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IGNOU MPS 002 Solved Assignment 2022-2023
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Important Note – IGNOU MPS 002 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
This assignment consists of Sections I and II.
There are five questions in each section.
You have to answer a total of five questions in about 500 words each.
It is necessary to attempt at least two questions from each section.
Each question carries 20 marks
SECTION – A
Q.1. Explain the role of UN in the current world order.
Introduction –The United Nations was formed in 1945 in the wake of World War II as a way to reduce international tensions, promote human rights, and decrease the possibility of other large-scale conflicts. It is a successor to the League of Nations, a body devoted to international cooperation that was formed in 1920 after World War I but found itself unable to prevent the outbreak of war in Europe and Asia in the 1930s. The U.S. never joined the League of Nations. Today, almost every country in the world is represented in the U.N., including the United States . A few states lack U.N. membership, though some of these exercise de facto sovereignty. In some cases, this is because most of the international community does not recognize them as independent . In other cases, it is because one or more powerful member states have blocked their admittance (e.g., Taiwan, Kosovo).
UN General Assembly This is the U.N.’s main deliberative body, in which all members have equal representation. It is headquartered in New York City, and its responsibilities include setting the U.N.’s budget, appointing rotating members to the Security Council, and passing non-binding resolutions that express the opinions of the international community. UN Secretariat The U.N. Secretariat is the executive wing of the U.N., charged with implementing policies set by its deliberative bodies. Its head, the Secretary-General, is the U.N.’s top official. The Secretariat, which is based in New York City, includes the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, which dispatches U.N. soldiers—known as “blue helmets”—on missions authorized by the Security Council.
Preventive Diplomacy and Mediation The most effective way to diminish human suffering and the massive economic costs of conflicts and their aftermath is to prevent conflicts in the first place. The United Nations plays an important role in conflict prevention, using diplomacy, good offices and mediation. Among the tools the Organization uses to bring peace are special envoys and political missions in the field. Special and Personal Representatives, Envoys and Advisers of the Secretary-General
The Secretary-General of the United Nations has Special and Personal Representatives, Envoys and Advisers in many areas of the world. UN Office for West Africa The UN Office for West Africa, in Dakar, Senegal was the first regional conflict prevention and peacebuilding office of the United Nations. Its overall mandate was to enhance contributions of the UN towards the achievement of peace and security in West Africa and promote an integrated regional approach in addressing issues that impact stability in West Africa. It was recently merged with the Office of the Special Envoy for the Sahel (OSES) into a single entity.
The UN performs five main functions
- Maintaining peace and security: The UN was founded with the mission of maintenance of peace and security does so by preventing conflicts in the first place.
- Protection of Human Rights: Protecting human rights has been the key purpose of UN, the Preamble and Article 1(3) of the UN Charter provides that the UN shall protect the human rights of all.
- Provide humanitarian aid: UN provides humanitarian relief operations in areas that are beyond the capacity of the national authority alone. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is vested with the responsibility to coordinate responses to emergencies.
- Upholds International Law. This has been an essential part of the working of the UN organization. The UN Charter is an instrument of International Law and all the member states are bound by it.
- Promoting sustainable development: Sustainable development ensures improvement in the quality of life of people. The main focus of the UN is to bring social, economic and environmental development in the world.
The United Nations along with its specialized agencies assumes a significant job in keeping up harmony and security of the world nations. The UN specialized agencies like the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), UNICEF, World Health Organization, etc have done noteworthy work in the growth and development of the developed and developing countries. The UN and its Members are continuously taking effective measures for tackling global challenges of the present times. It is a stage that provides a forum for discussion for the members to come to a common understanding.
The President of the UNGA, Maria Fernanda Espinosa Garces in the 73rd session of the UN General Assembly has emphasised the need for humanitarian assistance and funding to curb the critical challenges that the world is facing in contemporary times.
