theories of criminal activity. These theories, which took into account the biological characteristics of offenders (e.g., their skulls, facial features, body type, and chromosomal composition), held sway for a time, but support for them has waned. In the late 20th century, criminologists attempted to link a variety of hereditary and biochemical factors with criminal activity. For example, adoptees were found to be more likely to engage in criminal behaviour if a biological parent was criminal but their adoptive parent was not; other research suggested that hormonal and certain neurotransmitter imbalances were associated with increased criminality.

In psychology, explanations of delinquent and criminal behaviour are sought in the individual’s personality. In particular, psychologists examine the processes by which behaviour and restraints on behaviour are learned. This process often is conceptualized as the result of the interaction of biological predispositions and social experiences. Psychological explanations of crime originated in the 19th century and were linked in part to the work of Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud (1856–1939). Social learning theory gained many adherents in the 20th century, and there was also a considerable body of research that examined the relationship between mental disorders and criminality.

 

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2) Explain the sociological theories of criminal behaviour.

Some popular social theories tend to focus on social or structural factors of society, such as learned mannerisms or the influence of poverty on the behavior of various groups. Others are focused on how a person’s values are affected by socialization. Each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses.

Understanding the criminal mind is essential for those who want to work in fields such as criminal justice or criminal psychology. In order to understand various sociological theories about crime, it helps to start by learning the four main theories about social deviance. Those theories can help provide a useful and necessary context for approaching other kinds of sociological theories, and will allow you to develop a deeper understanding of crime and the criminal mind. 

Theories & Assumptions in Sociology 

In everyday society, people often treat the word “theory” as interchangeable with “hypothesis.” However, theory means something very specific in a sociological/scientific context. Theories are perceptual tools that people use to order, name, and shape a picture of the world. As such, they play an essential role in the way we interpret facts.

Several competing theories attempting to explain the same evidence can arrive at separate conclusions. That’s because every theory relies on some set of assumptions, and in the case of sociological theories of crime, those are often assumptions about the nature of individual people, the group, and the relationship between the two. In other words, differing assumptions about human nature and its relation to social order. 

What is Crime in Sociology?

A legal definition of crime can be simple: crime is a violation of the law. However, the definition of crime within sociology isn’t quite as simple. There are many different ways to define crime, many different theories about the origins of criminal activity, and just as many sociological theories of crime. 

While there is no simple definition within the field of sociology, broadly speaking, you could say that crime is the study of social deviance and violations of established norms. But why do those norms exist? Some sociologists ask us to reflect on the creation of individual laws: Whose interests are served by the law in question? Who benefits, and who pays the costs of various behaviors that are classified as illegal? Sociological theories of crime need to explain a diverse range of social phenomena. 

Definitions of crime have implications for the kind of questions you ask, the kinds of data you use to study criminal behavior, and the kinds of theories applied. Some of the most commonly defined types of crime in sociology include:

  • Violent crime – A crime in which a person is harmed or or threatened. Violent crimes include murder, assault, rape, sexual assault, robbery, kidnapping, and harassment.  
  • Property crime – Property crime involves criminal activity that does not do bodily harm to a person, but rather focuses on private property. This type of crime involves burglary, theft, arson, defacement of property, motor vehicle theft, and more. 
  • White-collar crime – White-collar crime is the name for acts of fraud committed by businessmen. Violent behavior is typically not associated with white-collar crime. Rather, these types of crimes are committed to gain or avoid losing money or property. Some examples of white-collar crimes include money laundering, corporate fraud, mortgage fraud, Ponzi schemes, and embezzlement among others. 
  • Organized crime – Organized crime refers to criminal activity committed by an organized group of individuals at a local, regional, national, or international level. Some groups commonly associated with organized crime include the mafia, terrorist groups, and mobsters. Drug trafficking, human trafficking, money laundering, and counterfeiting are among some of the most prevalent illegal activities committed under the banner of organized crime. 
  • Consensual or victimless crime – Consensual crime refers to crimes that do not directly harm other individuals or property. Rather, individuals choose to participate in risky behaviors that may be considered against the law. This includes indulging in drug use, prostitution, or obscenity. 

