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IGNOU BPSC 114 Solved Assignment 2022-2023
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Important Note – IGNOU BPSC 114 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
There are three Sections in the Assignment. You have to answer all questions in the
Answer the following in about 500 words each in section I and Each question carries 20 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each in section II and Each question carries 10 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each in section III and Each question carries 6 marks
SECTION – I
Q.1. Trace the genesis of Modern Indian Political Thought.
In the epoch that began with the philosophical movements which are expressed in the mystical texts known as Upanisads and culminated in the regime of the emperor Aśoka, whose rule extended over all but southernmost India, the dimensions of Indian social thought were established. During these formative centuries, roughly from the seventh to the middle of the third century B.C., new modes of economic production, the incorporation of indigenous peoples into the Aryan community, and other social changes rendered the old agencies of integration inadequate; with many of the certainties of life dissolving and new social relationships demanding new justifications, men were faced with the need to re-examine basic values and institutions. A variety of ideas about the nature and destiny of human life began to challenge traditional religious conceptions.
Discussion of a system of political beliefs and speculations requires a general understanding of the symbolic forms in terms of which reality is comprehended by a people. Men reveal reality to themselves through particular ways of seeing, which discriminate objects and events from the whole in which they are embedded. Observation is purposive behavior, and in the first stages of the development of human knowledge acts of discrimination and the assignment of meaning are closely bound together. Later, as thought becomes theoretical, the contents of experience are grouped and correlated, and in time strict definition becomes possible, as facts are subsumed under general ideas and conceptually grasped. When the subject of our investigation is the political thought of the last several centuries in Europe or America, the cosmology at the base of such ideas may be taken for granted. But the study of ancient civilizations cannot properly proceed without a consideration of symbolic and mythic materials, although such materials may be only indirectly related to political theory and although we may have to content ourselves with what is at best informed conjecture.
In this attempt to discover the different ways in which the world is viewed we discover that, except for the Greeks in the classical age, existence is rarely comprehended in terms of a rational order which lends itself to intellectualistic investigation. More frequently the imagery is dramatic: the world derives its meaning from its creator rather than from the logic of its structure, and knowledge takes the form of mystic apprehension (gnosis) instead of rational inquiry. Insight into the meaning of a world not yet completed depends on revelation and supernatural capacities: the emphasis is on encounter instead of examination. In one version of this latter world view the god-creator involves himself in the universe, assuming a variety of forms and disguises. Man’s response to this sacred power may take the form of supplication or ritual, in which instance professionals are usually required to act as intermediaries between man and the holy. But sometimes the godhead is not seen as a deity possessing will and design, and the individual worshiper may seek through discipline and contemplation to merge himself in the cosmic process.
Ancient Indian political thought must be understood in the context of religious beliefs. In the earliest cosmology the political order was seen as analogous to the cosmos, its creation a repetition of the divine creation of the cosmic system. Vedic liturgy was essentially an effort to reproduce the cosmic order so as to ensure the effective functioning of society. By the later Vedic period the anthropomorphic gods of the heroic age had been eclipsed by more imposing and aloof deities, and the rituals had become a highly formalized religion with a complex ceremonialism. As religion came to be tied to technical expertise, the priests strengthened their position, isolating themselves from social controls. By the end of this period the Aryan invaders had extended their hegemony over the whole of the Gangetic plain.