She stated that the multilateral approach that the UN has is essential for the building and maintenance of peace and security and as a President of the UN General Assembly she intends to strengthen the approach of the UN in dealing with these critical issues. In this context, she also discussed the tremendous challenges that are faced by the international community and the role played by the UN. To state a few in regard to the issues of environment and climate change leading to the displacement of millions of people:
- 2.8 million people in South Asia have suffered because of weather-related displacement.
- Forceful displacement of 68.5 Million people, most affected being the developing nations.
She told that dialogue, negotiation, and international cooperation gives the most reasonable platform for discussion and reaching agreements of a common understanding. She also emphasized that dialogue and concerted efforts have led to exceptional gains by the international community in development, maintaining peace and security.
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Q.2. Define international terrorism. How does patriotism become the epicenter of terrorism?
Terrorist groups in Syria and Iraq, including Al Qaeda and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), possess both the intention and the capability to direct attacks against the West. The UK is a high-priority target for Islamist extremists and they pose a significant threat to our country and to our interests and citizens abroad. Despite the current main focus on terrorism originating from Syria and Iraq, the threat of terrorism also emanates from other parts of the Middle East and regions such as North, East and West Africa, South and South East Asia. The majority of terrorist attack plots in this country have been planned by British residents. There are several thousand individuals in the UK who support violent extremism or are engaged in Islamist extremist activity. Some British nationals travel overseas to train with extremist groups and return to the UK with the view to plan attacks, but increasingly the terrorist threat from within the UK emanates from individuals radicalised by individuals and material online. Once radicalised, an individual might decide to conduct an attack in the name of Islam without any prior signs of radicalisation. Simple, self-organised attacks by UK-based Islamist extremists have increased and are inherently harder to detect than more complex and ambitious plots.
International terrorism: Violent, criminal acts committed by individuals and/or groups who are inspired by, or associated with, designated foreign terrorist organizations or nations (state-sponsored). Domestic terrorism: Violent, criminal acts committed by individuals and/or groups to further ideological goals stemming from domestic influences, such as those of a political, religious, social, racial, or environmental nature.
The FBI is committed to remaining agile in its approach to the terrorism threat, which has continued to evolve since the September 11, 2001 terror attacks. Years after these attacks, the threat landscape has expanded considerably, and international terrorism remains a serious threat. The threat of domestic terrorism also remains persistent overall, with actors crossing the line from exercising First Amendment-protected rights to committing crimes in furtherance of violent agendas.
Many factors have contributed to the evolution of the terrorism threat on both the international and domestic fronts, such as:
- Lone offenders: Terrorist threats have evolved from large-group conspiracies toward lone-offender attacks. These individuals often radicalize online and mobilize to violence quickly. Without a clear group affiliation or guidance, lone offenders are challenging to identify, investigate, and disrupt. The FBI relies on partnerships and tips from the public to identify and thwart these attacks.
- The Internet and social media: International and domestic violent extremists have developed an extensive presence on the Internet through messaging platforms and online images, videos, and publications. These facilitate the groups’ ability to radicalize and recruit individuals who are receptive to extremist messaging. Social media has also allowed both international and domestic terrorists to gain unprecedented, virtual access to people living in the United States in an effort to enable homeland attacks. The Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS), in particular, encourages sympathizers to carry out simple attacks wherever they are located—or to travel to ISIS-held territory in Iraq and Syria and join its ranks as foreign fighters. This message has resonated with supporters in the United States and abroad.
3. Do you think the world is unipolar, bipolar or multipolar? Explain with example.
4. What is ethnicity? Explain the reasons of ethnic wars.
5. Migration has become an international issue. Explain the reasons of refugee issues in the world
SECTION – B
6. a) Realist Theory
Realism, set of related theories of international relations that emphasizes the role of the state, national interest, and power in world politics. Realism has dominated the academic study of international relations since the end of World War II. Realists claim to offer both the most accurate explanation of state behaviour and a set of policy prescriptions (notably the balance of power between states) for ameliorating the inherent destabilizing elements of international affairs.
