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IGNOU BPCC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BPCC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment one.
Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks in Assignment two.
1. . Explain the four basic components of psychological capital required for positive organizational Behavior.
The concept of Psychological Capital (PsyCap) was originally designed for organizations. Pioneer Fred Luthans suggested that growth in organizations needs to focus on psychological rather than educational development. He argued that human resources can serve as a competitive advantage as they are more inimitable by competitors than physical, structural and financial resources.
Luthans argued that employees possess two types of knowledge: explicit and tacit knowledge. Explicit knowledge includes skills, abilities, and competencies derived from education and experience.
Tacit knowledge, on the other hand, is built over time through socialization into the organization. He claimed that tacit knowledge offers a long-term competitive advantage as it is unique, cumulative, interconnected and non-transferable to competitors.
Based on this idea, Luthans urged companies to invest in human capital management including building tacit knowledge rather than hiring a skilled temporary workforce (Fred Luthans & Youssef, 2004). Back then, the idea of investing in people for competitive advantage was considered ground-breaking.
A Concept for All Life Domains
Under the umbrella of positive organizational behavior (POB), the “study and application of positively oriented human resource strengths and psychological capacities”, Luthans developed the concept of Psychological Capital (PsyCap) as a source of competitive advantage.
In line with this idea, many studies have since confirmed that high levels of PsyCap are positively related to employee performance and job satisfaction, especially in the services industry (Abbas, Raja, Darr, & Bouckenooghe, 2012; Fred Luthans, Avolio, Avey, & Norman, 2007; Fred Luthans & Youssef, 2007; Youssef & Luthans, 2007).
What is more, employees who strive at work can be assumed to generally have a more fulfilling life due to the strong relationship between job and life satisfaction (Judge & Watanabe, 1993). Accordingly, PsyCap has been linked to outcomes of general importance for individuals.
High levels of PsyCap have been found to positively influence wellbeing, health outcomes such as lower BMI and cholesterol levels and satisfaction with one’s relationships (Lorenz, Beer, Pütz, & Heinitz, 2016). Using the concept of PsyCap, leaders and coaches can:
“leverage to tap into still largely uncharted territories of human strengths, thriving, and excellence”
(Fred Luthans & Youssef-Morgan, 2017).
Definition and Measurement of Psychological Capital (PsyCap)
Psychological Capital is defined as “an individual’s positive psychological state of development” (Fred Luthans, et al., 2007) which is characterized by having high levels of HERO; the four elements of Hope, (Self-)Efficacy, Resilience, and Optimism.
The concept of PsyCap has become even more relevant with recent findings in the area of neuroplasticity. Since our brain is malleable, PsyCap can be developed and strengthened. Further, PsyCap can be managed and assessed.
Several scales have been developed to measure PsyCap. The original scale developed by Luthans, Youssef and Avolio (2007) in the context of organizations is the Psychological Capital Questionnaire 24 (PCQ-24). For a more general application in all domains of life, Lorenz et al. (2016) developed the Compound PsyCap Scale (CPC-12), a twelve-item self-report scale.
Application of PsyCap in Leadership and Coaching
As Shawn Achor (2011) claims, we are successful when we are happy, not the other way around. So if we are more hopeful, efficacious, resilient and optimistic, we are more likely to “weather the storm” in a dynamic organizational or a challenging personal environment. Hence, the concept of Psychological Capital is equally important for coaches and leaders.
Here is an overview of the four components of PsyCap and the interventions which can be used to further build on this capital. It is important to keep in mind that the level of PsyCap as a whole has a stronger relationship than each of the four components individually, as will be discussed later.
How to Develop Self-efficacy
Bandura (1994) found that our level of self-efficacy is affected by the following processes:
- Cognitive (thoughts shape reality)
- Motivational (expected outcomes based on our beliefs shape our motivation)
- Affective (perceived coping self-efficacy regulates avoidance behavior)
- Selection (we only expose ourselves to situations we believe we can master)
2. Explain the causes and consequences of stress. Describe the various techniques of managing stress.
Stress can be defined as any type of change that causes physical, emotional, or psychological strain. Stress is your body’s response to anything that requires attention or action.
Everyone experiences stress to some degree. The way you respond to stress, however, makes a big difference to your overall well-being.
Sometimes, the best way to manage your stress involves changing your situation. At other times, the best strategy involves changing the way you respond to the situation.
Developing a clear understanding of how stress impacts your physical and mental health is important. It’s also important to recognize how your mental and physical health affects your stress level.
Signs of Stress
Stress can be short-term or long-term. Both can lead to a variety of symptoms, but chronic stress can take a serious toll on the body over time and have long-lasting health effects.
