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IGNOU MPS 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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IGNOU MPS 004 Solved Assignment 2022-2023

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

This assignment consists of Sections I and II.

There are five questions in each section.

You have to answer a total of five questions in about 500 words each.

It is necessary to attempt at least two questions from each section.

Each question carries 20 marks

SECTION – A


Q.1. Briefly describe the main approaches to nationalism

Introduction  – Nationalism is a modern movement. Throughout history people have been attached to their native soil, to the traditions of their parents, and to established territorial authorities, but it was not until the end of the 18th century that nationalism began to be a generally recognized sentiment molding public and private life and one of the great, if not the greatest, single determining factors of modern history. Because of its dynamic vitality and its all-pervading character, nationalism is often thought to be very old; sometimes it is mistakenly regarded as a permanent factor in political behaviour.

Actually, the American and French revolutions may be regarded as its first powerful manifestations. After penetrating the new countries of Latin America, it spread in the early 19th century to central Europe and from there, toward the middle of the century, to eastern and southeastern Europe. At the beginning of the 20th century, nationalism flowered in Asia and Africa. Thus, the 19th century has been called the age of nationalism in Europe, while the 20th century witnessed the rise and struggle of powerful national movements throughout Asia and Africa.

Main Approaches to Nationalism – Nationalism, translated into world politics, implies the identification of the state or nation with the people—or at least the desirability of determining the extent of the state according to ethnographic principles. In the age of nationalism, but only in the age of nationalism, the principle was generally recognized that each nationality should form a state—its state—and that the state should include all members of that nationality.

Formerly states, or territories under one administration, were not delineated by nationality. People did not give their loyalty to the nation-state but to other, different forms of political organization: the city-state, the feudal fief and its lord, the dynastic state, the religious group, or the sect. The nation-state was nonexistent during the greater part of history, and for a very long time it was not even regarded as an ideal. In the first 15 centuries of the Common Era, the ideal was the universal world-state, not loyalty to any separate political entity.

The Roman Empire had set the great example, which survived not only in the Holy Roman Empire of the Middle Ages but also in the concept of the res publica christiana (“Christian republic” or community) and in its later secularized form of a united world civilization. As political allegiance, before the age of nationalism, was not determined by nationality, so civilization was not thought of as nationally determined. During the Middle Ages, civilization was looked upon as determined religiously; for all the different nationalities of Christendom as well as for those of Islam, there was but one civilization—Christian or Muslim—and but one language of culture—Latin (or Greek) or Arabic (or Persian).

Later, in the periods of the Renaissance and of Classicism, it was the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations that became a universal norm, valid for all peoples and all times. Still later, French civilization was accepted throughout Europe as the valid civilization for educated people of all nationalities. It was only at the end of the 18th century that, for the first time, civilization was considered to be determined by nationality. It was then that the principle was put forward that people could be educated only in their own mother tongue, not in languages of other civilizations and other times, whether they were classical languages or the literary creations of other peoples who had reached a high degree of civilization.

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Q.2. Analyse the impact of regional integration on the state and its sovereignty

Introduction – A sovereign state or sovereign country, is a political entity represented by one central government that has supreme legitimate authority over territory. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory (see territorial disputes), one government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states. It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is independent.According to the declarative theory of statehood, a sovereign state can exist without being recognised by other sovereign states. Unrecognised states will often find it difficult to exercise full treaty-making powers or engage in diplomatic relations with other sovereign states.

Since the end of the 19th century, almost the entire globe has been divided into sections (countries) with more or less defined borders assigned to different states. Previously, quite large plots of land were either unclaimed or deserted, or inhabited by nomadic peoples that were not organized into states. However, even in modern states, there are large remote areas, such as the Amazon’s tropical forests, that are either uninhabited or inhabited exclusively or mainly by indigenous people (and some of them are still not in constant contact). There are also States that do not exercise de facto control over their entire territory, or where this control is disputed.

Currently, the international community includes more than 200 sovereign states, most of which are represented in the United Nations. These states exist in a system of international relations, where each state takes into account the policies of other states by making its own calculations. From this point of view, States are integrated into the international system of special internal and external security and legitimization of the dilemma. Recently, the concept of the international community has been formed to refer to a group of States that have established rules, procedures and institutions for the implementation of relations. Thus, the foundation for international lawdiplomacy between officially recognized sovereign states, their organizations and formal regimes has been laid.

The impact of regional integration on the state and its sovereignty –  The regional integration also can affect the economic development or economic growth. A country with a highest economic rate will have more power and authority than other country members. Moreover, it can increase competition in tradeable goods sector. That increased competition may induce improvements in efficiency, lower markups, and a larger demand for inputs in those sectors, further increasing the relative demand for capital. Integration may also can affect the prices of capital goods. Lower tariffs and trading costs on imports of capital equipment may reduce the price of investment goods, raising the rates of return and accumulation. Increased competition from capital goods could also stimulate the domestic capital goods industry to greater efficiency.

