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IGNOU MAN 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MAN 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : MAN 002 Solved Assignment 2033 , MAN 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MAN 002 Assignment 2022-23 , MAN 002 Assignment, IGNOU MAN 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

IGNOU MAN 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU MAN 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

SECTION – A

1. Define Archaeological Anthropology. Briefly Discuss its main divisions.

Ans. Archaeological anthropology is one of the sub branches of anthropology deals with the origin and development of human species and its material manifestations in the form of material culture.

Archaeology deals with the study of antiquarian remains, which are brought together under the phrase archaeological record. It has three or four major components. First, there are individual objects ranging from stone tools to pots and pans to metal objects to beads, pendants and other ornaments to seals and coins. The second category consists of a variety of features, structures and monuments such as hearths, house floors, religions, military and commercial structures, and burials and burial monuments. Then there are some art creations such as painted or incised designs on pottery, terracotta or metal figurines and rock part. But the archaeological record also includes materials and remains which, although not made by man, are closely associated with archaeological sites, such as soils and sediments, plant and animal remains, ore and slag pieces, and rocks and siliceous stone pieces. On the landscape we notice these various categories of antiquarian remains are generally found together as clusters. These clusters are called sites which may be small or large like the Mohenjodaro and Harappa mounds. Depending upon the type of human activity that took place on these spots, archaeological sites are again distinguished into various classes such as habitation sites, animal penning stations, factory sites, religious sites, commercial sites and military sites. Over the last four to five centuries important changes took place from time to time in the aims and methods adopted for dealing with the archaeological record. The late David Clarke, in his famous article entitled ‘Archaeology: The loss of Innocence’ published in the journal Antiquity (1973), characterised these changes as successive stages of consciousness, self consciousness, critical selfconsciousness, and self critical self-consciousness. In the antiquarian stage which lasted till the early decades of the 19th century, in Europe and elsewhere in the world, amateurs from different walks of life took interest in the cultural heritage of their respective countries and went to the landscape and sought to obtain first hand information about palaces, forts, paintings, sculptures and other striking antiquarian remains dotting the landscape. They prepared short descriptions of the remains along with sketches and drawings. These studies were of a random type, motivated by general human urges like curiosity about surroundings, spirit of romanticism and adventure, instinct of pleasure, respect to ancestors, etc. The notion knowledge, if it existed all, was of Archaeology deals with the study of antiquarian remains, which are brought together under the phrase archaeological record. It has three or four major components. First, there are individual objects ranging from stone tools to pots and pans to metal objects to beads, pendants and other ornaments to seals and coins. The second category consists of a variety of features, structures and monuments such as hearths, house floors, religions, military and commercial structures, and burials and burial monuments. Then there are some art creations such as painted or incised designs on pottery, terracotta or metal figurines and rock part. But the archaeological record also includes materials and remains which, although not made by man, are closely associated with archaeological sites, such as soils and sediments, plant and animal remains, ore and slag pieces, and rocks and siliceous stone pieces. On the landscape we notice these various categories of antiquarian remains are generally found together as clusters. These clusters are called sites which may be small or large like the Mohenjodaro and Harappa mounds. Depending upon the type of human activity that took place on these spots, archaeological sites are again distinguished into various classes such as habitation sites, animal penning stations, factory sites, religious sites, commercial sites and military sites. Over the last four to five centuries important changes took place from time to time in the aims and methods adopted for dealing with the archaeological record. The late David Clarke, in his famous article entitled ‘Archaeology: The loss of Innocence’ published in the journal Antiquity (1973), characterised these changes as successive stages of consciousness, self consciousness, critical selfconsciousness, and self critical self-consciousness. In the antiquarian stage which lasted till the early decades of the 19th century, in Europe and elsewhere in the world, amateurs from different walks of life took interest in the cultural heritage of their respective countries and went to the landscape and sought to obtain first hand information about palaces, forts, paintings, sculptures and other striking antiquarian remains dotting the landscape. They prepared short descriptions of the remains along with sketches and drawings. These studies were of a random type, motivated by general human urges like curiosity about surroundings, spirit of romanticism and adventure, instinct of pleasure, respect to ancestors, etc. The notion knowledge, if it existed all, was of The credit for introducing the knowledge perspective by dividing the pre-literate (pre-Christian) past of Europe goes to C.J.Thomsen, the curator of the Royal Danish National Museum of Antiquities in Copenhagen. Thomsen was confronted with the task of cataloguing a huge collection of stone and metal objects, ceramics and other antiquities that had accumulated in the museum. Partly by way of using his common sense and also based upon ethnographic parallels, Thomsen finally arrived at a three-fold classification of the objects in the collection. This is the famous three-Age system which appeared in print in 1836. According to this scheme, three major periods or ages existed in the pre-Christian past of northern Europe, viz. Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages. The second major contribution made by Thomsen lies in the fact that he was probably the first antiquarian worker to highlight the fact that antiquarian remains provide knowledge or information about the ancient human societies. He specifically pointed out that these remains could inform us about ancient cultures and burial practices, ancient environments and even about past human migrations. This topic of partitioning prehistoric past into phases and seeking information about the respective phases emerged as a strong trend in the second half of the 19th century. Sir John Lubbock divided the Stone Age into Palaeolithic and Neolithic periods in 1865. Soon, thanks to discoveries in the French Caves, several stages (Lower, Middle and Upper) were recognised within the Palaeolithic. Likewise, several stages were noted within the Bronze and Iron Ages. The culture history perspective thus enabled archaeologists to recognise several stages in the development of human culture and also obtain some basic information about each cultural stage.

