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IGNOU BPSC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BPSC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , BPSC 103 POLITICAL THEORY – CONCEPTS AND DEBATES Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : BPSC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , IGNOU BPSC 103 Assignment 2022-23, BPSC 103 Assignment 2022-23 , BPSC 103 Assignment , BPSC 103 POLITICAL THEORY – CONCEPTS AND DEBATES Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Political Science Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for BA Political Science Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. Study of Political Science is very important for every person because it is interrelated with the society and the molar values in today culture and society. IGNOU solved assignment 2022-23 ignou dece solved assignment 2022-23, ignou ma sociology assignment 2022-23 meg 10 solved assignment 2022-23 ts 6 solved assignment 2022-23 , meg solved assignment 2022-23 .

IGNOU BPSC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-2023

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Important Note – IGNOU BPSC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-2023  Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

There are three Sections in the Assignment. You have to answer all questions in the
Sections.

Answer the following in about 500 words each in section I and Each question carries 20 marks.

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each in section II and Each question carries 10 marks.

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each in section III and Each question carries 6 marks

SECTION – I


Q.1. Examine the notion of liberty. 

Liberty: Definition, Features, Types and Essential Safeguards of Liberty!

Of all the rights which are considered fundamental for the development of the personality of the individual, the right to liberty or freedom happens to be most respected and valued. In fact without liberty, i.e. without the freedom to enjoy one’s rights, there can be no real right available to the people. Liberty, as such, is the most cherished and loved right of the people.

I. Liberty: Meaning:

The word “Liberty” stands derived from the Latin word ‘Liber” which means ‘free’. In this sense liberty means freedom from restraints and the freedom to act as one likes. However, in a civil society such a meaning of Liberty is taken to be negative and harmful.

It is only in a jungle that freedom from restraints is available to animals. In a civil society no person can be really permitted to act without restraints. Hence, Liberty is taken to mean the absence of not all restraints but only those restraints which are held to be irrational.

Liberty is usually defined in two ways: Negative Liberty & Positive Liberty:

(A) Negative Liberty:

In its negative sense, Liberty is taken to mean an absence of restraints. It means the freedom to act is any way. In this form liberty becomes a license. Such a meaning of liberty can never be accepted in a civil society. In contemporary times, Negative conception of liberty stands rejected.

(B) Positive Liberty:

In its positive sense, Liberty is taken to mean freedom under rational and logical i.e. restraints which are rational and have stood the test of time. It means liberty under the rational and necessary restraints imposed by law. These restraints are considered essential for ensuring the enjoyment of liberty by all the people. In a civil society only positive liberty can be available to the people.

Positive Liberty means two important things:

1. Liberty is not the absence of restraints; it is the substitution of irrational restraints by rational ones. Liberty means absence of only irrational and arbitrary restraints and not all restraints.

2. Liberty means equal and adequate opportunities for all to enjoy their rights.

II. Liberty: Definition:

(1) “Liberty is the freedom of individual to express, without external hindrances, his personality.” -G.D.H Cole

(2) “Freedom is not the absence of all restraints but rather the substitution of rational ones for the irrational.” -Mckechnie

(3) “Liberty is the existences of those conditions of social life without which no one can in general be at his best self.” “Liberty is the eager maintenance of that atmosphere in which men have the opportunities to be their best-selves.” -Laski

Liberty is the most essential condition for the enjoyment of rights. It is not the absence of restraints. It is the positive condition for the enjoyment of rights. It admits the presence of such rational restraints as satisfy the test of historical experience and reason.

III. Features/Nature of Liberty:

(i) Liberty does not mean the absence of all restraints

(ii) Liberty admits the presence of rational restraints and the absence of irrational restraints.

(iii) Liberty postulates the existence of such conditions as can enable the people to enjoy their rights and develop their personalities.

(iv) Liberty is not a license to do anything and everything. It means the freedom to do only those things which are considered worth-doing or worth-enjoying.

(v) Liberty is possible only in a civil society and not in a state of nature or a ‘state of jungle’. State of anarchy can never be a state, of Liberty.

(vi) Liberty is for all. Liberty means the presence of adequate opportunities for all as can enable them to use their rights.

(vii) In society law is an essential condition of liberty. Law maintains conditions which are essential for the enjoyment of Liberty by all the people of the state.

In contemporary times, the positive view of liberty stands fully and universally recognized as the real, accepted, and really productive view of Liberty.

IV. Types of Liberty:

(1) Natural Liberty:

Traditionally the concept of natural liberty has been very popular. Natural liberty is taken to mean the enjoyment of unrestrained natural freedom. It is justified on the ground that since man is born free, he is to enjoy freedom as he wills. All restraints negate his freedom.

 

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Q.2. Discuss Sir Isaiah Berlin’s Two Concepts of liberty.

