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IGNOU MANE 007 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU MANE 007 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
SECTION – A
1. Discuss the debate of Tribe and indigenous populations in the Indian context.
2. Critically examine if Indian tribes were isolated with suitable examples.
3. Write a note on the economic profile of the Bhotia’s and the Rebari’s.
Ans. Bhotiyas are people of presumed Tibetan heritage that live along the Indo-Tibetan border in the upper reaches of the Great Himalayas, at elevations ranging from 6,500 feet (2,000 m) to 13,000 feet (4,000 m). In Uttarakhand, they inhabit seven river valleys, three in the Garhwal division (Jadh, Mana and Niti) and four in the Kumaon division (Johar, Darma, Byans and Chaudans). Their main traditional occupation used to be Indo-Tibetan trade, with limited amounts of agriculture and pastoralism. The customary Indo-Tibetan trade drastically stopped following the 1962 Sino-Indian war, and was resumed in the early 1990s under state-regulated mechanisms. These days, medicinal and aromatic plant collection is a major livelihood among this group, alongside by out-migration for education and jobs. Transhumance and pastoralism have drastically reduced in prevalence among this group too. They follow Hinduism and Buddhism and traditionally speak West Himalayish languages, which are slowly getting replaced by the predominant Indo-Aryan languages of the region.
The name, Bhotiya (also spelt “Bhotia”), derives from the word Bod, which is the Classical Tibetan name for Tibet. It was the term used by the British to refer to the borderland people, due to a presumed resemblance to the Tibetans. The Government of India continues to use the term
Bhotiyas themselves self-describe themselves as Rung. Possible etymologies of the term include the Byangko word for mountain and the Tibetan term for valley (Rang-skad = valley language).
The Kumaonis refer to them as Shauka which means ‘money’ or ‘rich’.
Bhotiya or Bhot are groups of ethno-linguistically related Tibetan people living in the Transhimalayan region that divides India from Tibet. The word Bhotiya comes from the classical Tibetan name for Tibet, bod. The Bhotiya speak numerous languages including Ladakhi. The Indian recognition of such language is Bhoti / Bhotia having Tibetan scripts and it lies in the Parliament of India to become one of the official languages through Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution.
The Rabari, also called the Rewari or Desai, are an indigenous tribal caste of nomadic cattle and camel herders and shepherds that live throughout northwest India, primarily in the states of Gujarat, Punjab and Rajasthan. Other Rabari groups also live in Pakistan, especially in the region of the Sindh Desert. The word “Rabari” translates as “outsiders”, a fair description of their primary occupation and status within Indian society.
Moving mainly through the regions of Rajasthan and Gujarat, they go back to their village once a year and make their living by selling milk. Completely nomads in the past, they are now semi-nomads, moving from their village according to the seasons. Nowadays, many Rabari have abandoned the nomadic lifestyle for a modern life, settling down in the cities.
The exact origin of the Rabari people is unknown. It is most likely that they migrated to India from Iran via Afghanistan through Baluchistan around a thousand year ago, although this has been disputed by some experts, who propose a stronger relationship with the Rajputs of Rajasthan. The majority of Rabari, which include 133 recognised sub casts, follow the Hindu faith.
According to their creation myth they were created by Matadevi (Pavarti), the consort of Lord Shiva and great mother goddess of India. As one version of the story goes, she cleaned dust and sweat from Shiva as he meditated and moulded a camel from the dirt, while in another version, he creates the first camel for her as an amusement. However it kept running away, Parvati created the first Rabari to mind it. Keeping animals is therefore regarded as a near sacred occupation by the Rabari who see themselves as their herds’ custodians rather than their owners. While the men are on the move in search of grazing pastures for their livestock, the women and children remain in the villages. The Rabari women have a significant role in the economic sphere. They mainly look after the cattle, bring potable water and collect fuel for cooking. Women also have a significant role in religious sphere but do not have any role in the mechanism of social control. Embroidery is a vital, living and evolving expression of the crafted textile tradition of the Rabari people.
