IGNOU MPCE 012 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : MPCE 012 Solved Assignment 2022 , MPCE 012 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MPCE 012 Assignment 2022-23 , MPCE 012 Assignment, IGNOU MPCE 012 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.
IGNOU MPCE 012 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU MPCE 012 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).
SECTION – A
1. Give an overview of instruments for cognitive functioning.
Ans. The Mini-Cog™ is an instrument for assessing cognitive impairment. It can be effectively used with minimal training. It consists of a three-item recall test for memory and a scored clock-drawing test. The results are evaluated by a health provider to determine if a full-diagnostic assessment is needed.
Geriatric Depression Scale
The Geriatric Depression Scale is brief survey instrument that can be used to initially assess depression in older adults. It should be used in conjunction with other assessment vehicles when evaluating the full extent of cognitive impairment.
Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment is a quick and easy instrument that can be adapted for use in the clinical setting. It is easy to administer and score, and the results can be interpreted by the health provider with minimal training.
Additional Physician Resources
The Saint Louis University Mental Status (SLUMS) Examination
The SLUMS examination is brief test designed to measure a patient’s abilities in orientation, executive function, memory, and attention. Evaluation of the exam can be used to determine if a full-diagnostic assessment is needed.
General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition Screening Test (CPCoG)
The General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition Screening Test is a cognitive impairment screening tool designed for use in primary care.
Memory Impairment Screen (MIS)
The MIS is a quick screening tool to assess memory. It can be used as a preliminary screening test, or in conjunction with other screening tools to evaluate the cognition of a patient who has exhibited possible impairment in their thinking and recall functions.
AD8 Dementia Screening Interview
The AD8 Dementia Screening Interview is an eight-question interview, which distinguishes individuals who have very mild dementia from those without dementia. This tool is based on individual decline and is a valid and reliable screening tool for dementia. Its use is granted by Washington University for clinical care purposes in family medical care.
Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), 2nd Edition™
The Mini-Mental State Examination, 2nd Edition™ application allows users to administer, score, and share patient results faster and easier than using pencil and paper assessments. The application is available for smartphones and tablets, and there is a fee associated with using the tool.
Functional Activities Questionnaire
The Functional Activities Questionnaire calculates the extent of the patient’s ability to engage in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). The questionnaire is useful to assess and monitor functional changes over time. It is answered by the patient, family, or caregiver to indicate the presence of cognitive impairment.
NIH Toolbox Cognition Batteries
Compiled by the National Institute on Aging, this database provides links to more than 100 instruments that can be used to detect cognitive impairment in older patients.
Selection and Search Strategy
Following the advice of a medical librarian, systematic searches of the following electronic databases were undertaken for articles published between 1995 and 2013: Medline, Scopus, PsycINFO, ScienceDirect, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The searches were not restricted to the English language, and Spanish references were also included. The strategy for selecting articles was based on pre-specified eligibility criteria, including the aim of the study and the methodology used (design, subjects, and instruments). Thus, an article was eligible only when the main aim of the study was to assess cognitive function in chronic pain patients, hence, studies in which cognitive function was used to evaluate the result of a therapeutic intervention or as part of a neurophysiological study were excluded. Furthermore, only studies using a cross-sectional design were included, excluding clinical trials and studies in animal models. In terms of the subjects, studies carried out on chronic pain patients suffering non-malignant chronic pain of any cause were included (except migraine, chronic daily headache, and visceral pain). The definition of chronic pain used in each study was not considered as a criterion for inclusion or exclusion, although this information was collected as a variable in the review in order to evaluate the risk of introducing bias. In addition, the use of instruments that had been previously validated in papers published elsewhere was established as a quality control criterion for the articles.
Screening of Literature and Data Extraction
Three of the authors (BO, MD, and AS) independently reviewed the titles and abstracts of the papers to identify the studies that best fulfilled the selection criteria. All duplicated items were removed using the bibliographic tool Refworks. The references of all the studies retrieved were checked to identify whether any had not been detected by the computerized search, a procedure that led to the inclusion of several more studies that fulfilled the selection criteria. When a consensus did not exist between these three reviewers, the senior authors (IF and CE) were consulted to make a final decision on the inclusion or exclusion of the papers.
To classify the results, we extracted the following information: the aim of each study, the type of pain and number of patients, the inclusion criteria used to define chronic pain, and the exclusion criteria; information related to the control groups (if used) and their characteristics (healthy control subjects or other patients, matched for sex, age, or education level); and other variables related to pain and cognitive functions, such as affective status, sleep disorders, and the consumption of medication. The instruments were classified into two groups according to the type of evaluation: self-report (SR) and neuropsychological tests (NT). Neuropsychological assessment was defined as a measure of the ability to perform mental functions, while self-report measures were not based on the performance of subjects but on their own reported opinion, i.e., the patients’ perception of their own cognitive state. Finally, information on the instruments used to assess cognitive function in each study was collected, such as the version of the instrument used and what the authors aimed to measure with the tool.
Chronic pain patients frequently report memory impairment and poor concentration, characteristics that disturb their normal functioning, impair their ability to cope with everyday life, and affect the way they relate to their immediate social environment. Indeed, to ensure the adequate management of patients with chronic pain, it has been suggested that an assessment of cognitive function should be considered one of the priorities for medical professionals.
2. Discuss the administration and scoring of Rorschach test.
Ans. The Rorschach technique is administered using 10 cards, each containing a complicated inkblot pattern, five in black and gray, two in black and red, and three in various pastel colors. Subjects look at the cards one at a time and describe what each inkblot resembles.
After the test taker has viewed all 10 cards, the examiner usually goes back over the responses for additional information. The subject may be asked to clarify some responses or to
An inkblot picture (Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)
describe which features of each inkblot prompted the responses. There is no one correct response to any inkblot card, although there are certain common responses to some cards.
