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IGNOU BPCC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BPCC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment one.
Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks in Assignment two.
1. Discuss the qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection.
Primary and secondary data
All data are categorized as either ‘primary data’ or ‘secondary data,’ based on how you source them. Primary data are those that you and your team collect directly from the main sources, whereas, secondary data are those that were collected by other organisations, government agencies, or independent research institutions and individuals and are available for use. Secondary data could be censuses, surveys, organizational records or other previous research, extracted from books, journals, reports, newspapers, magazines, data archives, databases etc.
Once you are ready to collect your data, you will have to decide upon the data collection tools and methods. This will depend on a number of things, including the purpose of the data, the local context, cost, timeline, availability of skills and resources, and most importantly, the indicators and key questions you have identified and how the collected data will be utilized.
All data are further divided into two broad categories based on the techniques employed in the field to gather and analyse them – ‘qualitative data’ and ‘quantitative data.’ Stay with us as we walk you through each approach and explain their key differences.
Qualitative data collection plays an important role in monitoring and evaluation as it helps you delve deeper into a particular problem and gain a human perspective on it. It provides in depth information on some of the more intangible factors like experiences, opinions, motivations, behaviours or descriptions of a process, event or a particular context relevant to your project. So, in other words, a qualitative approach uses people’s stories, experiences and feelings to measure change.
Compared to a quantitative approach, a qualitative approach is more open, informal and unstructured or semi-structured, and it provides more flexibility in how data is collected. Qualitative research is investigative in nature and the data collected through this process answers the question ‘why’ or ‘how’ – how do people feel about a situation, or why are health care facilities underutilized? This approach relies more heavily on interactive interviews, discussions and deeper conversations. While using this approach, many researchers also use triangulation or mixed methods to increase the credibility and authenticity of their findings. Data is often recorded in the form of field notes, sketches, audiotapes, photographs and other suitable means.
Usually the findings drawn from qualitative research are not generalizable to any specific population, rather each case study produces a unique piece of evidence that can help identify patterns among different studies of the same issue. The results produced from this approach can be subjective and as such can be subject to bias in their interpretation. Analyzing such data can also be quite complex and time-consuming which can make it an expensive process.
The quantitative approach uses numbers and statistics to quantify change and is often expressed in the form of digits, units, ratios, percentages, proportions, etc. Compared to the qualitative approach, the quantitative approach is more structured, straightforward and formal. Quantitative approach is utilized to derive answers to the questions ‘how much’ or ‘how many’ – how many people attended the workshop or how often do people visit the health center.
Quantitative research is useful for multi-site and cluster evaluations that involve a large group of respondents or sample population. This approach relies heavily on random sampling and structured data collection instruments that fit diverse experiences into predetermined response categories. Typical quantitative data gathering strategies include, experiments or clinical trials, gathering relevant data from management information systems, administering surveys with closed-ended questions or observing and recording well-defined events.
Because quantitative methods are not about gaining an in-depth understanding but rather grasping a general understanding of a particular context with precise results, quantitative data is easier to collect and analyse and there are less chances of bias in the result interpretation. Results are numerical, objective, conclusive and to the point, so the results are easier to summarize and generalize and are useful for making comparisons across different sites or interventions.
2. Describe the characteristics and methods of sampling techniques.
When you conduct research about a group of people, it’s rarely possible to collect data from every person in that group. Instead, you select a sample. The sample is the group of individuals who will actually participate in the research.
To draw valid conclusions from your results, you have to carefully decide how you will select a sample that is representative of the group as a whole. There are two types of sampling methods:
- Probability sampling involves random selection, allowing you to make strong statistical inferences about the whole group.
- Non-probability sampling involves non-random selection based on convenience or other criteria, allowing you to easily collect data.
You should clearly explain how you selected your sample in the methodology section of your paper or thesis.
Population vs sample
First, you need to understand the difference between a population and a sample, and identify the target population of your research.
- The population is the entire group that you want to draw conclusions about.
- The sample is the specific group of individuals that you will collect data from.
The population can be defined in terms of geographical location, age, income, and many other characteristics.
It can be very broad or quite narrow: maybe you want to make inferences about the whole adult population of your country; maybe your research focuses on customers of a certain company, patients with a specific health condition, or students in a single school.
It is important to carefully define your target population according to the purpose and practicalities of your project.
If the population is very large, demographically mixed, and geographically dispersed, it might be difficult to gain access to a representative sample.
The sampling frame is the actual list of individuals that the sample will be drawn from. Ideally, it should include the entire target population (and nobody who is not part of that population).
The number of individuals you should include in your sample depends on various factors, including the size and variability of the population and your research design. There are different sample size calculators and formulas depending on what you want to achieve with statistical analysis.
Probability sampling methods
Probability sampling means that every member of the population has a chance of being selected. It is mainly used in quantitative research. If you want to produce results that are representative of the whole population, probability sampling techniques are the most valid choice.
1. Simple random sampling
In a simple random sample, every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. Your sampling frame should include the whole population.
To conduct this type of sampling, you can use tools like random number generators or other techniques that are based entirely on chance.
