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IGNOU MPCE 023 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPCE 023 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : MPCE 023 Solved Assignment 2023 , MPCE 023 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MPCE 023 Assignment 2022-23 , MPCE 023 Assignment, IGNOU MPCE 023 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

IGNOU MPCE 023 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU MPCE 023 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2023 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).

SECTION – A

1. Explain Autism spectrum disorder. Describe the causes and counseling techniques
for such children.

Ans. A child or adult with autism spectrum disorder may have limited, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities, including any of these signs: Performs repetitive movements, such as rocking, spinning or hand flapping. Performs activities that could cause self-harm, such as biting or head-banging.

  • Develops specific routines or rituals and becomes disturbed at the slightest change
  • Has problems with coordination or has odd movement patterns, such as clumsiness or walking on toes, and has odd, stiff or exaggerated body language
  • Is fascinated by details of an object, such as the spinning wheels of a toy car, but doesn’t understand the overall purpose or function of the object
  • Is unusually sensitive to light, sound or touch, yet may be indifferent to pain or temperature
  • Doesn’t engage in imitative or make-believe play
  • Fixates on an object or activity with abnormal intensity or focus
  • Has specific food preferences, such as eating only a few foods, or refusing foods with a certain texture

As they mature, some children with autism spectrum disorder become more engaged with others and show fewer disturbances in behavior. Some, usually those with the least severe problems, eventually may lead normal or near-normal lives. Others, however, continue to have difficulty with language or social skills, and the teen years can bring worse behavioral and emotional problems.

When to see a doctor

Babies develop at their own pace, and many don’t follow exact timelines found in some parenting books. But children with autism spectrum disorder usually show some signs of delayed development before age 2 years.

If you’re concerned about your child’s development or you suspect that your child may have autism spectrum disorder, discuss your concerns with your doctor. The symptoms associated with the disorder can also be linked with other developmental disorders.

Signs of autism spectrum disorder often appear early in development when there are obvious delays in language skills and social interactions. Your doctor may recommend developmental tests to identify if your child has delays in cognitive, language and social skills, if your child:

  • Doesn’t respond with a smile or happy expression by 6 months
  • Doesn’t mimic sounds or facial expressions by 9 months
  • Doesn’t babble or coo by 12 months
  • Doesn’t gesture — such as point or wave — by 14 months
  • Doesn’t say single words by 16 months
  • Doesn’t play “make-believe” or pretend by 18 months
  • Doesn’t say two-word phrases by 24 months
  • Loses language skills or social skills at any age

Symptoms

Some children show signs of autism spectrum disorder in early infancy, such as reduced eye contact, lack of response to their name or indifference to caregivers. Other children may develop normally for the first few months or years of life, but then suddenly become withdrawn or aggressive or lose language skills they’ve already acquired. Signs usually are seen by age 2 years.

Each child with autism spectrum disorder is likely to have a unique pattern of behavior and level of severity — from low functioning to high functioning.

Some children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty learning, and some have signs of lower than normal intelligence. Other children with the disorder have normal to high intelligence — they learn quickly, yet have trouble communicating and applying what they know in everyday life and adjusting to social situations.

Because of the unique mixture of symptoms in each child, severity can sometimes be difficult to determine. It’s generally based on the level of impairments and how they impact the ability to function.

Below are some common signs shown by people who have autism spectrum disorder.

Social communication and interaction

  • A child or adult with autism spectrum disorder may have problems with social interaction and communication skills, including any of these signs:
  • Fails to respond to his or her name or appears not to hear you at times
  • Resists cuddling and holding, and seems to prefer playing alone, retreating into his or her own world
  • Has poor eye contact and lacks facial expression
  • Doesn’t speak or has delayed speech, or loses previous ability to say words or sentences
  • Can’t start a conversation or keep one going, or only starts one to make requests or label items
  • Speaks with an abnormal tone or rhythm and may use a singsong voice or robot-like speech
  • Repeats words or phrases verbatim, but doesn’t understand how to use them
  • Doesn’t appear to understand simple questions or directions
  • Doesn’t express emotions or feelings and appears unaware of others’ feelings
  • Doesn’t point at or bring objects to share interest
  • Inappropriately approaches a social interaction by being passive, aggressive or disruptive
  • Has difficulty recognizing nonverbal cues, such as interpreting other people’s facial expressions, body postures or tone of voice

Autism spectrum disorder is a condition related to brain development that impacts how a person perceives and socializes with others, causing problems in social interaction and communication. The disorder also includes limited and repetitive patterns of behavior. The term “spectrum” in autism spectrum disorder refers to the wide range of symptoms and severity.