Realism (including neorealism) focuses on abiding patterns of interaction in an international system lacking a centralized political authority. That condition of anarchy means that the logic of international politics often differs from that of domestic politics, which is regulated by a sovereign power. Realists are generally pessimistic about the possibility of radical systemic reform. Realism is a broad tradition of thought that comprises a variety of different strands, the most distinctive of which are classical realism and neorealism.
Realists frequently claim to draw on an ancient tradition of political thought. Among classic authors often cited by realists are Thucydides, Niccolò Machiavelli, Thomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Max Weber. Realism as a self-conscious movement in the study of international relations emerged during the mid-20th century and was inspired by the British political scientist and historian E.H. Carr. Carr attacked what he perceived as the dangerous and deluded “idealism” of liberal internationalists and, in particular, their belief in the possibility of progress through the construction of international institutions such as the League of Nations.
He focused instead on the perennial role of power and self-interest in determining state behaviour. The outbreak of World War II converted many scholars to that pessimistic vision. Thereafter, realism became established in American political science departments, its fortunes boosted by a number of émigré European scholars, most notably the German-born political scientist and historian Hans Morgenthau.
It is the realism of Carr, Morgenthau, and their followers that is known as classical. Morgenthau’s Politics Among Nations (1948) helped to meet the need for a general theoretical framework for realism. Not only did it become one of the most extensively used textbooks in the United States and Britain—it continued to be republished in new editions over the next half century—it also was an essential exposition of the realist theory of international relations. Numerous other contributors to realist theory emerged in the decade or so after World War II, including Arnold Wolfers, George F. Kennan, Robert Strausz-Hupé, Henry Kissinger, and the theologian Reinhold Niebuhr.
b) Democratic peace theory
The democratic peace theory posits that democracies are hesitant to engage in armed conflict with other identified democracies. Among proponents of the democratic peace theory, several factors are held as motivating peace between democratic states. Variations of the democratic peace theory emphasize that liberal and republican forms of democracies are less likely to go to war with one another. Variations of the democratic peace hold its “monadic” (democracies are in general more peaceful in their international relations); “dyadic” (democracies do not go to war with other democracies); and “systemic” (more democratic states in the international system makes the international system more peaceful).
In terms of norms and identities, it is hypothesized that democratic publics are more dovish in their interactions with other democracies, and that democratically elected leaders are more likely to resort to peaceful resolution in disputes (both in domestic politics and international politics). In terms of structural or institutional constraints, it is hypothesized that institutional checks and balances, accountability of leaders to the public, and larger winning coalitions make it harder for democratic leaders to go to war unless there are clearly favorable ratio of benefits to costs.
These structural constraints, along with the transparent nature of democratic politics, make it harder for democratic leaders to mobilize for war and initiate surprise attacks, which reduces fear and inadvertent escalation to war. The transparent nature of democratic political systems, as well as deliberative debates (involving opposition parties, the media, experts, and bureaucrats), make it easier for democratic states to credibly signal their intentions. The concept of audience costs entails that threats issued by democratic leaders are taken more seriously because democratic leaders will be electorally punished by their publics from backing down from threats, which reduces the risk of misperception and miscalculation by states.
The connection between peace and democracy has long been recognized, but theorists disagree about the direction of causality. The democratic peace theory posits that democracy causes peace, while the territorial peace theory makes the opposite claim that peace causes democracy. Other theories argue that omitted variables explain the correlation better than democratic peace theory. Alternative explanations for the correlation of peace among democracies include arguments revolving around institutions, commerce, interdependence, alliances, US world dominance and political stability.
7. a) The role of International Monetary Fund (IMF)
b) Issues of Human Rights
8. a) Nuclear threats
b) East –West divide
9. a) Marxist approach to International Relations
b) Neo-liberal theory of IR
10. a) Define basic features of South Asia
b) Indigenous Movements
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