2. Systematic sampling
Systematic sampling is similar to simple random sampling, but it is usually slightly easier to conduct. Every member of the population is listed with a number, but instead of randomly generating numbers, individuals are chosen at regular intervals.
If you use this technique, it is important to make sure that there is no hidden pattern in the list that might skew the sample. For example, if the HR database groups employees by team, and team members are listed in order of seniority, there is a risk that your interval might skip over people in junior roles, resulting in a sample that is skewed towards senior employees.
3. Stratified sampling
Stratified sampling involves dividing the population into subpopulations that may differ in important ways. It allows you draw more precise conclusions by ensuring that every subgroup is properly represented in the sample.
To use this sampling method, you divide the population into subgroups (called strata) based on the relevant characteristic (e.g. gender, age range, income bracket, job role).
Based on the overall proportions of the population, you calculate how many people should be sampled from each subgroup. Then you use random or systematic sampling to select a sample from each subgroup.
3. Elaborate upon the characteristics and types of qualitative research method.
Qualitative research is defined as a market research method that focuses on obtaining data through open-ended and conversational communication.
This method is not only about “what” people think but also “why” they think so. For example, consider a convenience store looking to improve its patronage. A systematic observation concludes that the number of men visiting this store are more. One good method to determine why women were not visiting the store is to conduct an in-depth interview of potential customers in the category.
For example, on successfully interviewing female customers, visiting the nearby stores and malls, and selecting them through random sampling, it was known that the store doesn’t have enough items for women and so there were fewer women visiting the store, which was understood only by personally interacting with them and understanding why they didn’t visit the store, because there were more male products than female ones.
Qualitative research is based on the disciplines of social sciences like psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Therefore, the qualitative research methods allow for in-depth and further probing and questioning of respondents based on their responses, where the interviewer/researcher also tries to understand their motivation and feelings. Understanding how your audience takes decisions can help derive conclusions in market research.
Gather research insights
Types of qualitative research methods with examples
Qualitative research methods are designed in a manner that help reveal the behavior and perception of a target audience with reference to a particular topic. There are different types of qualitative research methods like an in-depth interview, focus groups, ethnographic research, content analysis, case study research that are usually used.
The results of qualitative methods are more descriptive and the inferences can be drawn quite easily from the data that is obtained.
Qualitative research methods originated in the social and behavioral sciences. Today our world is more complicated and it is difficult to understand what people think and perceive. Online qualitative research methods make it easier to understand that as it is more communicative and descriptive.
The following are the qualitative research methods that are frequently used. Also, read about qualitative research examples:
1. One-on-one interview:
Conducting in-depth interviews is one of the most common qualitative research methods. It is a personal interview that is carried out with one respondent at a time. This is purely a conversational method and invites opportunities to get details in depth from the respondent.
One of the advantages of this method provides a great opportunity to gather precise data about what people believe and what their motivations are. If the researcher is well experienced asking the right questions can help him/her collect meaningful data. If they should need more information the researchers should ask such follow up questions that will help them collect more information.
These interviews can be performed face-to-face or on phone and usually can last between half an hour to two hours or even more. When the in-depth interview is conducted face to face it gives a better opportunity to read the body language of the respondents and match the responses.
2. Focus groups:
A focus group is also one of the commonly used qualitative research methods, used in data collection. A focus group usually includes a limited number of respondents (6-10) from within your target market.
The main aim of the focus group is to find answers to the “why” “what” and “how” questions. One advantage of focus groups is, you don’t necessarily need to interact with the group in person. Nowadays focus groups can be sent an online survey on various devices and responses can be collected at the click of a button.
Focus groups are an expensive method as compared to the other online qualitative research methods. Typically they are used to explain complex processes. This method is very useful when it comes to market research on new products and testing new concepts.
3. Ethnographic research:
Ethnographic research is the most in-depth observational method that studies people in their naturally occurring environment.
This method requires the researchers to adapt to the target audiences’ environments which could be anywhere from an organization to a city or any remote location. Here geographical constraints can be an issue while collecting data.
This research design aims to understand the cultures, challenges, motivations, and settings that occur. Instead of relying on interviews and discussions, you experience the natural settings first hand.
This type of research method can last from a few days to a few years, as it involves in-depth observation and collecting data on those grounds. It’s a challenging and a time-consuming method and solely depends on the expertise of the researcher to be able to analyze, observe and infer the data.
4. Case study research:
The case study method has evolved over the past few years and developed into a valuable qual research method. As the name suggests it is used for explaining an organization or an entity.
This type of research method is used within a number of areas like education, social sciences and similar. This method may look difficult to operate, however, it is one of the simplest ways of conducting research as it involves a deep dive and thorough understanding of the data collection methods and inferring the data.
5. Record keeping:
This method makes use of the already existing reliable documents and similar sources of information as the data source. This data can be used in new research. This is similar to going to a library. There one can go over books and other reference material to collect relevant data that can likely be used in the research.
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4. Test Construction.
5. Significance of report writing.
6. Sampling Criteria
7. Ex Post Facto Research Design.
8. Characteristics of Quantitative Research Design.
9. Definition, Goals, Principles of Psychological Research.
10. Formulation of Hypotheses.
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