Autism spectrum disorder includes conditions that were previously considered separate — autism, Asperger’s syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder and an unspecified form of pervasive developmental disorder. Some people still use the term “Asperger’s syndrome,” which is generally thought to be at the mild end of autism spectrum disorder.

Autism spectrum disorder begins in early childhood and eventually causes problems functioning in society — socially, in school and at work, for example. Often children show symptoms of autism within the first year. A small number of children appear to develop normally in the first year, and then go through a period of regression between 18 and 24 months of age when they develop autism symptoms.

While there is no cure for autism spectrum disorder, intensive, early treatment can make a big difference in the lives of many children.

2. Describe the stages in couple counseling.

Ans. Couple therapy is an invaluable intervention, designed to fix and hopefully optimise the participants’ relationship. Given the variety of therapeutic schools and approaches, there are numerous options for couples to sift through and decide what best fits their needs.

From Reach’s conception we have worked with individuals, couples, families and groups to great effect and we have applied the synergistic principles of our model to each of these arenas.

The purpose of this document is to summarise our simple approach to this complex area. As you would expect, our holistic and integrative precepts are at the centre of our methodology.

There are four key elements involved in how we address the idiosyncrasies of couple work. These are as follows:

  1. Defining the problem

It might seem that this is an obvious starting position but the question, ‘what is the problem’, needs to be fully understood if the correct answer is to be found. We are not simply talking about the presenting symptoms because far too many therapeutic approaches focus almost exclusively on the reason the couple find themselves in the room. This is of course relevant and should never be dismissed. However, if the focus remains on the presenting concerns then the underlying causes are likely to be missed.

Our primary focus is to get to the underlying problem – which will take some examination and exploration.

In this first stage the couple will be invited individually and collectively to name and own their stuff. It’s so easy in relationships to develop the habit of blaming and complaining, to such an extent that one can canonise oneself whilst making the other person almost entirely responsible for what is wrong.

Even if we debate the percentages, the one thing for certain is that in ‘coupledom’ responsibility for what’s wrong always lies with both parties. This is something that tends to be more difficult to digest for the one who considers him or herself to be the aggrieved party. Yet with gentle probing and appropriate challenging, it does become clear that responsibility for what’s wrong never solely lies at one door.

Identifying the problem can take several weeks, maybe months. This depends on the degree of openness and honesty that develops within the therapeutic process. To achieve the right conditions for this discovery, it’s important to understand that creating a non-accusatory environment leads to the best outcomes. Each person needs to tell his or her truth, and the more this is done with kindness and sensitivity, the more likely they are to get to what is wrong and not just continue to poke at the hurt, pain and anger.

  1. Stages of empathy

To have any chance of finding a sustainable solution, the rules of engagement within the relationship need to be modified. Unfortunately by the time most couples need therapeutic intervention, they have forgotten how to communicate effectively, which means they are no longer actively listening. Their conversations are interactions based on the other one waiting to speak. In addition, honesty has often retreated.

It’s for this reason that creating empathy is vital to the therapeutic process. At this stage both parties are invited to stand in the other person’s shoes, suspending their own perspective of their current situation. This is an activity that most find difficult because of how wedded they are to their own perception – which means they are unable to see another perspective because their habits, patterns and experiences colour their thoughts, feelings and responses.

Successful couple work depends on suspending one’s own beliefs enough to ‘see’ the other person’s position. Seeing is best done with our ears.

Not only do we have to actively listen, we have to practise hearing from ‘over there’. Standing in the position we refer to as ‘other’ is where we begin to hear, feel and experience the other person’s reality.

This does not make our position wrong or indeed right – this is not what this process is about. It’s about viewing the rich tapestry of reality from more than one vantage point. If we believe we can see the whole story by looking only through our own eyes, we are already blind. Our perspective is valuable but it never presents us with the whole picture. We have to go in conscious pursuit of the bigger picture and couple therapy is a wonderful opportunity to do this.

Practising the stages of empathy may also take weeks or months, subject to the level of willingness to participate in this activity because it will certainly take several sittings to feel one’s way through the other person’s perspective.

When a couple truly engages in this activity, things they had not previously seen and understood are unveiled and with that a much deeper understanding follows. It’s at this point that the solutions become visible. The solutions and the problems live in the same place and when we don’t face up to our problems, we also deny ourselves the answers.

  1. The antidotes

The great gift of empathy is that it broadens and deepens our understanding, not only of the other person’s position but one’s own reality is better understood too. It’s at this point that one can see what needs to be done in order to bring about positive change. This will nearly always involve some personal modification and compromise for both parties.

