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IGNOU MPA 015 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free

IGNOU MPA 015 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : MPA 015 PUBLIC POLICY AND ANALYSIS Solved Assignment 2023 , MPA 15 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MPA 15 Assignment 2022-23 , MPA 15 Assignment, IGNOU MPA 015 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MPA Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

IGNOU MPA 015 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

This assignment consists of Sections I and II. There are five questions in each section. You have to answer a total of five questions in about 500 words each. It is necessary to attempt at least two questions from each section. Each question carries 20 marks

SECTION – A

1) Discuss the nature and scope of public policy. 

Nature of Public Policy

We have seen that public policies are the collective actions of the government. Public policies will include laws, rules, regulations, judgments, case studies, government programs, etc. Now public policies and their nature are basically of three types – restrictive, regulatory and facilitating policies.

1] Restrictive Policies

These policies curtail benefits for certain type of transactions or situations. One example is when the government imposes customs duties. This is done with the view of restricting imports into the country. The government wishes to bolster domestic production and trading and promote exports. So they will impose customs duties on imports to discourage heavy importing. This is a restrictive policy.

2] Regulatory Policies and Practices

These policies and practices aim to regulate the different sectors of the economy. These regulations keep the sector in check and ensure that there are no deviations from the government policies and plans. Take for example the banking sector of the country. It is strictly regulated by the RBI in accordance with the policies of the government. Similarly, the RBI also governs the money market, SEBI governs the stock market, etc.

3] Facilitating Policies

The government often has many banks, institutions, etc that facilitate and grow businesses in an economy. These bodies help implement policies to facilitate businesses, hence facilitating policies. Take for example the NABARD that facilitates rural credit policies. Another example is the EXIM Bank that implements policies to increase the import-export industry in our country.

Public Policy Process

The public policy process is a dynamic and interactive process. It is also a continuous process, not a one-time event.  In most cases, public policy lays down general directives and rules. The actual details of the policy along with its implementation techniques are in the sub-policies. So the actual policy is more generic and dynamic.

Learn the government policies, decisions, and goals here. 

In India passing a bill to make it into a law is a long and complex process. Firstly the law has to go through two houses, the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. First, the Standing Committee will review the bill. Then the concerned minister will introduce it in the house. If it passes the vote, then it is sent to the other house. Once both houses pass the bill it is again sent for review to the Ministry for Law. Finally, when the President asserts, the bill becomes a Law.

In the public policy process, there are mainly five steps as follows,

  1. Identification of Problem
  2. Formation of Policy
  3. Policy Adaption
  4. Implementation of Policy
  5. Evaluation of Policy

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2) Examine the Lindblom’s Incremental Approach.

Incrementalism and the ideal of rational decision making

Incrementalism was first developed in the 1950s by the American political scientist Charles E. Lindblom in response to the then-prevalent conception of policy making as a process of rational analysis culminating in a value-maximizing decision. Incrementalism emphasizes the plurality of actors involved in the policy-making process and predicts that policy makers will build on past policies, focusing on incremental rather than wholesale changes. Incrementalism has been fruitfully applied to explain domestic policy making, foreign policy making, and public budgeting.

Lindblom regarded rational decision making as an unattainable ideal. To function properly, rational-comprehensive decision making must satisfy two conditions that are unlikely to be met for most issues: agreement on objectives and a knowledge base sufficient to permit accurate prediction of consequences associated with available alternatives. Where these conditions are unmet (and they will be unmet, according to Lindblom, for most policy issues), the rational method provides no guidance whatsoever for policy makers. Incrementalism circumvents these problems, producing defensible policies where the rational method is paralyzed.

Incrementalism emphasizes the amelioration of concrete problems rather than the pursuit of abstract ideals such as social justice. Affected publics bring problems to government through a process Lindblom termed the social fragmentation of analysis. No single actor possesses information sufficient to make a rational policy decision, and problems are often addressed without ever being fully defined.

Because limitations on both time and information preclude examination of more than a few options, policy makers typically focus on alternatives differing only marginally from previous policies. This narrow focus confines attention to options that are well understood and politically feasible.

In practice, policy makers do not identify objectives and then examine alternative means, as called for by the rational ideal. To the contrary, means and ends are typically considered simultaneously, inasmuch as different policy alternatives represent different trade-offs among contending values.

Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Incremental outcomes are virtually inevitable, given the need to bargain over a limited number of alternatives that differ only marginally from past policies. Large change is nevertheless possible through the accumulation of incremental steps resulting from repeated policy cycles. This serial nature of the policy process represents yet another advantage of incrementalism, according to Lindblom: it permits policy makers to learn through a process of trial and error, converging on a solution gradually through a process of successive approximations. 

Because Lindblom believed most policy issues exhibit conflict over objectives and inadequate information, he expected that departures from incrementalism would be rare. The knowledge base would be sufficient to permit rational decision making only for minor technical or administrative decisions. Wars, revolutions, or other grand opportunities may serve as catalysts for major policy shifts, but the eventual consequences of these dramatic departures would be unpredictable.

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Public demands for policy reform

Some experts have argued that an aroused mass public opinion demanding action on a particular problem can prod policy makers to enact non incremental policies. This, however, is far from the norm. Where policy makers with a long-term interest and expertise in an issue disagree among themselves, non incremental policy making is effectively precluded by conflict over objectives and the inadequacy of the knowledge base. Under such circumstances, policy makers may distract mass public opinion while negotiating an incremental solution to substantive issues out of public view.

Whatever the effects of public arousal on policy making, non incremental policy departures are unlikely to be effective where the conditions for rational policy making are unmet. The Clean Air Act of 1970 has been cited as one such instance. In this case, mass public arousal did nothing to increase the knowledge base available to policy makers. The legislation assuaged public opinion by setting goals for businesses that no one knew how to meet at the time the law was passed. The conditions for rational decision making are most likely to be met (if at all) late in the policy-making process, after policy makers have accumulated a great deal of experience with policies and crystallized their objectives.

3) Explain the national policy agenda in a global context.

4)Examine the role of inter-governmental relations in policy-making.

5) “International Agencies are playing an important role in policy–making and development”. Comment.

SECTION-II

6) Discuss the relationship between the legislature and judiciary in
implementation of public policies.

7) Describe the significance of policy monitoring and suggest remedial measures for effective monitoring. 

8) What are the major problem areas in policy evaluation?

9)Highlight the significance and types of policy impact. 

10)Analyse the telecom policies and their impact on telecom sector.


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IGNOU Instructions for the MPA 15 SOCIAL STRATIFICATION

IGNOU MPA 015 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

MPA 15 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU MPA 015 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU MPA 015 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU MPA 015 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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MPA 15 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

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