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IGNOU BPCS 186 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BPCS 186 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each
question carries 20 marks in Assignment One.
Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question
carries 5 marks in Assignment Two.
1. Explain the various models of stress with the help of suitable diagrams.
In order to understand how people learn to cope with stress, it is important to first reflect on the different conceptualizations of stress and how the coping research has emerged alongside distinct approaches to stress. Stress has been viewed as a response, a stimulus, and a transaction. How an individual conceptualizes stress determines his or her response, adaptation, or coping strategies.
Stress As a Response
Stress as a response model, initially introduced by Hans Selye (1956), describes stress as a physiological response pattern and was captured within his general adaptation syndrome (GAS) model (Figure 16.3). This model describes stress as a dependent variable and includes three concepts:
- Stress is a defensive mechanism.
- Stress follows the three stages of alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
- If the stress is prolonged or severe, it could result in diseases of adaptation or even death.
Later, in The Stress Concept: Past, Present and Future (1983), Selye introduced the idea that the stress response could result in positive or negative outcomes based on cognitive interpretations of the physical symptoms or physiological experience (Figure 16.3, “The General Adaptation to Stress Model“). In this way, stress could be experienced as eustress (positive) or dystress (negative). However, Selye always considered stress to be a physiologically based construct or response. Gradually, other researchers expanded the thinking on stress to include and involve psychological concepts earlier in the stress model.
The response model of stress incorporates coping within the model itself. The idea of adaptation or coping is inherent to the GAS model at both the alarm and resistance stages. When confronted with a negative stimulus, the alarm response initiates the sympathetic nervous system to combat or avoid the stressor (i.e., increased heart rate, temperature, adrenaline, and glucose levels). The resistance response then initiates physiological systems with a fight or flight reaction to the stressor, returning the system to homeostasis, reducing harm, or more generally accommodating the stressor, which can lead to adaptive diseases such as sleep deprivation, mental illness, hypertension, or heart disease. Thus, along with the early conceptualization of stress as a physiological response, early research on coping was also born. As early as 1932, Walter Cannon described the notion of self-regulation in his work The Wisdom of the Body.
Stress As a Stimulus
The theory of stress as a stimulus was introduced in the 1960s, and viewed stress as a significant life event or change that demands response, adjustment, or adaptation. Holmes and Rahe (1967) created the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) consisting of 42 life events scored according to the estimated degree of adjustment they would each demand of the person experiencing them (e.g., marriage, divorce, relocation, change or loss of job, loss of loved one). Holmes and Rahe theorized that stress was an independent variable in the health-stress-coping equation — the cause of an experience rather than the experience itself. While some correlations emerged between SRRS scores and illness (Rahe, Mahan, & Arthur, 1970; Johnson & Sarason, 1979), there were problems with the stress as stimulus theory. The stress as stimulus theory assumes:
- Change is inherently stressful.
- Life events demand the same levels of adjustment across the population.
- There is a common threshold of adjustment beyond which illness will result.
Rahe and Holmes initially viewed the human subject as a passive recipient of stress, one who played no role in determining the degree, intensity, or valence of the stressor. Later, Rahe introduced the concept of interpretation into his research (Rahe & Arthur, 1978), suggesting that a change or life event could be interpreted as a positive or negative experience based on cognitive and emotional factors. However, the stress as stimulus model still ignored important variables such as prior learning, environment, support networks, personality, and life experience.
Stress As a Transaction
In attempting to explain stress as more of a dynamic process, Richard Lazarus developed the transactional theory of stress and coping (TTSC) (Lazarus, 1966; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984), which presents stress as a product of a transaction between a person (including multiple systems: cognitive, physiological, affective, psychological, neurological) and his or her complex environment. Stress as a transaction was introduced with the most impact when Dr. Susan Kobasa first used the concept of hardiness (Kobasa, 1979). Hardiness refers to a pattern of personality characteristics that distinguishes people who remain healthy under life stress compared with those who develop health problems. In the late 1970s, the concept of hardiness was further developed by Salvatore Maddi, Kobasa, and their graduate students at the University of Chicago (Kobasa, 1982; Kobasa & Maddi, 1981; Kobasa, Maddi, & Kahn, 1982; Kobasa, Maddi, Puccetti, & Zola, 1985; Maddi & Kobasa, 1984). Hardiness has some notable similarities with other personality constructs in psychology, including locus of control (Rotter, 1966), sense of coherence (Antonovsky, 1987), self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997), and dispositional optimism (Scheier & Carver, 1985), all of which will be discussed in the next section. Researchers introduced multiple variables to the stress-as-transaction model, expanding and categorizing various factors to account for the complex systems involved in experiencing a stressor (Werner, 1993).
2.Describe the effect of stress on performance and productivity.
Almost everyone experiences stress once in a while. Do you recognize the feeling that more is expected of you than you can achieve? Whether at work, at home or, for example, on social media. Children and family can be a lot of stress, but there can also be persistent pressures at work or in your free time. Maybe you are sick or you have a loved one who is sick. You may be struggling with a relationship that isn’t going well. Or maybe financial problems are keeping you awake or living in an environment of war or violence. There are so many circumstances that can cause tension in our body.
Physical and mental problems
Everyone goes through stressful periods. If you can calm down afterwards, then there is not much to worry about. But if you live too long under stress and get too little rest, your body will protest.