If the couple is invested in a positive outcome this phase is filled with hope and optimism, as the way ahead becomes clear. It’s interesting to note that at this stage the couple discovers what binds them is much more than what divides them. The 10% or 20% problem area, which once was all they could see, is now put into perspective. So the adjustment required by both parties does not feel like scaling Everest.

By this stage it has usually been established what each person needs to do for him or herself in terms of their own self-care – because often neglect of the self walks hand in hand with neglect of the relationship. At this point some of the individual endeavours may now be undertaken together whilst other work will be done separately because the need of one half of the relationship isn’t necessarily the same for the other.

Those activities that are best undertaken together include: identifying things that can be done as a couple, making special arrangements for heartfelt communication, seeking out fun and laughter on a regular basis, making time to rediscover the other person and what makes them tick… this is something that can easily get lost in long-standing relationships.

At Reach we have an extensive resource library filled with numerous antidotes. There is no definitive list of things that are required at this point – relationships by their very nature are idiosyncratic and so we have to come up with formulae that are specific to the needs of that couple. But experience has taught us that these prescriptions often write themselves, especially where there is the desire for resolution.

It should be said for the sake of accuracy that after the first two phases, there will for some couples be the recognition that their antidote is actually to separate. They discover that they’ve reached an impasse that for them is insurmountable. At this point the purpose of therapy is to, where possible, create an amicable outcome, one where the individuals can walk away if not in a place of friendship, at least with some understanding and respect for one another. No therapy can promise this will be the case, because it depends on the attitude and intentions of both parties, but it is certainly something that we seek to achieve.

  1. Love contract

The ultimate objective of The Reach Approach when working with couples is to establish a love contract – for those who have reached the point where they not only want to save their relationship but develop it further. We have found through our extensive experience and research that a love contract is the best way to achieve that objective.

After having developed a greater sense of empathy most couples have learnt to listen differently. If this is then followed up with the work that they need to do on themselves as well as the relationship, then putting together a love contract is relatively easy.

Essentially a love contract is what it sounds like. It’s a joint commitment where both parties consciously invest in those things that will maintain a loving relationship. Initially both individuals are asked to go and write their own love contracts without consulting with the other. The idea is to come up with their own notion of paradise – what is it that they are looking for in order for their ideal relationship to be achieved.

By this point in the process most people are clear in terms of their own position and are also very aware of their partner’s. But the point of the exercise is to come up with the terms and conditions that would most enrich them and the relationship.

Once their individual positions have been drawn up, they are invited to look at their love contracts together for the first time within the session. A fascinating observation is that most couples find their love contracts are about 80-90% the same – further evidence that what binds them really is greater than what divides them. So if they focus on that, the divisions are easily healed.

The next stage in this process is to come up with a single love contract and so over the course of a few sessions the couple seeks to amalgamate their individual offerings and ultimately leave with a document they can both ‘sign up’ to. The compromises at this point tend to be small and the spirit of cooperation is such that the compromises feel like no sacrifice at all – as the couple discovers that meeting the other’s needs automatically meets their own.

Even those who may have discovered after the first two phases that their relationship is beyond repair can still engage in a conciliatory agreement which although not a love contract its terms and conditions can lead to a more civil outcome for both parties, especially where children are concerned.

The love contract would usually bring to an end the therapeutic process, although there are many who like to have quarterly, half yearly or annual reviews. This is not a necessary phase but there are those who value the reassurance and want to protect their investment. Those who have come this far have earned a well-won victory.

3. Explain cognitive behavior modification. Describe the techniques used in it.


SECTION – B

4. Describe the stages of interpersonal counseling. .
5. Describe the techniques for helping children with attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder.

6. Explain the key assumptions of solution-focused counseling

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7. Explain application of cognitive therapies for personal-social related issues.
8. Define eclecticism. Describe the three pathways of integrative approach in
counseling.

IGNOU MPCE 023 Solved Assignment 2022-23

SECTION – C

9. Tics
10. Enuresis/encopresis
11. Jungian psychodynamics
12. Selective mutism
13. Mental filter distortion
14. Reality therapy
15. Psychodrama
16. In groups and out groups
17. Challenges of e-counselling
18. Reality therapy


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IGNOU Instructions for the MPCE 023 INTERVENTIONS IN COUNSELLING

IGNOU MPCE 023 Solved Assignment 2022-23  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

MPCE 023 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU MPCE 023 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU MPCE 023 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU MPCE 023 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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MPCE 023 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPCE 023 Solved Assignment 2022-23 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. IGNOU MPCE 023 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. IGNOU MPCE 023 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920

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