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IGNOU BSOS 185 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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IGNOU BSOS 185 Solved Assignment 2022-2023

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

Answer the following in about 500 words each in Section A. Each question carry 20 marks.

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each in Section B. Each question carry 10 marks.

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each in Section C. Each question carry 6 marks.

SECTION A


1. What is ethnography and what is ethnographic film?

Ethnographic film is the visual manifestation of anthropological practice organized into a lineal and moving media. While principally not created on actual celluloid film any longer, the moniker of “ethnographic film” is used for productions on a variety of tape and digital mediums. Although the form and content of ethnographic film has been questioned since its inception, it is often synonymously linked with visual anthropology as its defining practice. And, therefore, perhaps no other practice or concept in the lexicon of visual anthropology is more contested than ethnographic filmmaking. This is especially true as a number of nonlinear new media forms and modes of Internet distribution are becoming prevalent in the 21st century and open up opportunities for more individuals to use them. A number of questions surround the notion of ethnographic film. Who qualifies as an ethnographic filmmaker, and by what methods is it practiced in the larger field of anthropology? What is actually deemed an ethnographic film, and by what standards is it evaluated? Is film or video a legitimate methodological tool in anthropological fieldwork, and, if so, does it possess the capacity to convey or contain ethnographic knowledge in the same fashion as text based accounts? When contemplating the inclusion or evaluation of media in the ethnographic film genre one is often faced with the dilemma of what specific criteria, such as subject, practice, intent, and reception by an audience, define ethnographic film. Globally, there are numerous academic and training programs centered on ethnographic film production and theory that offer graduate degrees and certificates. Temple University’s Anthropology of Visual Communication program and the University of Southern California’s Center for Visual Anthropology are foundational programs in the United States that provide academic and production training on an undergraduate and graduate level in ethnographic film and visual anthropology. Manchester University’s Granada Centre for Visual Anthropology is another historic program in England that produces a large number of proficient documentary and ethnographic filmmakers. New York University’s Graduate Certificate Program in Culture and Media is fully integrated into the PhD program in anthropology. The program, which is interdisciplinary with cinema studies and the NYU Film School, emphasizes three aspects of contemporary work on culture and media: theoretical and historical approaches to ethnographic and experimental documentary, as well as postcolonial and indigenous media; ethnographic research on media practices throughout the world; and the production of ethnographic film/media. Harvard University’s Sensory Ethnography Lab offers a media anthropology doctorate and is affiliated with the Department of Visual and Environmental Studies, providing some of the most groundbreaking work in ethnography and visual methods. Visual anthropologist Peter Biella directs a program in visual anthropology at San Francisco State University. As ethnographic film increases in popularity, and access to audio-visual technology grows, the number of undergraduate courses focused on ethnographic film production continues to expand alongside the use of media technologies by professional anthropologists.

Definitions

The term and conceptual meaning of ethnographic film is often used synonymously with the notion of visual anthropology as seen in the work of Hockings 2003, which provides broad analyses of a variety of perspectives. Ethnographic film is closely aligned with documentary film both in its history and form. Some have attempted to differentiate the two by categorizing films as either “ethnographic documentary” or “anthropologically intended cinema.” The most popular conception of ethnographic film is that it is a film about any non-Western culture, often considered to be exotic as critically noted in Ruby 1996. Ruby 2000 and Ruby 2005 argue for a strict definition of ethnographic film, limited to productions by individuals with anthropological training, preferably at a professional level combined with a media production background. Heider 2006, in a more expansive view, claims that any film can be considered ethnographic while providing a set of evaluative criteria to gauge ethnographic film for both research and pedagogy. The majority of texts discussing ethnographic film tend to focus on a series of Canonical Ethnographic Filmmakers who define the genre. Using Ruby’s parameters, many films largely accepted as ethnographic by their mere presence in ethnographic film festivals or discussed in ethnographic film literature would be excluded from any definition of ethnographic film. Heider’s conception of ethnographic film would include a variety of media produced without anthropological intent but that serve to embellish ethnographic knowledge. Perhaps somewhat ironically, the parameters of what actually constitutes an ethnographic film are not seen in the application of methods but are often dictated by a well-established genre of classic ethnographic films produced by a handful of individuals who are not necessarily anthropologists by trade. As discussed in Marcus 2006, the film Nanook of the North was not considered to be ethnographic by the filmmaker Robert Flaherty, although often heralded as the first documentary and ethnographic film by many. It is often viewed as ethnographic primarily due to Flaherty’s focus on a non-Western culture, long considered the main focus of anthropology, and the stated intent throughout the film to depict the “real life” of the Inuit. Ruby 1981 examines how, although Flaherty was not an anthropologist and, therefore, did not adhere to ethnographic methodology in his practice, he is often celebrated for the fact that he spent so much time with the Inuit and attempted to reflect an indigenous perspective, if not a personal relationship, in the construction of the narrative of the film by working with his main informant throughout the filmmaking process. Durington and Ruby 2011 offers a comprehensive definition of ethnographic film informed by a critical historical approach to the genre.


