IGNOU MPCE 033 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : MPCE 033 Solved Assignment 2033 , MPCE 033 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MPCE 033 Assignment 2022-23 , MPCE 033 Assignment, IGNOU MPCE 033 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.
IGNOU MPCE 033 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU MPCE 033 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
SECTION – A
1. Discuss the nature of organizational development.
Ans. Concept of Organizational Development
Organizational Development or simply O.D. is a technique of planned change. It seeks to change beliefs, attitudes, values and structures-in fact the entire culture of the organization so that the organization may better adapt to technology and live with the pace of change.
Organizational development is a critical and science-based process that helps organizations build their capacity to change and achieve greater effectiveness by developing, improving, and reinforcing strategies, structures, and processes.
There are a few elements in this definition (adapted from Cummings & Worley, 2009) that stand out.
Critical and science-based process. OD is an evidence-based and structured process. It is not about trying something out and seeing what happens. It is about using scientific findings as input and creating a structured and controlled process in which assumptions are tested. Lastly, it is about testing if the outcomes reflect the intention of the intervention.
Build capacity to change and achieve greater effectiveness. Organizational development is aimed at organizational effectiveness. It, therefore, has a number of (business) outcomes. These can differ between organizations, but usually, they do include financial performance, customer satisfaction, organizational member engagement, and an increased capacity to adapt and renew the organization. These are not always clear-cut. Sometimes it is about building a competitive advantage, in whichever way we define that. We will explore these outcomes later in this article
Developing, improving, and reinforcing strategies, structures, and processes. The last part of our definition states that organizational development applies to changes in strategy, structure, and/or processes. This implies a system-approach, where we focus on an entire organizational system. This can include the full organization, one or more locations, or a single department.
Organizational design has become more crucial over time. Today’s world is characterized by Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity, and Ambiguity (VUCA). This VUCA world requires new agility from organizations, and organizational development is the means to that end.
In organizational development, the main stakeholders are both internal and external to the company. Management and employees are internal stakeholders. External stakeholders include customers, investors, suppliers, communities and governments.
Globalization leads to a much greater interconnectedness and opens up organizations to world-wide opportunities and threats.
On top of that, IT is redefining how traditional business models work, creating innovative companies with the ability to scale their services to a worldwide audience in the timespan of only a few years. Just a year after launching, Facebook hit one million registered users. A few years later, Snapchat hit 10 million active users in its first year. This exposes incumbents to disruption.
Finally, business systems become better at measuring relevant data, changing the way success is measured. On top of that, advanced people analytics can help to further drive organizational outcomes.
The goals of organizational development
We already touched briefly on the goals of organizational development. These goals vary between organizations. In corporate companies, increasing profits is likely to be a chief concern. Within charities, the cultural values are of high importance. And in health services, adaptability is central to maintaining good functioning.
If there would be one central goal, it would be increasing the organization’s competitiveness.
Competitiveness is the idea that every organization has unique resources and competencies that help the firms to win in the marketplace. This can be the people (a business leader like Elon Musk, or the Google team), an innovative product (SpaceX), superior service (Four Seasons Hotels), or culture (Zappos). It can also be how reactive the organization is to changing market demands. If you’re the first to capitalize on an opportunity, for instance, it may solidify your revenue in the next five years.
The goal of OD is to develop these aspects, as they can help a business win in the marketplace.
This means that organizational development differs from the incidental change process. OD focuses on building the organization’s ability to assess its current functioning and tweak it to achieve its goals. It is, therefore, a continuous process, whereas change processes are often temporarily.
This also emphasizes the relevance of OD. In this VUCA world, change is becoming a constant factor. OD is an integral approach to ensuring this constant change.
Organizational development is complex. It is a technical field, and so are the interventions. Using the work of Cummings and Worley (2009) as a basis, in this section, we will go through 18 organizational development interventions. This list is far from exhaustive. It aims to help you grasp this vast topic better, and understand how OD relates to core HR functions.
Typically, a classification of OD interventions would include human process interventions, technostructural interventions, HRM interventions, and strategic change interventions.
Human Process Interventions
Human process interventions are change programs that relate to interpersonal relations, group, and organizational dynamics. These are some of the earliest and best-known OD interventions.
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- Individual interventions. These interventions are targeted to the individual, often aimed at improving communication with others. An employee is coached on interpersonal behaviors that are counterproductive.
- Group interventions. These interventions are aimed at the content, structure, or process of the group. The content is what the group is focused on. The structure is how a group is designed to act on the content. The process is the way in which the group carries out its core tasks. For example, a contact center focuses on taking complaints from customers. The contact center has a hierarchical structure with a director, managers, and customer service staff. The contact center’s process is to record as quickly as possible, all complaints. Only a certain percentage are escalated to management depending on how serious and complex, a complaint is.
- Third-party interventions. Third-party interventions are often used when there are conflicts. Not all conflicts are bad, but bad conflicts should be resolved quickly. The third-party intervention helps to control and resolve the conflict. Often, the third party is the OD consultant.
- Team building. Team building is the best-known OD intervention. It refers to activities that help groups improve the way they accomplish tasks. Examples of team-building activities are volunteering, team sports, and Pictionary.
- Organizational confrontation meeting. A confrontation meeting aims to identify problems and improvement targets, and set priorities. It is a starting point for addressing identified problems, across your organization.
- Intergroup relations interventions. Intergroup interventions are aimed at diagnosing and understanding in-group relations. Similarly, problems are identified and priorities and improvement targets are set, before working on the identified issues.