Some common signs of stress include:
- Changes in mood
- Clammy or sweaty palms
- Decreased sex drive
- Difficulty sleeping
- Digestive problems
- Feeling anxious
- Frequent sickness
- Grinding teeth
- Low energy
- Muscle tension, especially in the neck and shoulders
- Physical aches and pains
- Racing heartbeat
What does stress feel like? What does stress feel like? It often contributes to irritability, fear, overwork, and frustration. You may feel physically exhausted, worn out, and unable to cope.
Stress is not always easy to recognize, but there are some ways to identify some signs that you might be experiencing too much pressure. Sometimes stress can come from an obvious source, but sometimes even small daily stresses from work, school, family, and friends can take a toll on your mind and body.
If you think stress might be affecting you, there are a few things you can watch for:
- Psychological signs such as difficulty concentrating, worrying, anxiety, and trouble remembering
- Emotional signs such as being angry, irritated, moody, or frustrated
- Physical signs such as high blood pressure, changes in weight, frequent colds or infections, and changes in the menstrual cycle and libido
- Behavioral signs such as poor self-care, not having time for the things you enjoy, or relying on drugs and alcohol to cope
Stress vs. Anxiety
Stress can sometimes be mistaken for anxiety, and experiencing a great deal of stress can contribute to feelings of anxiety. Experiencing anxiety can make it more difficult to cope with stress and may contribute to other health issues, including increased depression, susceptibility to illness, and digestive problems.
Stress and anxiety contribute to nervousness, poor sleep, high blood pressure, muscle tension, and excess worry. In most cases, stress is caused by external events, while anxiety is caused by your internal reaction to stress. Stress may go away once the threat or the situation resolves, whereas anxiety may persist even after the original stressor is gone.
Causes of Stress
There are many different things in life that can cause stress. Some of the main sources of stress include work, finances, relationships, parenting, and day-to-day inconveniences.
Stress can trigger the body’s response to a perceived threat or danger, known as the fight-or-flight response.3 During this reaction, certain hormones like adrenaline and cortisol are released. This speeds the heart rate, slows digestion, shunts blood flow to major muscle groups, and changes various other autonomic nervous functions, giving the body a burst of energy and strength.
Originally named for its ability to enable us to physically fight or run away when faced with danger, the fight-or-flight response is now activated in situations where neither response is appropriate—like in traffic or during a stressful day at work.
When the perceived threat is gone, systems are designed to return to normal function via the relaxation response.4 But in cases of chronic stress, the relaxation response doesn’t occur often enough, and being in a near-constant state of fight-or-flight can cause damage to the body.
Stress can also lead to some unhealthy habits that have a negative impact on your health. For example, many people cope with stress by eating too much or by smoking. These unhealthy habits damage the body and create bigger problems in the long-term.5
Mental Health in the Workplace Webinar
On May 19, 2022, Verywell Mind hosted a virtual Mental Health in the Workplace webinar, hosted by Editor-in-Chief Amy Morin, LCSW. If you missed it, check out this recap to learn ways to foster supportive work environments and helpful strategies to improve your well-being on the job.
Types of Stress
Not all types of stress are harmful or even negative. Some of the different types of stress that you might experience include:
- Acute stress: Acute stress is a very short-term type of stress that can either be positive or more distressing; this is the type of stress we most often encounter in day-to-day life.
- Chronic stress: Chronic stress is stress that seems never-ending and inescapable, like the stress of a bad marriage or an extremely taxing job; chronic stress can also stem from traumatic experiences and childhood trauma.
- Episodic acute stress: Episodic acute stress is acute stress that seems to run rampant and be a way of life, creating a life of ongoing distress.
- Eustress: Eustress is fun and exciting. It’s known as a positive type of stress that can keep you energized. It’s associated with surges of adrenaline, such as when you are skiing or racing to meet a deadline.
The three main types of negative stress are acute stress, chronic stress, and episodic acute stress. Positive stress, known as eustress, can be fun and exciting, but it can also take a toll.
Impact of Stress
Stress can have several effects on your health and well-being. It can make it more challenging to deal with life’s daily hassles, affect your interpersonal relationships, and have detrimental effects on your health. The connection between your mind and body is apparent when you examine stress’s impact on your life.
Feeling stressed over a relationship, money, or living situation can create physical health issues. The inverse is also true. Health problems, whether you’re dealing with high blood pressure or diabetes, will also affect your stress level and mental health. When your brain experiences high degrees of stress, your body reacts accordingly.
Serious acute stress, like being involved in a natural disaster or getting into a verbal altercation, can trigger heart attacks, arrhythmias, and even sudden death. However, this happens mostly in individuals who already have heart disease.6
Stress also takes an emotional toll. While some stress may produce feelings of mild anxiety or frustration, prolonged stress can also lead to burnout, anxiety disorders, and depression.
