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IGNOU MPA 018 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free

IGNOU MPA 018 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : MPA 018 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Solved Assignment 2023 , MPA 18 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MPA 18 Assignment 2022-23 , MPA 18 Assignment, IGNOU MPA 018 Solved Assignment 2022 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MPA Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

IGNOU MPA 018 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free

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Important NoteIGNOU MPA 018 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

This assignment consists of Sections I and II. There are five questions in each section. You have to answer a total of five questions in about 500 words each. It is necessary to attempt at least two questions from each section. Each question carries 20 marks


1) Examine the relationship between development and environment.  

Sustainable development is based on the four pillars of sustainability: social, economic, technological environmental sustainability.

Environment sustainable development is a collection of tools and procedures for testing, developing and debugging a program or application.

Environment sustainable development reduces poverty, global warming, acid rain, pollution, urban sprawl, waste disposal, climate change and many more, through financial, environmental, and social and technical means.

Environment And Development

We can easily observe the close relationship between development and the environment.

The first is based on environmental resources. Development cannot be done without environmental resources.

Therefore, the disruption of resources in terms of corruption will have negative repercussions on the development process and the violation of its objectives.

As development cannot be based on transboundary environmental resources. The damage to the environment and its resources is detrimental to human needs.

Development should be the basis for consideration of the environment, the development and environment should be considered as such.

Behold, the twin objectives of development is not achieved without the introduction of sound environmental policies.

The conflict between the environment and development that emerged in the early sixties of the twentieth century contributed in one way or another to delay the attention to the environment and to recognize the importance of the environment in development.

Because the claim to protect the environment in response to the environmental disasters witnessed by the world as a result of industrial and technological activities and thus emerged this claim which stands in opposition to scientific and technological progress. 

The emergence of movements calling for the protection of the environment in the early 1960s as a reaction to the industrial degradation is a concern for the environment from the harmful dangers which were not new to man because of the deterioration by dealing with its resources.

The old concern goes back to the times when the man moved the life of agriculture and the emergence of many customs and traditions in agricultural communities, which aims to organize the process of harvesting crops, and even the quality of cattle slaughtered and other customs and traditions, which still exist.

The early protection of the environment and its resources is very important. This is why some countries have appointed inspectors to ensure that agricultural land does not deteriorate as a result of misuse. Moving towards environmental sustainability in the livestock is vital to provide animals with outdoor access, shade, shelter, lighting and sufficient space. The cattle care system is here to help you take care of animal welfare.

As for the environmental damage caused by the snow, some research has indicated that the Greek philosopher Plato wrote a law that could be considered the principle of fining the polluter. Britain issued the first law to reduce the emission of smoke and waste disposal in 1273.

The relationship between man and the environment is an innate and eternal relationship as long as the environment is the framework from which man obtains the elements of his life as it is a result of meeting these needs of environmental resources and systems. 

This relationship has grown and escalated in meeting the needs during the different human ages, in which the human is reviewed spontaneously and instinctively, but there is a random deal and other damage suffered by the environment in later years, the era of the industrial revolution that began with the invention steam machine in the year 1763.

 The emergence of many environmental disasters was the first disaster and then recorded in 1948 in America.

A number of factories for steel, sulfuric acid, and zinc production resulted in the deaths of twenty people and several diseases in addition to the occurrence of other environmental disasters in London and other industrialized countries but the most famous disaster in London in 1952 due to pollution of the atmosphere smog.

Dialectic Environment and Sustainable Development

The issue of environmental pollution is not the result of today, but it is an old one. The reasons are mainly due to the excesses of the developed world, especially in the consumption of various natural resources, whether renewable or non-renewable.

The expansion of production of fossil energy sources, the exploitation of agricultural land and the logging of forests Cause increased pollution of air, water, and soil.

The problem of pollution of the environment is of an international nature.

Pollutants of a country do not stop at their political borders but across thousands of miles to affect the environment and well-being of other peoples.

The impact of this pollution extends beyond that; the negative impact of this pollution is due to the coming generations, which will find themselves in a real dilemma and do not know how to get out of it.

Therefore, it was incumbent on this generation to pay attention to this issue and try to understand its complexity to solve the issue and preserve the environment, for both present and future generations.

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2) Define risk reduction and highlight the significance of Total Disaster Risk Management Approach (TDRM). 

Total Disaster Risk Management (TDRM) uses a risk management methodology comprising a management and a decision-making process to guide the systematic and consistent assessment and evaluation of risk to guide government pre- and post-disaster objectives. This methodology is presented within the following context:

  • principles of policy formation, implementation and maintenance
  • partnerships, coalitions and stakeholders
  • translating policy into prevention and mitigation action
  • risk management tools and techniques
  • risk financing.

Climate change, urban pressure and lack of disaster preparedness, are increasingly transforming natural hazards, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions or tsunamis into  disastrous events causing life and economic losses. The risk of disasters caused by natural hazards is rising.
Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is increasing in the agenda of the Organisations of the UN System. While the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 is the roadmap for Disaster Risk Reduction, other global agendas including the Sustainable Development Goals, the Paris Climate Agreement, the New Urban Agenda and the Biodiversity Agenda have targets that  cannot be attained without considering Disaster Risk Reduction. There are clear links between those international instruments.

UNESCO is acting across the board, in advocating for risk awareness, prevention, and preparedness and build back better, in fostering learning and in building capacity. Operating at the interface between the natural and social sciences, education, culture and communication, UNESCO seeks to strengthen the resilience of societies – through capacity building, knowledge sharing and networking, early warning and policy advice, working with governments, civil society, research institutions, other UN agencies and international organizations, and all key actors. Working alone or in collaboration with both UN Agencies and other scientific entities, UNESCO has been a catalyst for international, inter-disciplinary cooperation in many aspects of disaster risk reduction and mitigation.

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UNESCO supports the Member States on:

  1. Post Disaster Response
  2. Risk Governance and Social Resilience
  3. The Built Environment
  4. Education School Safety
  5. Early Warning Systems
  6. Environment & Ecosystem Based Disaster Risk Reduction
  7. Science, Technology and Innovation for Resilience
  8. Disaster Risk Reduction for Culture & Sites

The work of the Organization is being developed and implemented through its different Sectors, Field Offices, Designated and Affiliated Sites, Category I and II Centers, UNESCO Chairs and Networks. The leadership of the organization is recognized and partners look up to UNESCO to lead the mainstreaming of DRR in its mandated sectors and to promote trans- and multi-disciplinarity in research.

3)Critically examine capacity building for earthquake vulnerability reduction.

4)‘Risk sharing and transfer build disaster resilience’. Discuss.

5) Briefly discuss about the Community Based Disaster Management.


6) Define the concept of Search, Rescue and Evacuation phases and analyse its various techniques. 

7) Evaluate the guiding principles for Shelter provisions. 

8) Analyse the various problem areas in disaster recovery. 

9) Briefly bring out the various disaster management strategies. 

10) Discuss the role and function of Disaster Manager. 

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IGNOU MPA 018 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.

GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

MPA 18 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU MPA 018 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free  Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU MPA 018 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU MPA 018 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

IGNOU Assignment Front Page

The top of the first page of your response sheet should look like this: Get IGNOU Assignment Front page through. And Attach on front page of your assignment. Students need to compulsory attach the front page in at the beginning of their handwritten assignment.

ENROLMENT NO: …………………………………………………….

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ADDRESS: ………………………………………………………………

COURSE TITLE: ………………………………………………………

ASSIGNMENT NO: …………………………………………………

STUDY CENTRE: …………………………………………….……..

DATE: ……………………………………………………………………

MPA 18 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

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