Outside of these five types of crime in sociology, you can find a wealth of different ideas. For example, some sociologists would argue even apparently criminal acts can’t be called criminal until a full evaluation of the situation has been made. For that reason, it’s important to be able to understand patterns of crime in a sociological context. 

Understanding Patterns of Crime in Sociology

While the words “crime” and “deviance” are often used interchangeably, there are subtle differences. Committing a crime violates social laws, while deviant behavior violates social norms and rules. However, deviant behavior can also tiptoe over the line of criminal behavior. 

While there are many different sociological theories about crime, there are four primary perspectives about deviance: Structural Functionalism, Social Strain Typology, Conflict Theory, and Labeling Theory. Starting with these theories can provide the context and perspective necessary to better appreciate other sociological theories of crime. 

Structural Functionalism

Structural Functionalism argues deviant behavior plays a constructive part in society as it brings together different parts of the population within a society. That’s because deviance helps to demarcate limitations for acceptable and unacceptable behavior, which in turn serves to affirm our cultural values and norms. 

While deviant behavior can throw off social balance, society may adjust social norms in the process of restoring that balance. In other words, deviant behavior can then contribute to social stability in the long term because it challenges norms while promoting social cohesion. 

Social Strain Typology

Social Strain ypology proposes that deviant behavior can be classified by typology that’s based on a person’s motivations or adherence to cultural objectives, as well as their beliefs about how they can obtain those goals. The main “types” of social deviance being: ritualism, innovation, rebellion, ritualism, retreatism, and conformity.

This theory also suggests that people can turn towards deviant behavior while pursuing accepted social values/goals. For example, some people turn to crime for the culturally accepted value of seeking to lead a wealthy life. Deviance can mean breaking one norm to place another before it, which is a fundamental insight of social strain typology.

Conflict Theory

Conflict Theory views deviant behavior as a consequence of material inequality between various socio-political groups. Those groups might be drawn along the lines of gender, religion, race, class, and so on. Each sociopolitical group has a tendency to perceive its own interests in completion with others. In other words, the members of various groups tend to perceive rights and other social privileges as a zero-sum game, where gains for outsiders mean losses for your own group.

Groups that find themselves in an unequal social position in society will be inclined to deviant behavior to change those circumstances, including the structures which helped create them. As Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. once said, “A riot is the language of the unheard.” From the perspective of Conflict Theory, people often act in defiance from social norms to express a grievance.

Labeling Theory

Labeling Theory argues that deviant behavior is often a consequence of having a deviant-like label applied to a person. For example, a teacher labeling a student as a troublemaker. That label can then be mentally adopted by the person it’s been assigned to, leading them to exhibit the actions, attitudes, and behaviors associated with it.

In short, this theory tends to focus on how people become deviant as a result of others forcing that identity upon them. It allows us to develop a better understanding of how a person’s previous behaviors can be reinterpreted in relation to the symbolic labeling they encountered over the course of their lives.

Studying Sociological Theories of Crime at National University

Gaining a deeper understanding of sociological theories of crime can lay a firm foundation in a career path such as criminal justice, psychology, and helping to serve and protect communities. Applying the understanding of these theories, using critical thinking skills to connect the dots, and levying them against additional skills required for professionals in these fields can prove ideal for individuals who have a strong sense of justice and a desire to better understand human behavior at its best and worst. 

National University is a regionally accredited university with a Bachelor of Arts in Sociology. Students learn to apply major sociological theories to a variety of circumstances, including understanding criminal behavior. Graduates can apply their skills to a wide range of fields, from marketing to law enforcement. National University also has several degrees in criminal justice that enable graduates to pursue degrees in an equally wide range of criminology-related career paths.


3)Trace the evolution of the Criminal Justice System.


4)Enlist the various types of Courts in India.


5)Discuss the process of the police to investigate cognizable and non-cognizable offences. 


6)Trace the origin and development of the Probation System.


7) Enlist the main legislations that govern the administration of prisoners in India.


8) Discuss in brief the legislative mandate on visitorial system in India.


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IGNOU MSW 032 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
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IGNOU MSW 032 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

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