The early texts
The most authoritative statement of the orthodox tradition exists in the venerable Rg Veda, which provides the earliest historical record of the Indo-Aryan peoples who invaded northwest India in the middle centuries of the second millennium B.C. The Vedic hymns themselves can be dated from at least the eleventh or twelfth century. When the interpretation of the Vedas required explanatory texts, a set of ritual manuals, the Brahmanas, were appended to the hymns. The later Vedas, Brahmanas, and the early Upanisads belong to the centuries 900-600 B.C. It is probable that the original versions of the epics Mahábhárata and Rámáyana were in existence shortly after the end of this period. The sources of heterodox doctrine are found in the pronouncements of great teachers who lived at this time. (It was not until the fourth century that the Pali Buddhist canon was compiled.) Although the Rg Veda, the Bráhmanas, and other early texts contain much material relevant to the study of political thought, literature expressly devoted to legal and political questions is encountered only with the Dharma Sutras (500-200 B.C.). The ArthaśSastre literature, which deals with the art of government and what is described as “the science of material gain,” may date back to the sixth century, but the oldest treatise that remains is the work ascribed to Kaufilya, which is usually believed to date from the early years of the Mauryan state (c. 300 B.C.), but which may be as late as the third or fourth century a.d. During the several centuries before and after the beginning of the Christian era, the Mahabharata attained the form in which we have the work, and the major Dharma Śāstra treatise, the code of Manu, was compiled. The Dharma Śāstra and Arthaśāstra literature extends well into the medieval period of Indian history; some texts, however, are as recent as the ninth and tenth centuries a.d. It will be apparent to the reader by now that only the broadest chronological arrangement of these writings is possible. By the eighth century the Arabs had dominated the lower Indus valley; however, long before the Muslim conquests the creative period of Sanskrit theory was over. Not until the nationalist and reform movements of the nineteenth century was there a significant revival of Indian political speculation.
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Q.2.Discuss Raja Rammohan Roy’s reformist efforts in education.
The maker of modern India Raj Ram Mohan Roy was born on May 22, 1772, at a time when society was cursed with the iniquities clad in the fabrics of religion.
Though he belonged to a privileged and prosperous Brahmin family of Bengal, Roy was aware and progressive enough to found the Brahma Samaj and dedicated his life to challenging the unorthodox religious ideas of traditional Hindu culture including the Sati Pratha.
The Google Doodle on Roy, created by Beena Mistry, a designer based out of Toronto, shows Roy speaking at a public meeting with his detractors in the background.
There is also the presence of a woman among the audience, this is the depiction of a time when the purdah system was rigidly followed.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy and the Brahmo Samaj
Among countless feats, Raja Ram Mohan Roy’s greatest achievement was that of setting up of the Brahmo Samaj in 1828. It is considered to be one of India’s first socio-religious reform movements.
Brahmo Samaj believed in the fatherhood of God and brotherhood of mankind. It not only discarded meaningless rites and rituals but also forbade idol-worship. Raja Ram Mohan Roy believed in the oneness of God and preached the same.
It preached to love human beings, stop animal sacrifice and offerings. It came forward for the promotion of charity, morality, piety, benevolence, virtue and the strengthening of the bonds of union between men of all religions and creeds.
Through Brahmo Samaj, Raja Ram Mohan Roy raised his voice against the caste system, polygamy, child marriage, infanticide, untouchability, seclusion of women and Purdah system.
Brahmo Samaj attacked the age-old social taboos and tried to make Indian society more secular than before. The Samaj was lesser of a religion and more of an intellectual approach.
On the 246th birth anniversary of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Google dedicated a Doodle to the “Father of the Indian Renaissance”. Roy went on a journey that took him far from his roots. He travelled extensively including in Tibet and the Himalayas.
Study of religions
Raja Ram Mohan Roy studied Persian and Arabic along with Sanskrit, which influenced his thinking about God. He read Upanishads, Vedas and the Quran and translated a lot of the scriptures into English.
When he returned home, his parents married him off in a bid to change his outlook. But Roy continued to explore the depths of Hinduism only to highlight its hypocrisy.
Fight for women rights and the abolition of Sati Pratha
Ram Mohan Roy believed the extremely low position of Hindu women was responsible for practices like Sati Pratha. He advocated the abolition of polygamy and wanted women to be educated and given the right to inherit property.
It can be said that his most significant contribution as a social engineer was towards women’s rights.
SECTION – II
1. Write a note on Pandita Ramabai’s contribution to feminist thought.
2. Discuss Swami Vivekananda’s Vies on religion.
3. Examine Gandhi’s concept of Swaraj.
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SECTION – III
1. Elaborate upon Tagore’s critique of nationalism.
2. What were Jawaharlal Nehru views on Socialism? Explain.
3. Write a note on Lohiya’s views on Socialist Democracy.
4. What did Iqbal have to say about modernity? Elaborate.
5. Examine Savarkar’s View on Nationalism.
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