Introduction
Isaiah Berlin was one of the twentieth century’s most significant intellectual defenders of liberty and liberalism. A prolific essayist, Berlin wrote on topics ranging from philosophy and the history of ideas to Russian literature. In one of his most famous essays, “The Hedgehog and the Fox,” Berlin distinguishes between those thinkers who “relate everything to a single central vision, one system…a single, universal, organizing principle”—hedgehogs—and those “who pursue many ends, often unrelated and even contradictory, connected, if at all, only in some de facto way…related to no moral or aesthetic principle”—foxes. Berlin drew this distinction from a fragment of the Greek poet Archilochus, which reads, “The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing.”
The essay itself advances the hypothesis that Tolstoy was a fox who thought he was a hedgehog. Berlin, by contrast, appears from his diverse, and seemingly disparate topics to be a fox, but in fact his thought revolves around a single central idea.The central idea of Berlin’s thought is his belief in a value pluralism that, he judges, does not slip into relativism. Contrary to many twentieth-century thinkers, Berlin recognized the possibility that there could be a number of goods for human beings and societies that are not all compatible. Recognition of this fact forces us to take an honest look at the necessary tradeoffs that societies must make. Put another way, Berlin recognized that not all problems are soluble, and that there is no reason to suppose that mankind can progress toward a realm in which all goods will coincide without friction or cost, a notion that seemed to be animating, if only implicitly, much thinking in the West.
Berlin first began to express his ideas in lectures and BBC radio broadcasts that he delivered after the Second World War. These lectures discussed eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century figures such as Rousseau, Fichte, Hegel, and Saint-Simon. He also developed his views by examining and criticizing notions of historical determinism in Marx and others, and by studying the origins of historical thinking in Vico and Herder. His essay “Historical Inevitability” is an important elaboration of the basis of his criticism.In the remainder of this introduction, we will draw out Berlin’s view of value pluralism by touching on Berlin’s most famous essay, “Two Concepts of Liberty,” and by further discussing “The Hedgehog and the Fox.”
Two Concepts of Liberty
Perhaps the most important trade off between goods for Berlin is that between liberty and coercion. The tension between these is the animating thought behind Berlin’s essay, “Two Concepts of Liberty,” the Chichele Inaugural Lecture he delivered in 1958.
Negative Freedom
For Berlin, negative liberty means not being interfered with by others. In the political context, negative liberty “is simply the area within which a man can act unobstructed by others.” This notion of liberty specifically involves being free of the coercive will of other people: “Coercion implies the deliberate interference of other human beings within the area in which I could otherwise act,” and, therefore, “The wider the area of non-interference the wider my freedom.” For Berlin, a degree of freedom in this sense is necessary “for even that minimum development of [man’s] natural faculties which alone makes it possible to pursue, and even to conceive, the various ends which men hold good or right or sacred.”
Berlin, though, is not a proponent of enlarging the sphere of freedom indefinitely. The boundaries are a matter for deliberation, for, as he says, quoting R.H. Tawney, “Freedom for the pike is death for the minnows.” For one thing, Berlin maintains that there are priorities more basic than liberty: ensuring an adequate amount of security, food, and health comes before a concern for freedom. For another, it is clear that in order to provide the widest sphere of freedom to the widest number of people, there must be restraints on the freedom of some, or, in some areas, of all.
For Berlin, the nature of negative freedom is such that no particular regime is necessary to ensure it. It is not necessarily the case, for example, that democracies are better than other regimes at providing negative freedom: “Just as a democracy may, in fact, deprive the individual citizen of a great many liberties which he might have in some other form of society, so it is perfectly conceivable that a liberal-minded despot would allow his subjects a large measure of personal freedom.”
Positive Freedom
If negative liberty is “freedom from,” positive liberty is “freedom to.” This notion of freedom is, Berlin maintains, older than that of negative freedom. It is the desire, familiar to Classical Greece and Republican Rome, that individuals should be able to govern themselves, or, at least, be directly involved in establishing the rules under which they are to live. This concept is characteristic of the direct democracies of the ancient world, but, Berlin worries, it is a concept that “adherents of the ‘negative’ notion represent as being, at times, no better than a specious disguise for brutal tyranny.”
This is the case in part because positive freedom presupposes, for Berlin, a conception of the self different from that presupposed by negative liberty. For example, highly religious societies and similar forms of society all have in common the idea that in order to be free, individuals must adhere to a rule. There is a higher freedom that represents the truth. Members of those societies who do not recognize this truth must be compelled to do so. One of the major problems with this concept of liberty, for Berlin, is that it can be used by totalitarian regimes to coerce their members into obedience in the name of freedom. Adherents of communism, for example, believe they can compel certain segments of society to act against their will because their will represents a false consciousness. The premise for them is that the proletariat does not understand the truth about freedom and therefore must be brought to do so in the name of freedom. This understanding of freedom, though, can be a justification for a communist regime to commit terrible atrocities against those segments of society that resist its “benevolent” will. In other words, positive freedom can be an excuse for imposing extreme forms of unfreedom.

SECTION – II


1. Elaborate upon the problems of Alienation.

2. Examine the concept of equality of opportunity.

3. Write a note on equality of capability.Explain the special provisions under the Fifth and Sixth Schedules of the Constitution.


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SECTION – II


1. Differential treatment

2. Distributive Justice

3. Some arguments against the concept of desert

4. Global Justice

5. Late 20th century Liberals


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IGNOU Instructions for the BPSC 103 POLITICAL THEORY – CONCEPTS AND DEBATES Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BPSC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



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IGNOU BPSC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BPSC 103 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BPSC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BPSC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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