Regional integration is an attempt to realise mutual gains from cooperation within a group of self-motivated states in an anarchical international system . In order to attain successful regional cohesion, the states have to overcome collective action problems that are endemic to international cooperation. Regional cooperation is often promoted by both academics and politicians as a way for states to address important developmental challenges. However, the willingness to cooperate on different issues varies greatly across different policy fields. Regionalism across national borders has become a global phenomenon, there is no single nation sovereign state that has not joined some Trans-national Regional Organisations (TRO).3 Crisis and urgency are today the “new normal” of politics, a phenomenon experienced at the local, national and international levels. When this breach with the “normalised” framework of politics ceases to be temporary and when crises and urgency become a constant mode of political organisation, then the question of the relationship between crises, urgency and sovereignty arises.

Regional integration is a process in which neighbouring states enter into an agreement in order to upgrade cooperation through common institutions and rules. Regional integration is also known as the process by which two or more nation states agree to cooperate and work closely together to achieve peace, stability and wealth. Regional integration has generally followed the logical progression from cooperation to integration.

Under this notion, the primary purpose of the state is in its ability to provide public goods to the people living under its rule following a straight-forward costbenefit calculus. Hence, cooperation is allowed to solve transboundary problems like externalities and collective resources and achieve economies of scale. It is desirable if these benefits outweighs the cost of ceding national control over goods provision.

3. Examine the Neo-Marxist understanding of the state in developing countries.


4. Critically examine the impact of globalization on the internal functioning of a state.


5. Discuss the impact of multinational corporation on developing nations.


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SECTION – B


6. Write short notes on the following in about 250 words each:

a) Gramsci’s conception of civil society

The term ‘civil society’ did not got any special attention during the post-second world war period in the West. The term wasn’t taken seriously by the orthodox Marxists as well. They generalized the term with the bourgeoisie society as conceived by Marx in his writings. But, the idea of ‘civil society’ surfaced in academic world once again during the 1960’s and that too with the help of the radicals who were frustrated with the Marxist ideology.

Writings of Antonio Gramsci played an important role in the revival of this concept. He came out of the jinx of the traditional idea of Marx and showed a new path to the Marxist thinking which was very much appropriate during his time and to some extent till today. But, we should also take into consideration the idea of civil society as perceived by the classical thinkers because it adds a tremendous depth to the subject matter. Locke could speak of ‘civil government’ along with, and as an alternative term for, ‘civil’ or ‘political society’.

The term Civil Society came into political sphere in the 16th and 17th century Europe. Gurpreet Mahajan is of the view that “At this time theorists of democracy invoked this concept to define a democratic form of government rooted in the rights of citizens.” The theorists of the 17th century brought the idea of civil society in the center of the debate because for them rights of the individual were more important than everything else. The idea’s of Hobbes, Locke, Hegel, Marx, Tocqueville
and Gramsci played an important role in regard to the concept of civil society.

According to Gramsci there were two kinds of intellectuals – ‘traditional’ and ‘organic’. “In the first place there are the “traditional” professional intellectuals, literary, scientific and so on, whose position in the interstices of society has a certain inter-class aura about it but derives ultimately from the past and present class relations and conceals an attachment to various historical class formations. Secondly, there are the “organic” intellectuals, the thinking and organizing element of a
particular fundamental social class. These intellectuals are distinguished less by their profession, which may be any job characteristic of their class, than by their function in directing the ideas and aspirations of the class to which they organically belong.”
To understand Gramsci’s idea of intellectuals we need to observe how he made a demarcation between the different position of urban and rural type of intellectuals. He compares the urban intellectuals with the ‘subaltern officers in the army’. They have developed themselves along with industry and they execute the ‘production plan’ which is decided by the ‘industrial general staff’ who is controlling the ‘elementary stages of work’. Antonio Gramsci is of the view that “On the whole the average urban intellectuals are standardized, while the top urban intellectuals are more and more identified with the industrial general staff itself.


b) Marxist conception of political economy


7. Write short notes on the following in about 250 words each:
a) State building and nation building
b) Cultural deprivation as an inducement to ethnicity.


8. Critically evaluate Maurice Duverger’s classification of Party Systems.


9. Assess the position of developing countries on the key issues in the
environment debate.


10. Write short notes on the following in about 250 words each:
a) Relationship between parties and pressure groups
b) Ecofeminism and its critics.


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IGNOU Instructions for the MPS 004 COMPARATIVE POLITICS: ISSUES AND TRENDS Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPS 004 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



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IGNOU MPS 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU MPS 004 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU MPS 004 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU MPS 004 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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