As far back as the group’s collective memory stretches, Rabari women have diligently embroidered textiles as an expression of creativity, aesthetics and identity. Designs are taken from mythology and the indigenous peoples’ desert surroundings. Girls learn the art of embroidery at a young age, practising their new-found skills by working on a collection of embroidered items that will later become their dowry. This collection can sometimes take two or three years to complete.
Traditionally the Rabari followed a highly nomadic way of life, living in tents or under the open skies and raising cattle, camels and goats. As India has changed, so has general tolerance to nomadic groups, who relied in the past on ancestral grazing rights and ancient right-of-ways. Today only a very small percentage of Rabari are truly nomadic, with the majority to be found settled on the outskirts of cities, towns and villages in semi-nomadic lifestyles, following the seasonal rains for periods of time, then returning to their villages.
Going to the local village or town markets is an important part of daily life. Rabari women trade milk and milk products from their livestock. Wool and leather are sold in order to purchase commodities they do not produce themselves. Traditional veils would be made from the wool of ones own sheep, carded and spun before being handed to the weaver. The weaver would ensure that he used only the wool given to him, and would pass it to the dyer who would perform a type of resist dyeing. Once the veil was complete, the women start to embroider using a variety of coloured threads and tiny cut mirrors.
The Rabari also believe that they are the special children of Pavarti, and seek her advice in all important matters, for example when to start the annual herd migration. Unsurprisingly given their bond with the Mother Goddess, Rabari social structure is matriarchal, with women conducting the majority of their business affairs and managing their villages, while men are in charge of the animal herds that form the only true Rabari assets.
They are good at the traditional art of cloth embroidery. They marry within their community. They speak Hindi, Marwari, Haryanvi and use the Devanagari script. The Rabari tend sheep, goats and camels. Most of the Rabari are vegetarian while some are non-vegetarian; their everyday diet consists of homemade bread of millet or wheat and jowar. They tattoo magical symbols on their necks, breasts and arms. Originally only camels were their source of livelihood. However, now, they keep goat, sheep, cow or buffalo.
Sometimes, Rabari women wear black shirts. There is an interesting myth about their black wearing. Many years ago Jaiselmer, Rajasthan was the main centre for Rabaris. Once, a Muslim King fell in love with a young Rabari girl. However, his proposal was refused by the community. The king got angry and threatened to kill all of them. The Rabaris out of fear broke their camp in the middle of the night with the help of a Muslim man. But the Muslim man while assisting the Rabaris for their escape was killed by the king. So it is told that Rabari women wore black from then to mourn his death. It is also said that the loyalty of this man gives insight to the ease of interaction between the Hindu Rabaris and Muslims.
Rabari woman in all her finery, including a large nose ring supported by a chain attached to the hair and the upper arm bangles worn by married women. Women with all the bracelets on the arms are typical Rabari from Rajasthan. The women without bracelets but covered with tattoos are typically from Gujarat region. Photo © Julie Higelin
Marriage, which celebrates the vitality of life and ensures its continuity, is considered of utmost importance. Traditionally, weddings can be extravagant events, and they take place on a particular day of the year: the feast of Gokulashtami, Krishna’s birthday. The event is awaited with both jubilation and a touch of fear. Normally friendly and hospitable, Rabari tribals turn hostile and suspicious on Gokulashtami Day. Outsiders are unwelcome, and are told so in no uncertain terms. Childhood marriage is still very much in vogue, however adult marriages are also performed through negotiation. Rabaris marry only within the group and often into families that are closely related. Remarriage is permitted for both the widow and widower.
4. Examine the concept of gender construction in terms of patriarchy, economy and power
relations among the Indian Tribes with suitable examples.
5. Write short notes:
a. Tribe-Caste continuum
b. De-notified tribes
SECTION – B
6. Reflect on the notion of health and illness among the Tribes of India with suitable examples
Get IGNOU MANE 007 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Now here from this website.
7. Examine the special provisions for administration of scheduled and tribal areas as per the
fifth and sixth schedule.
8. Critically examine the issue of non assimilation of the tribes with main stream Indian people with suitable examples.
IGNOU MANE 007 Solved Assignment 2022-23
9. Discuss the contributions of anthropologists in non-voluntary organizations in the study of Tribes.
10. Write short notes
a. Tribes and globalisation
b. Oral traditions
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