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IGNOU BPCC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BPCC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment one.
Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks in Assignment two.
1. Discuss the behavioural and cognitive theories of personality.
Behavioral personality theory, also known as behaviorism, is the study of human behavior as it correlates to one’s environment. Proponents of this school of thought believe that all behaviors are learned and that changes in behavior are related to the people, situations, and places in which they occur. Behaviorists believe that people learn behaviors based on systems of reward and punishment and that a person’s behavioral development is due to external forces. This reward system is called conditioning, and it defines human behavior as a response to one’s environment and not a product of the unconscious or unobservable mind.
John Watson developed behavioral personality theory in 1913. He believed that one could predict and even control human behavior based on the behavior patterns observed in his patients and society. He believed that the mind was a tabula rasa, or a “blank slate.” Watson believed that the environment was the only force shaping personality and behavior. He is best remembered for his “little Albert” experiment, in which he conditioned a child to fear a mouse and various other objects. This process would later be known as conditioning and would be more fully explored through the work of B.F. Skinner.
Skinner’s Personality Theory
B.F. Skinner was a noted behaviorist, famous for the Skinner personality theory and his work with the Skinner box. While Watson was the founder of behaviorism, Skinner’s personality theory focused on conditioning, which is the process of training a person or animal to act in a specific way in the presence of specific stimuli. Through repetition and various environmental elements, Skinner was able to define two types of conditioning: operant and classical.
Classical conditioning is based on learning behaviors through paired associations—famously, Pavlov and his salivating dogs. This behavior analysis suggested that two stimuli could be used to create new behaviors. For example, Pavlov rang a bell every time he fed his dogs. Eventually, after enough repetition, the bell alone made the dogs salivate, as they associated the sound of the bell with their food. While Watson felt this experiment, and classical conditioning alone, reflected all there was to know about human behavior, Skinner wasn’t convinced. He theorized a different type of association, known as operant conditioning.
Operant conditioning focuses on the consequences of a response in connection to the probability of a behavior being repeated. Operant conditioning suggests that if a behavior is rewarded, that behavior is more likely to be repeated. If a behavior is punished, the behavior will likely diminish, or cease. Skinner did not think classical conditioning accurately explained the nuances of choice and response, so he created the Skinner box, into which he placed animals and attempted to control their behavior. From sounds to food, the rewards or punishments varied, but in the box, choice and behavior stem from consequence alone.
Skinner wasn’t wrong, as his theory produced children who worked hard for rewards and avoided punishments at all costs. He felt this form of conditioning better explained human behavior, focusing as it did on positive and negative associations.
Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
Albert Bandura was a Stanford University psychologist. While studying adolescent aggression, he became fascinated with the concept of learning and its connections to modeling and imitation. Through his research, he came to believe that observational learning was the key to success, which helped him develop his social learning theory, now known as the social cognitive theory. This theory states that learning occurs within social, or group interactions and that reciprocation, reinforcement, and influence all play a vital role in learning. SCT also considers a person’s experiences, which shape who they are and how they learn. Bandura felt that this information and a person’s past environments could accurately determine why people behave the way they do and how they might behave in the future.
The theory is broken down into five constructs:
1. Reciprocal determinism
2. Behavioral capability
3. Observational learning
SCT attempts to explain how people regulate behavior through self-control and reinforcement, which are maintained over time.
Mischel’s Person-Situation Debate
In the early iterations of behaviorism, there was a concept called the trait approach, which suggested that people have specific personality traits that don’t vary over time or in different situations. However, in 1968, psychologist Walter Mischel posited that this theory had no consistency and that a situational approach made more sense, as a person’s behavior could and would change from situation to situation. This perspective sparked the person-situation debate. Situationists argued that personality doesn’t exist and that the environment or situation is the only thing that determines behavior.
Rotter and the Locus of Control
Psychologist Julian Rotter took the concept a step further by asking about external forces. He wanted to know about a person’s pattern of behavior as it related to their locus of control. The locus of control is the orientation of a person’s control over their actions and life. How much of their control is given to external forces, such as fate, God, and others, and how much is given to their own free will and strength? He broke down the theory into two parts: people with an internal locus of control and people with an external locus of control.
- Internal locus of control: People believe they are the masters of their own destinies and believe their outcomes are determined by their own actions and decisions.
- External locus of control: People believe there are forces greater than themselves or their wills, such as divine beings, fate/destiny, and powerful people/forces at work.
Rotter believed that people with an internal locus of control took more responsibility for their actions. Research has shown that people with a strong internal locus of control are less obedient and don’t conform to societal pressures. Research also showed that people with an external locus of control were more likely to give up, based on the ideology of luck.