2. Discuss the role of ethics in visual research.

Visual methods in social research have become more mainstream over the last twenty years, driven in part by the profusion of digital devices with cameras that make access and production of images far easier, as well as the increased interest in and acceptability of arts-based methods.  But while images have become more common, ethical guidelines have sometimes struggled to adapt, although organisations such as the International Visual Sociology Association have made good attempts.

There are two key ethical issues which become complicated in visual research: informed consent, and anonymity.  Informed consent is particularly challenging with photographs because it is difficult to ensure that every subject has given their consent to the photo being taken and used for research purposes.  Researchers can work around this by using only photos that were taken in public spaces (where this is allowed), or avoiding photographs of people who are not explicitly participating in the research.  In photovoice projects where participants take photos of the world around them, participants are given guidelines around informing photographic subjects about the purposes of the research, although it can be difficult to ensure this has taken place.

Anonymity is a challenge for the obvious reason that a photograph of a person or the places and spaces they frequent is difficult to anonymise.  Moreover, strategies for making people anonymous, such as pixelating faces or putting black bars over their eyes to make them less recognisable, are more frequently associated with criminal activity!  Strategies for dealing with this include waiving anonymity with the explicit consent of the research participants, or avoiding taking or publishing identifiable images (which often seems unduly limiting).  This is also a difficult issue in artworks that are not photographs: people often rightly want to be identified as the creators of their work.  Researchers must negotiate the extent to which doing so might compromise anonymity of other data such as interview transcripts, and whether and in what circumstances having it known that they participated in this research might result in harm or reputational damage.

Copyright is another difficult issue.  When someone creates an artwork in the context of a research project, who owns it?  Legally, copyright generally lies with the creator of the work.  To use that work in research and publications, the researcher needs the explicit permission (and sometimes, transfer of copyright) from the creator.  In our recent project Communicating Chronic Pain , we used Creative Commons licensing to deal with this issue.  Through Creative Commons, the creator of the work allows others to share and reuse it freely, subject to certain conditions such as attribution or non-commercial use.  This is very useful for research as it enables creators to retain ownership of their work and researchers to reuse and reproduce it, but the nuances of Creative Commons licensing require careful explanation!

A final point is the desire many researchers have to showcase the work created in visual research projects.  While the tangibility of this can be appealing and may enable the work to reach new audiences, we also need to consider the appropriateness of displaying such work.  Are participants comfortable being represented as artists or photographers?  Does the work have high aesthetic quality as well as high research quality?  Are we as researchers qualified to judge this?  Here, it can be helpful to allow participants themselves to choose which works they want to have displayed (allowing the option to opt out), and to involve others with professional arts expertise in the decisions of how and where to show the work.


SECTION B 


3. Write a note on the contributions of Margaret Mead to Ethnographic film
4. Bring out significance of social media
5. Examine the relationship between photography and modernity.


SECTION C


6. Alfred Cort Haddon
7. Hypermedia
8. Reflexivity
9. Digital Ethnography
10. Photo Essay


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IGNOU Instructions for the BSOS 185 SOCIETY THROUGH THE VISUAL Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BSOS 185 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



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IGNOU BSOS 185 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BSOS 185 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BSOS 185 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BSOS 185 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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