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IGNOU BPSE 146 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BPSE 146 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
Answer the following in about 500 words each in Section A. Each question carry 20 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each in Section B. Each question carry 10 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each in Section C. Each question carry 6 marks.
1. Examine different sources of conflict. What are the variants of threats in international conflicts? Discuss.
SOURCES OF CONFLICT
Conflicts may arise because of various causes and reasons. These can be divided into two major groups. One based on issues and resources and second on interpersonal, inter-group differences. Conflicts that arise because of issues and resource are economic, value or power interest conflicts. These may escalate because of ineffective communication and other reasons. Let us examine these sources of conflict.
Economic Conflict involves competing motives to attain scarce resources. Each party wants to get the most that it can. Hence the behaviour and emotions of each party are directed toward maximizing its gain. For example the source of conflict between trade union and management are incompatible goals about how to share the ―economic pie.
Value Conflict, involves the incompatibility in the ways of life, ideologies – the preferences, principles and practices that people believe in. Examples of value conflict are some of the international conflict during the Cold War, wherein each side asserts the rightness and superiority of its way of life and its socio-political economic system.
Power conflict occurs when each party wishes to maintain or maximize the amount of influence that it exerts in the relationship and the social setting. It is impossible for one party to be stronger without the other being weaker, at least in terms of direct influence over each other. Thus a power struggle ensues which usually ends in a victory and defeat or a ―standoff‖ with a continuing state of tension. Power conflicts can occur between individuals, groups or between nations, whenever one or both parties choose to take a power approach to the relationship. Power also enters into all conflict since the parties are attempting to control each other. It must be noted that most conflicts are not of a pure type, but involve a mixture of sources, for example, union-management conflict involves economic competition but may also take the form of a power struggle and often involves different ideologies or political values. This is valid for the struggle for power between nations/state. The more sources involved the more intense and intractable the conflict usually is.
Ineffective communication is another important source of conflict. Miscommunication and misunderstanding can create conflict even where there are no basic incompatibilities. In addition, parties may have different perceptions as to what are the facts in a particular situation, and until they share information and clarify their perceptions, resolutions are not possible. Self centeredness, selective perception, emotional bias, prejudices etc., are all forces that lead us to perceive situations very differently from the other party. Lack of skill in communicating what we really mean in a clear and respectful fashion often results in confusion, hurt and anger, all of which further feed the conflict process. Whether the conflict has objective sources or is due only to perceptual or communication problems, it is experienced as very real, by the parties involved.
Escalation of Conflict
Escalation of conflict is another major source of conflict. It is more additional than basic that isit comes in after the conflict has started. Conflicts have a definite tendency to escalate, i.e., to become more intense and hostile, and to develop more issues i.e., what the parties say the conflict is about. Therefore, escalating conflicts become more difficult to manage. The process of escalation feeds on fear and defensiveness. Threat leads to counter threat, usually with higher stakes at each go /round. Selective and distorted perception justifies a competitive and cautious approach as opposed to a trusting and competitive one. It is contended that competition breeds competition. The Self – fulfilling prophecy comes into play. Each party believes in the evil intensions of the other and the inevitability of disagreement; and therefore takes precautionary actions which signal mistrust and competitiveness. When the other party responds with a counteraction, it is perceived as justifying the initial precautionary measure, and a new spiral of action and counter action begins.
HUMAN NATURE AND CONFLICT
Theories based on human agency focus on human behaviour, both at the individual as well as at the collective level, as the source of conflict.
Biological and Socio-Biological Theories
Biological theoretical approaches trace the sources of conflict and violence in the human genes. They emphasise on the biological factors or inborn traits of human beings. Biologically determined factors are seen to be responsible for inter-personal and intergroup violence. The biological theories mostly focus on aggression. It considers aggression as being genetically programmed in the human nervous system. Various biological perspectives about human aggression are reflected in the Instinct Theory, Darwinism and Social Darwinism, Ethology, and Socio-biology. However, these perspectives have been subjected to severe criticisms.
