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IGNOU BPCC 111 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BPCC 111 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment one.
Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks in Assignment two.
1. Discuss the behavioural approaches to psychopathology.
The Behavioral Perspective
In contrast to the psychodynamic approaches of Freud and the neo-Freudians, which focus on how mental illness connects childhood experiences to inner (unconscious) processes and defense mechanisms, the learning, or behavioral approaches, focus only on observable behavior. The early behaviorists were primarily concerned with the scientific study of human learning and behavior; they rejected Freud’s theories and treatments mostly because those relied so heavily on Freud’s own theories and “interpretations” of client’s behaviors. They emphasize the study of what is observable—actual behaviors by animals and human beings rather than trying to study or evaluate things that could not be seen or tested. John B. Watson wrote an article in which he said, “Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation.”
Behaviorists also do not believe in biological determinism: they do not see personality traits as inborn. Instead, they view personality as significantly shaped by the reinforcements and behavioral consequences that occur in the environment. In other words, people behave in a consistent manner based on prior learning. B. F. Skinner, a strict behaviorist, believed that the environment was solely responsible for all behavior, including the enduring, consistent behavior patterns studied by personality theorists. He proposed that we demonstrate consistent behavior patterns because we have developed certain response tendencies (Skinner, 1953). In other words, we learn to behave in particular ways. We increase the behaviors that lead to positive consequences, and we decrease the behaviors that lead to negative consequences.
Skinner disagreed with Freud’s idea that personality is fixed in childhood. He argued that personality develops over our entire life, not only in the first few years. Our responses can change as we come across new situations; therefore, we can expect more variability over time in personality than Freud would anticipate. For example, consider a young woman, Greta, a risk-taker. She drives fast and participates in dangerous sports such as hang gliding and kiteboarding. But after she gets married and has children, the system of reinforcements and punishments in her environment changes. Speeding and extreme sports are no longer reinforced, so she no longer engages in those behaviors. In fact, Greta now describes herself as a cautious person.
Over time and through ongoing studies, the field of behaviorism has changed and paved the way toward integrating cognitive elements that also influence learning and shape behavior. Yet, the early principles are still useful and play an important role in treating many types of mental illness. The behavioral model is generally viewed as including three major areas: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning/social learning.
Two figures are usually central in reviews of the principles of classical conditioning. The first was Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936), a Nobel-prize winning Russian physiologist, who also studied dogs and discovered the basic principles of classical conditioning.
Pavlov’s studied the digestive system (Hunt, 2007) in dogs. Over time, Pavlov (1927) noted that the dogs began to salivate not only at the taste of food, but also at the sight of food, at the sight of an empty food bowl, and even at the sound of the laboratory assistants’ footsteps. Salivating to food in the mouth is reflexive, so no learning is involved. However, dogs don’t naturally salivate at the sight of an empty bowl or the sound of footsteps. To explore this phenomenon, Pavlov designed a series of carefully controlled experiments. He trained the dogs to salivate in response to stimuli that had nothing to do with food, such as the sound of a bell, a light, and a touch on the leg. Through his experiments, Pavlov realized that an organism has two types of responses to its environment: (1) unconditioned (unlearned) responses, or reflexes, and (2) conditioned (learned) responses. (If you remember that unlearned = unconditioned, and learned = conditioned, it is easier to make sense of the information that follows.)
2. Explain the concept of normality and abnormality.
Normality and abnormality psychology are terms used to describe specific behaviors, sets of or patterns of behaviors, including thoughts and feelings, as well as traits which are either biological or psychological. Normality and abnormality are subjective to individual perception and to societal standards which are further dependent on situation, context, age, or gender. Perceptions of normality and abnormality also vary by culture. Furthermore, the meanings of these two terms differ with the changing societal norms, even within a specific culture.
In everyday language, even in psychology, these two are logical opposites in meaning; normality is the state of being normal, whereas abnormality is the state or condition of having abnormal behaviors, including thoughts and emotions, as well as traits. However, because of the subjectivity of these two terms, behaviors that are not normal are not always abnormal just as a perceived absence of abnormal behavior is not necessarily called normal. Normality and abnormality are further discussed in the following sections.
What is Normality?
Normality is behavior that is consistent in a person’s usual way of behaving. It is conformity to societal standards as well as thinking and behaving similarly to the majority, and as such is generally seen as good in this context. Normality is also behavior that is expected and/or appropriate to the situation. It may also be just being average, as is the case in psychological statistics. It involves being able to adjust to the surroundings, manage or control emotions, being able to work satisfactorily as well as build relationships that are fulfilling or at least acceptable.
What is Abnormality?
Abnormality is any impairment in an individual’s functioning or maladaptation to changes in life or the surroundings. It is behavior that is unusual, bizarre, atypical or out of the ordinary. It is maladjustment to one’s society and culture, exaggeration, perversion or violation of a society’s prevailing standards, and is generally viewed as bad. It can be a lack or a deficit in a particular trait, like in limited intelligence, or just being a statistical rarity as in being above genius. It can also be a disorganization in personality or emotional instability. In abnormal psychology, abnormality is defined as behavior that is deviant from societal norms, distressing to the individual or to close relations, dysfunctional to everyday living, or dangerous to self or others.
Difference between Normality and Abnormality
In any given behavior or trait, normality is being average or close to average. Scores falling within one standard deviation above or below the mean, the most average 68.3% of the population, is considered normal. Normality may extend up to two standard deviations away above or below the average for a total of 95.7% of the population. Meanwhile, abnormality is the statistical rarity, falling in between two and three standard deviations away above or below the average, which is 4.3% of the population.
Normality is conformity to the accepted or most common behavior within a group or even a subgroup. This includes following situational or contextual norms as well as reacting appropriately to situations and events. On the other hand, abnormality is deviance or violation of those norms.
Normality is being able to cope with and having appropriate coping mechanisms with the stresses of everyday life, being able to work, to interact with other people and to establish and maintain relationships. Abnormality, on the other hand is being dysfunctional in these areas; being overly susceptible or inappropriate coping to stress, being unable to be productive, to interact or to form relationships as well as moving from one relationship to another too often or having relationships that are too short.
Normality usually allows for a healthy state of mind for an acceptably lengthy period of time. A disorganized personality and unstable emotions as well as prolonged mental or emotional distress are considered abnormal.
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3. Differentiate between predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors in the causation of psychopathology.
4. Explain different types of attachment styles.
5. What is clinical interview?
6. Describe the three phases in cognitive behavior therapy.
7. Define intellectual disability.
8. What are the causes of generalized anxiety disorder?
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IGNOU BPCC 111 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
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