Chronic stress can have a serious impact on your health as well. If you experience chronic stress, your autonomic nervous system will be overactive, which is likely to damage your body.
- Hair loss
- Heart disease
- Sexual dysfunction
- Tooth and gum disease
Treatments for Stress
Stress is not a distinct medical diagnosis and there is no single, specific treatment for it. Treatment for stress focuses on changing the situation, developing stress coping skills, implementing relaxation techniques, and treating symptoms or conditions that may have been caused by chronic stress.
Some interventions that may be helpful include therapy, medication, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).
Some forms of therapy that may be particularly helpful in addressing symptoms of stress including cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). CBT focuses on helping people identify and change negative thinking patterns, while MBSR utilizes meditation and mindfulness to help reduce stress levels.
Medication may sometimes be prescribed to address some specific symptoms that are related to stress. Such medications may include sleep aids, antacids, antidepressants, and anti-anxiety medications.
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Some complementary approaches that may also be helpful for reducing stress include acupuncture, aromatherapy, massage, yoga, and meditation.
3. Describe the bases of power and concept of dependency. Discuss the various power tactics.
The concept of power refers to the capacity that a person has to influence the behaviour of another person. The influencing person influences another person to make them act in accordance with the influencing persons’ wishes. Moreover, in other words, power exists as a potential or fully actualizing influence over a dependent relationship. Many may be unaware of casual trivia that organizational power is also known as power politics.
Bases of Power
The concept of power derives its ultimate meaning from the 2 strong bases of power. In other words, the following 2 bases are the core foundation for organizational power. They are as follows:
- Informal Power refers to the power that comes from an individual’s unique characteristics. These are the most effective because personal skills, traits and knowledge influence personal power.
- Formal Power refers to the power that establishes because of the individual’s position in an organization.
Power is not the only managerial control. To know more about the professional controlling techniques, Click here.
Browse more Topics under Organising
- Intro to Organisation and its Importance
- Types of Organisation
- Organisation Structure
Sources of Formal Individual Power
- Legitimate Power – The power to monitor and use the organization’s resources in order to accomplish organizational goals. For example Firing, demotion, & subordinate’s authority. Another example is that of a CEO who uses a Private Jet to travel.
- Reward Power – The power that allows you to give pay raises, promotion, praise, interesting projects, and other rewards to your subordinates. Moreover, there is a limit to the number of rewards, however, it can be a great tool to motivate subordinates.
- Coercive Power – The power to punish or to withhold a punishment. Punishments have negative side effects and should be used with caution. Furthermore, punishments can be:
- Suspension to demotion
- Unpleasant job assignments
- Withholding of praise and goodwill
Sources of Informal Individual Power
- Expert Power – An informal concept of power that stems from superior ability or expertise. In this, the group members will tend to consult this person (the expert) for advice or help on a project. However, it is this dependency is what gives the individual power over their peers.
- Referent Power – Fame is a critical aspect of referent power. However, this fame could be in the field of film, sports, music stars, etc. Moreover, agreeable, conscientious, and giving people are also awarded referent power. People with referent power possess high expertise. Their ability to obtain resources, and also to secure their surroundings is what provides them referent powers.
- Charismatic Power – Intense form of referent power that comes from someone’s personality. It also comes from physical attributes or abilities that induce others to follow and believe in that person.
The Concept of Power Tactics
There are 9 organizational power tactics. These tactics are ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions. The 9 influence tactics are legitimacy, rational persuasion, inspirational appeals, consultation, exchange, personal appeals, ingratiation, pressure and coalitions.
- Rational persuasion. A tactic that is used to try and convince someone with a valid reason, rational logic, or realistic facts.
- Inspirational appeals. A tactic that builds enthusiasm by appealing to emotions, ideas and/or values.
- Consultation. A tactic that focuses on getting others to participate in the planning process, making decisions, and encourage changes.
- Ingratiation. A tactic that emphasizes on getting someone in a good mood prior to making a request. It includes being friendly, helpful, and using praise or flattery.
- Personal appeals. A tactic that refers to friendship and loyalty while making a request.
- Exchange. A tactic that suggests that making express or implied promises and trading favours.
- Coalition tactics. Refers to a tactic that prescribes getting others to support your effort to persuade someone.
- Pressure. A tactic that focuses on demanding compliance or using intimidation or threats.
- Legitimating tactics. This tactic suggests that basing a request on one’s authority or right, organizational rules or policies, or express or implied support from superiors, is a best.
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4. Action Research Model
5. Strategies to manage the organizational resistance for change.
6. Functions of Communication
7. Process Theories of motivation
8. Work Situation Characteristics
9. Relevance of Work Values for an Effective Organization
10. Characteristics of the Field of OB Today
11. Contemporary Issues and Challenges.
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IGNOU BPCC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
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