- Large-group interventions. These interventions are somewhat in the middle, of confrontation and intergroup interventions. The aim is to bring a large number of organization members and other stakeholders together. Internal and external stakeholders work together collaboratively. Large-group interventions may address organization-wide problems, or implement changes of structure or direction. For example, if you run a care home, you would seek feedback from service users, relatives, and staff on ways to improve the quality of life for residents. This could be starting new activities or changing the menu options. They are often referred to as “open space meetings”, “world cafes”, “future searches”, and “appreciative inquiry summits”.
- Organizational (structural) design. The functional structure of the organization is key to how it will operate. You are likely familiar with the classical hierarchical organizational chart. This is referred to as the functional structure. Other structures are divisional, matrix, process, customer-centric, and network. Key activities in organizational design are reengineering and downsizing. This involves rethinking the way work is done, preparing the organization, and restructuring it around the new business processes.
- Total quality management. Total quality management is also known as continuous process improvement, lean, and six-sigma. It grew out of a manufacturing emphasis on quality control. It places customer satisfaction as central to the long-term success of an organization. To achieve this there is a strong focus on total employee involvement in the continuous improvement of products, processes, and workplace culture. Companies such as car manufacturer Toyota and phone manufacturer Motorola, use this intervention.
- Work design. All work should be done in order to achieve outcomes. These outcomes vary across organizations. Work can be designed to achieve an outcome as quickly as possible. Or, emphasis may be placed on employee satisfaction (which can lead to a higher quality of outcome, but often this is more costly). Depending on which approach your organization chooses, the skills needed will differ. Designing work in a way that leads to optimum productivity is called work design.
2. Elucidate participation with a focus on its benefits and process. Explain various programmes can be used in order to promote participation amongst employees.
Ans. Participation is the mental and emotional involvement of persons in group situations that encourage them to contribute to group goals and share responsibility for them (Newstrom and Davis, 1993). Managers who adopt participation as a strategy encourage involvement of their subordinates in problem solving and decision making process. Though the manager still retains the ultimate responsibility, this strategy promotes job involvement amongst the employees. Three most important elements of participation are (i) involvement, (ii) contribution and (iii) responsibility.
i) Involvement: The employee while participating in problem solving or decision making or achievement of a particular goal should feel involved at both mental and emotional levels. Thus participation does not merely mean task involvement, but ego involvement of the employee is also necessary. Participation without ego involvement of the employee is termed as ‘Pseudoparticipation’. The managers should thus be careful to ensure that the whole self of the employee is involved and just not his/her skills in performing the task.
ii) Contribution: Participation encourages people to contribute their skills and resources to the successful completion of tasks. It provides the employee with empowerment to be creative and innovative while achieving the goals assigned to them. Participation does not mean consenting to a particular decision or problem solving strategy. In consenting, the manager has already come up with a decision or a strategy and merely seeks approval of the employees. But in participation the employees are involved and contribute to the whole process of decision making or problem solving right from the start.
iii) Responsibility: Participation provides an opportunity to the employees to take responsibilities. This not only enhances self involvement but also increases self efficacy of the employees. Feeling of responsibility in turn will encourage the employees to be further involved and contribute to the achievement of the organisational goal. Thus the above three elements of participation are interrelated at the same time extremely important for participation to be effectively implemented in an organisation. Participation is especially effective when the superiors or managers do not possess enough information to solve a problem alone to make an important decision. In this case he/she can benefit from the expertise of the subordinates. It can also be used when the nature of the problem is unclear or vague. It can be beneficial in situations where the acceptance of the decision by the subordinates is critical to its effective implementation and is relevant to them and when subordinates are willing to exercise their own judgment and express their point of view. However participation is possible only when there is no urgency involved in decision making and problem solving.
Participation results in number of benefits to the organisation.
i) Acceptance of and commitment towards organisational goals Participation will ensure the acceptance of and commitment towards organisational goals as the employee is able to identify and find relevance in his/ her context. The employee in this case might also be involved in the process of setting an organisational goal, thus enhancing participation on the part of the employee.
ii) Smooth implementation of organisational change As the employee is a part of the whole process of bringing about the organisational change, the smooth implementation of organisational change is possible. The views and concerns of the employees also get expressed through right channels and his/ her insecurities are dealt with thus enhancing the implementation.
iii) Improves productivity, morale, self esteem and motivation of employees Through participation, the employee is also exposed to varied knowledge and expertise. Further the opportunity to participate in important decisions and problem solving process enhances the morale, motivation and self esteem of the employee thus improving his/ her productivity.
iv) Leads to increased job satisfaction and job involvement Participation boosts job satisfaction and job involvements as the employee has a feeling of responsibility and contribution to the achievement of organisational goals.
v) Promotes organisational citizenship Due to high job satisfaction and job involvement combined with an opportunity to contribute to the organisational processes brings about the feeling of organisational citizenship in the employee.
vi) It establishes better communication in the organisation Participation and communication are interrelated in an organisation as better communication will enhance participation and effective implementation of participation as a strategy will ensure better and open communication.
vii) Employees experience increased awareness about the organisation’s finances, goals and operations that allow them to make better suggestions To ensure effective participation in an organisation, it is extremely important that relevant information with regard to finances, goals, operations etc is provided to the employee. This not only ensures effective decisions making and problem solving but also makes employee more aware.
3. Explain the concept of diagnosis and describe its phases.
SECTION – B
4. Explain job design with a focus on its approaches.
5. Describe various problems affecting team work.
6. Describe Marvin Weisbord’s Six Box Model.
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7. Explain any three models of programme evaluation.
8. Describe various strategies to motivate employees.
IGNOU MPCE 033 Solved Assignment 2022-23
SECTION – C
9. Organisational learning
10. Action research
11. Second order change in organisational development.
12. Problem solving and cross-functional teams.
13. Parallel learning structures
14. The Power-Coercive approach
15. Formative and summative evaluation
16. Resistance to change
17. Cultural analysis
18. Behaviour modelling
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