The first explicit efforts at developing the theoretical structure of archaeology were made by publications like Gordon Childe’s piecing. Together the Past, Grahame Clark’s Archaeology and Society and Stuart Piggott’s Approach to Archaeology, all published in the second quarter of the last century. Against this background came up two major developments which dominate contemporary theoretical archaeology-New or Processual Archaeology and Post-Processual Archaeology and Post Processual or Interpretative archaeology. We will now note the main tenets of these two trends. Lewis R. Binford from the U.S. and David Clarke from England were mainly responsible for the emergence of New Archaeology in the 1960s. Both emphasised the systemic nature of culture and held that archaeologists should identify not only its components but their interconnections as well, as these alone give clues about past culture processes. Processual archaeology also emphasised the role of environment in the functioning of human cultures. In fact, Binford adopted the definition of human cultures as extra somatic means of adaptation to respective environmental settings. Going beyond the traditional tasks of description and classification of antiquarian remains, he emphasised the anthropological goal of explaining culture change with reference to law-like formulations or generalisations cutting across time and space. Binford held the adoption of a regional approach to archaeological sites as a prerequisite for realising the anthropological goals of archaeology aimed at the identification of past human behavioural patterns.

Since the 1980s some reactions started coming up, raising doubts and objections about functionalist and behaviour oriented approaches of New Archaeology. Ian Hodder of Cambridge University took the lead in staging this reaction, which over the last quarter-century developed as interpretative archaeology. A Major proposition of this trend holds that it is the internal, innovative elements within human culture, rather than external environmental factors, which are agents of culture change. The second major aspect of this new trend highlights the importance of relating behaviour to human minds. So interpretative archaeology has also come to be known as archaeology of mind. It brought to fore human cognitive abilities, sentiments, feelings and emotions. This led to the growth of definite trends such as cognitive archaeology, symbolic archaeology, structuralist archaeology, hermeneutical archaeology, etc. As against the use of scientific method emphasised by New Archaeology, post processual archaeology treats archaeological record as a text and that its meanings in terms of human minds need to be retrieved by methods of interpretation. We may now conclude our foregoing observations about conceptual developments in archaeology by emphasising that (1) these developments constitute yet another instance of the progress of all social sciences from description and classification to explanation to interpretation; and (2) these various trends are in the final analysis mutually complementary and not contradictory.

2. What are the various tool making techniques? Briefly describe the techniques used
during Lower Palaeolithic culture.

3. What is ‘home art’ and ‘cave art’. Discuss cave art with suitable examples.

4. What are dating methods. Discuss briefly various methods of absolute dating in
archaeological studies.

5. Write short notes on any two of the following:
a) Prehistory b) Blade tool c) Robert Bruce Foote d) Importance of Archaeology
in Social Sciences

SECTION – B

6. Briefly comment on the Middle Palaeolithic culture in India

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7. What is civilization? Discuss various characteristic features of civilization with reference to Harappan culture.
8. What is Public Archaeology? Discuss the role of public archaeology in heritage management.

IGNOU MAN 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23

9. Megalithic is a living tradition among many Indian tribes. Elaborate your answer with examples.

10. Write short notes on any two of the following:
a) Museum b) Neolithic culture c) Malwa culture d)Kurnool caves


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IGNOU Instructions for the MAN 002 ARCHAEOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

IGNOU MAN 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
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GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

MAN 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU MAN 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
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MAN 002 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

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