The test taker is given a lot of flexibility with how to respond to the inkblots. If a test taker asks if he or she is allowed to turn the card upside down, the test administrator will be nondirective, indicating it is the test taker’s choice. A response like this from the test administrator is consistent with the projective nature of the Rorschach technique in that the test taker is projecting his or her personality onto the test stimuli.
Rorschach, who pioneered the test in 1921, did not provide a comprehensive scoring system. In response to complaints about validity, scoring methods have been devised that aim at providing greater objectivity by clearly specifying certain personality variables and relating them to clinical diagnoses. Originally published in the 1960s, the Exner Comprehensive Rorschach System used today (updated in 1987) is a computer-based scoring system that provides score summaries and lists likely personality and adjustment descriptions for each test taker. Specifically, this scoring system considers aspects of a test taker’s response such as the content of the response, the reasons for the events present on the card, the location of events on the card, and elaboration on cooperative and aggressive behavior. Exner also recorded certain popular and common responses to the cards and the degree to which test takers chose these responses. It should be noted, however, that many examiners still interpret the scores without benefit of a computer.
Test scores, whether based on Rorschach’s original formulation, Exner’s comprehensive scoring system, or other scoring systems, are based on several factors. One factor is location, or what part of the blot a person focuses on; the whole blot, sections of it, or only specific details within a particular section. Another factor is whether the response is based on factors such as form, color, movement, or shading. These factors are referred to as determinants. For example, people who tend to see movement in Rorschach blots are thought to be intellectual and introspective; those who see mostly stationary objects or patterns are described as practical and action-oriented. Finally, content refers to which objects, persons, or situations the person sees in the
Projective test— A psychological test in which the test taker responds to or provides ambiguous, abstract, or unstructured stimuli, often in the form of pictures or drawings.
Reliability— The ability of a test to yield consistent, repeatable results.
Standardization —The administration of a test to a sample group of people for the purpose of establishing test norms.
Validity— The capability of a test to measure accurately what it claims to measure.
blot. Content categories include humans, animals, clothing, and nature.
Most examiners also assess responses based on the frequency of certain responses as given by previous test takers. Many psychologists interpret the test freely according to their subjective impressions, including their impression of the subject’s demeanor while taking the test (cooperative, anxious, defensive, etc.). Such interpretations, especially when combined with clinical observation and knowledge of a client’s personal history, can help a therapist arrive at a more expansive, in-depth understanding of the client’s personality.
While the Rorschach technique is still widely used, its popularity has decreased in recent decades. Unlike objective personality inventories, which can be administered to a group, the Rorschach test must be given individually. A skilled examiner is required, and the test can take several hours to complete and interpret. Like other projective tests, it has been criticized for lack of validity and reliability. Interpretation of responses is highly dependent on an examiner’s individual judgment: two different testers may interpret the same responses quite differently. In addition, treatment procedures at mental health facilities often require more specific, objective types of personality description than those provided by the Rorschach technique.
The Rorschach technique, sometimes known as the Rorschach test or the inkblot test, is a projective personality assessment based on the test taker’s reactions to a series of 10 inkblot pictures.
The Rorschach technique is the most widely used projective psychological test. The Rorschach is used to help assess personality structure and identify emotional problems and mental disorders. Like other projective techniques, it is based on the principle that subjects viewing neutral, ambiguous stimuli will project their own personalities onto them, thereby revealing a variety of unconscious conflicts and motivations. Administered to both adolescents and adults, the Rorschach can also be used with children as young as three years old, although the commonly used Exner scoring system (discussed below) is appropriate only for test taker five years or older.
The Rorschach technique is used to elicit information about the structure and dynamics of an individual’s personality functioning. The test provides information about a person’s thought processes, perceptions, motivations, and attitude toward his or her environment, and it can detect internal and external pressures and conflicts as well as illogical or psychotic thought patterns.
The Rorschach technique can also be used for specific diagnostic purposes. Some scoring methods for the Rorschach elicit information on symptoms related to depression, schizophrenia , and anxiety disorders. Also, the test can be used to screen for coping deficits related to developmental problems in children and adolescents.
The Rorschach is generally used as part of a battery of tests and must be administered by a trained psychologist . Also, scoring the Rorschach test requires training in and knowledge of a comprehensive scoring system.
There is some disagreement concerning the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the test and its scoring systems. Diagnoses for clinical disorders should not generally be based solely on the Rorschach test.
The Rorschach technique is named for its developer, Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach (1884-1922). Rorschach, whose primary interest was in the psychoanalytic work of Carl Jung, began experimenting with inkblots as early as 1911 as a means of assessing introversion and extroversion.
The Rorschach technique is administered using 10 cards, each containing a complicated inkblot pattern, five in black and gray, two in black and red, and three in various pastel colors. Subjects look at the cards one at a time and describe what each inkblot resembles.
3. Describe the ethics in assessment.
SECTION – B
4. Describe some of the widely used neuropsychological tests.
5. Explain alternative apperception tests.
6. Elucidate the areas to be covered under diagnostic interview.
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7. Define creativity. Discuss the measures to assess creativity.
8. Discuss the stages and steps in psycho diagnostics.
IGNOU MPCE 012 Solved Assignment 2022-23
SECTION – C
9. Clinical usefulness of projective techniques
10. California personality inventory
11. Tests of implicit memory
12. Differential Abilities Scale
13. Sorting tests
14. Mental Status Examination
15. Use of test batteries
16. Semi-structured interview
IGNOU MPCE 012 Solved Assignment 2022-23
17. Wechsler intelligence test
18. Clinical use of intelligence test
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