It argues that aggressive behaviour is rooted in human instinct. Instinctive impulse is the source of human aggression and destructive behaviour. This is evident in the basic and primitive urge to fight and dominate.
Darwinism and Social Darwinism
Charles Darwin in his Origin of Species gave the concepts of ‘survival of the fittest’ – only the fittest people who successfully adapt to the specific environment in which they live will survive. This is biological evolution but it is a slow and gradual process. Hierarchical and graded relations between different classes have been justified by using the principle of ‘survival of the fittest’. Social Darwinism explains conflict in terms of ‘natural selection’ – the survival of the fittest and the inherent aggression in human beings. It stresses that competition and conflict play very significant roles in human society. Social Darwinists used the concept of ‘stages of evolution’ to legitimize the imperialist policies of conquests and wars. Darwin’s ideas have been criticised on the premise that he was unaware about the role played by mutations or biological process of changes occuring in the genetic material.
Ethology is the science of animal behaviour in their natural habitat. It studies the behaviour patterns of different species. Ethology and evolutionary history have drawn conclusions about the instinctive impulse by comparing and deducing similarities between humans and natural animal behaviour. Ethologists have contended that the behaviour pattern of different species show a strong inherited base. All organisms, humans included, are a product of a process of ‘evolution’ in which ‘fitness’ for survival is determined by a combination of mutational factors and natural selection. Konrad Lorenz in his book On Aggression argues that aggression in human beings is a result of an “instinct for aggression”. This aggression in humans is shared by most other species and has developed in an evolutionary manner because it has helped them survive over a period of time. Freud too said that human beings may have inherited aggressive impulses from many past generations through the process of natural selection.
Socio-biology is a science that focuses on the study of social organisation of animals. Socio-biologists believe that animals including humans may have genetically inherited aggressive tendencies of social behaviours. Though, sociobiologists see animal aggression as being based largely in genes, they stress that it varies from one species to the other and also between different patterns of social organisations. Aggression is of different kinds – predatory aggression, fear-induced aggression, irritable aggression etc. – each having its different basis biologically. In humans, aggression is less produced compared to other animals. Also, aggression in humans is more influenced by cultural learning. Within a group of species, there is likely to be more aggression if the population is concentrated compared to where populations are more spread out. For example, spread out populations like the Eskimos of North America and the Aborigines of Australia were less involved in violence and warfare before they came in contact with the Western culture.
Criticisms of Biological and Socio-Biological Theories
The biological roots of human aggression have been subjected to severe criticism. Anthropologists and sociologists opine that human behaviour or human instinct cannot be traced to biological roots. It is more a product of human culture, which is created by human groups and passed on through social learning. Though Freud opined that aggression is ingrained within individuals, he too was of the view that it developed in the individual through experience with others such as family members, mainly parents. Hence, psychoanalytic theory emphasizes that individual experiences during the period of early socialisation determines human personality.
PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES
Psychological theories locate conflict in the “minds of men”, in their beliefs, ideology, motivation, perceptions, values, etc. Some psychological traditions also focus on experiences of frustration that could lead to aggression. According to psychoanalysts, unfulfilled psychological needs could incite humen to violence via the instinctive impulse. However, others locate violence in intra-personal tensions and other such psychic variables. In motivational theories, the origin of aggression is in blocked energy of frustration, which is produced in varied social and psychological settings. Since aggression here is a reaction to an external stimulus, hence the social environment is also partly responsible for the activation of an internal physiological mechanism. The socio-psychological perspective also focuses on processes of group formation and differentiation. Groups try to differentiate themselves from the ‘others’ and in this process (mis)perceptions, stereotyping, and dehumanization play a role, which in turn could lead to violent conflict
1. What is the nature of major conflicts in South Asia?
2. Criticism of Biological and Socio –Biological Theories.
3. Explain life cycles of conflict.
1. Difference between conflict prevention and conflict management
2. Resource Theory
3. Relative Deprivation Theory
4. Examine the objectives and purposes of conflict.
5. Why is Pacifism important for conflict resolution?
IGNOU BPSE 146 Solved Assignment 2022-23 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BPSE 146 CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND PAECE BUILDING Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920
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