You get complaints such as headache, muscle pain and sleeping problems. You become irritable and still feel tired when you get out of bed. You may also feel gloomy or sad. You can become unkind to other people and you may also withdraw because contact with other people costs you too much energy. Your work takes more effort and it is often difficult to concentrate. Sometimes life just doesn’t seem so nice anymore and the prospect of improvement seems far away.
Not everyone is equally sensitive to stress. Especially if you want to do things right and pay little attention to the things that are already going well, you are more likely to become stressed.
Doing more than you can actually handle will eventually make you less effective. Research shows that people who work many hours under pressure, end up getting less work done per hour. It can also lead to feelings of depression and anxiety as well.
What can you do against stress?
Relaxation against stress
Relaxation is important when you experience too much stress. Try to set aside more time for yourself. Even if that sometimes seems impossible. But remember that you are less effective, and therefore end up getting less done when you are stressed. Sitting on the couch and scrolling through your phone or watching TV is not the best form of relaxation. Movement is better for reducing your stress. Go for a walk or exercise and try to enjoy your surroundings.
Focus on what’s important to you
Say “no” more often to other people who want something from you. Try to make a list for yourself of people and tasks that are really important to you and of things that may not be so important at the moment. Try looking at the things you do as an outsider. How would you look back on this in 10 years? How would a close friend look at it?
Try to give your time and attention to the people and tasks that are really important to you. Make a conscious decision not to do things that are not important. And to spend less time with people who aren’t that important to you. Sometimes that can feel like losing face or giving you an anxious feeling that you are not in control. But if you are clear to others, it can also be pleasant for them. Focusing more on the important things will have a positive impact on your relationship with those people who are really important in your life.
Let go of the less important things
It can help you to leave certain tasks to someone else. Sometimes that gives the feeling that you will lose control. That things don’t get done the way you want them to. But if you try to do more than you can actually handle, you will have to learn to let things go. So you will have to ask other people for help. This can be difficult at times, but you still need to take bold steps to overcome your pride and fear of letting go.
Talk to others about your stress
It can help to open your heart to your partner or a good friend. It gives relief to look together at what is really important and what is not. And maybe your partner has very different expectations of you than you always thought. It can also help to share the concerns you have. You often come up with much better solutions together or the other person would like to help you solve a problem together.
To get more exercise, you can join a sports club. Go to a masseur if you regularly have muscle pain. If all this does not help enough, you can also visit a doctor or psychologist.
Also set aside time to do things you enjoy. For example, a hobby, reading a book or anything else that gives you energy.
Watch what you eat. When you’re stressed, you quickly turn to unhealthy food with a lot of sugars that give you some energy temporarily. But in the long run it just makes you lifeless and fat. Try to eat more vegetables and fruits. You know that restless feeling when you drink too much coffee? That greatly increases your stress.
3. Explain the nature of coping and describe the coping styles.
Coping usually involves adjusting to or tolerating negative events or realities while you try to keep your positive self-image and emotional equilibrium. Coping occurs in the context of life changes that are perceived to be stressful. Psychological stress is usually associated with negative life changes, such as losing a job or loved one. However, all changes require some sort of adaptation. Even positive changes — such as getting married or having a child — can be stressful.
Changes are stressful because changes require us to adjust and to adapt. Experiencing too many changes within a brief time period often creates the idea that we aren’t in control of events. This perception contributes to low self-esteem and may even contribute to the development of anxiety or depression. In some cases, physical illnesses may develop or get worse when a person’s capacity to adapt to change is overwhelmed by too much change.
Coping involves adjusting to unusual demands, or stressors. This requires giving a greater effort and using greater energy than what’s needed in the daily routines of life. Prolonged mobilization of effort can contribute to elevated levels of stress-related hormones and to eventual physical breakdown and illness.
Stressors that require coping may be acute, like moving to a new home or experiencing the onset of marriage problems. Stressors also occur that are of longer duration, such as chronic pain, chronic illness or long-lasting financial problems.
The effect of many acute stressors that come within a relatively brief period of time may be cumulative and profound. Those who experience a marital separation, the death of an aging parent and a change in job within a brief period of time may struggle to maintain their physical and emotional health.
Some common coping mechanisms may challenge you to:
- Lower your expectations.
- Ask others to help or assist you.
- Take responsibility for the situation.
- Engage in problem solving.
- Maintain emotionally supportive relationships.
- Maintain emotional composure or, alternatively, expressing distressing emotions.
- Challenge previously held beliefs that are no longer adaptive.
- Directly attempt to change the source of stress.
- Distance yourself from the source of stress.
- View the problem through a religious perspective.
Experts agree that coping is a process rather than an event. You may alternate between several of the above coping strategies in order to cope with a stressful event.
People differ in particular styles of coping or prefer to use certain coping strategies over others. These differences in coping styles usually reflect differences in personality. Rigidity in coping is less likely to help than is flexibility in coping — being able to fit the most appropriate coping strategy to the demands of different situations.
However, some situations that require coping are likely to elicit (bring out) similar coping responses from most people. For example, work-related stressors are more likely to elicit problem-solving strategies. Stressors that are perceived to be changeable are more likely to elicit problem-solving strategies while stressors perceived to be unchangeable are more likely to elicit social support seeking and emotion-focused strategies.
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4.Explain the various sources of stress with the help of suitable examples.
5. Describe perfectionism as a factor contributing to stress proneness.
6. Explain the Jacobson’s Progressive Muscle Relaxation.
7. Describe Yoga as a technique of stress management.
8. Discuss ABCDE model with the help of suitable example.
9. Describe various techniques of time management.
10. Explain effective communication as an interpersonal skill.
11. Explain JOHARI window.
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