2. Explain the psychometric and cognitive approaches to intelligence.
Precursors to the Cognitive Approach to Intelligence
Although cognitive psychology as a field came into being in the mid-1900s (Anderson, 2015), some of the earliest research on human intelligence had a distinctly cognitive flavor. While some early psychologists (e.g., Thorndike, 1898) took a strong “nurture” view of intelligence as the sum total of acquired knowledge,1 others (e.g., Galton, 1883) sought to explain differences in intelligence by way of basic mental processes. Galton suggested that mental ability should be related to measures that he believed reflected these basic processes, such as reaction time and sensory discrimination tasks. Establishing an empirical relationship between intelligence and basic processes proved difficult, however. In 1901, Clark Wissler, a student with James McKeen Cattell, reported a failed attempt to find a link between mental speed, as measured by five trials of a reaction time task, and academic achievement among students at Columbia University. Following Wissler’s disappointing result, intelligence research in general shifted away from trying to identify such primitive causes of between-person differences in intelligence. Instead, psychologists focused on measuring these differences, whether in the context of education (as exemplified by Binet; Hunt, 2011) or in the interest of developing theories about the structure of cognitive abilities (as exemplified by the factor-analytic/differential methods of Spearman, 1927, and Thurstone, 1948). Meanwhile, in psychology more broadly, the rise of behaviorism in the 1920s led to a strong focus on observable behavior and experimental methods, especially in the United States. Mental processes, along with everything else taking place within the “black box” of the mind, were not considered appropriate objects of inquiry if psychology was to establish itself as a serious science (J. B. Watson, 1913). Over the next few decades, the two branches of intelligence research (educational and differential) proceeded separately from the behaviorist approach to psychology, and largely separately from each other.
Two Branches of Psychology: Experimental and Differential
There are two general branches of psychology: experimental and differential (also called correlational; Cronbach, 1957). The cognitive research mentioned in the paragraph above was a product of the first branch of psychology, the experimental tradition, meaning that most of the research was designed to test mean differences between two or more experimental groups that receive different treatments in an experiment. (In cognitive psychology, “different treatments” often means different versions of one or more cognitive tasks used in an experiment.) Such differences in performance across treatments can allow psychologists to infer things such as the organization of concepts in the mind (Collins & Quillian, 1969) or the structure of memory (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). The goal of experimental research is to identify processes that are common to all people – that is, to explain how human cognition operates in general. The second branch of psychology, the differential tradition, is focused on describing differences between individuals, especially in the degree to which they can adapt to their environment (Cronbach, 1957). Differential research focuses on constructs such as intelligence and personality, which cannot readily be manipulated in a laboratory and which are inherently between-person constructs. It is difficult to talk about a given person’s level of intelligence or extraversion, for example, without at least an implicit reference to where that person stands in relation to others. Intelligence is not a binary characteristic that a person either does or does not possess; it exists along a continuum. Differential researchers are concerned with the variance of these constructs and their covariance with other constructs. The experimental and differential traditions of psychology evolved separately from each other. Cronbach (1957) called for a unification of the two branches of psychology, arguing that each approach could be strengthened by incorporating methods that were commonplace in one but not the other. By the 1970s, the advantages of a unified field were especially salient for intelligence research. Differential psychologists drew from nearly a century of research measuring how people differ in intelligence, while theories about how the mind works had been offered by cognitive psychologists engaging in experimental work. Seeking to bring these two traditions together, Hunt and colleagues (Hunt et al., 1975) asked whether individual differences in intelligence (as measured by scores on intelligence tests, developed from the differential tradition) could be explained by individual differences in the ability to carry out basic cognitive processes (as measured by laboratory tasks, developed from the experimental tradition). In the 40 years since then, a robust literature of cognitiveoriented research on intelligence has developed, and is still vibrantly active today.
Understanding the Cognitive Approach
The psychometric approach to studying intelligence involves obtaining scores from many people on a variety of tests. The results are factor analyzed in order to describe the pattern of correlations between the tests, and the factors are named according to the tests that load on them. Theories regarding the structure of cognitive abilities have been developed based on the results of these studies, but the psychometric approach is primarily centered on observing relationships between test scores. In other words, the psychometric approach is data-driven. Cognitive psychologists who study the processes underlying intelligence seek to understand why psychometric g exists, rather than describe the relationships between various mental tests. Believing that intelligence will be best understood and measured when it can be connected to models of how cognition operates (Hunt et al., 1975), cognitive psychologists work to identify individual differences on relatively well-understood cognitive processing tasks that may be related to (and may help to explain) individual differences on traditional psychometric tests of intelligence. The idea is that if one or more basic cognitive mechanisms are used to carry out many different types of intelligent behavior (such as the myriad tests used in the psychometric approach), then the positive correlations between these intelligent behaviors can be explained by the fact that they rely on the same basic mechanisms. The cognitive approach is theory-driven: It begins with a model of how cognition works, and seeks to explain individual differences in intelligence via individual differences in the ability to perform the processes specified in the model.
3. Explain the differences between Indian and Western psychology.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INDIAN AND WESTERN PSYCHOLOGY
The differences between the two psychologies are not just a matter of identifying how Indians and Westerners differ in this or that aspect of behaviour. It is not a matter of labelling Indians as introverts or as collectivists; as low on need achievement and high on need for dependence and so on. Finding out such source and surface trait differences have been the focus of cross-cultural research for many decades. We can find such differences among people of many cultures, not only that of India.
Differences in the Worldview
The more significant differences are fundamental issuesof philosophical significance or the worldviews underlying Indian and Western psychology. Koltko-Rivera (2004, p. 4) defined the term worldview as a “way of describing the universe and life within it, both regarding what is and what ought to be.”Assumptions and beliefs related to the nature of reality are related to social and cultural worldviews. Koltko-Rivera (2004, p. 4) points out that, worldview has gone by many names in the literature such as”philosophy of life” (Jung, 1942/1954), “world hypotheses” (Pepper, 1942/1970), “world outlook” (Maslow, 1970a, p. 39), “assumptive worlds” (Frank, 1973), “visions of reality” (Messer, 1992, 2000), “self-and-world construct system” (Kottler & Hazler, 2001, p. 361), and many others. In anthropology alone, worldviews have been denoted as “cultural orientations” (Kluckhohn, 1950), “value orientations,” “unconscious systems of meaning,” “unconscious canons of choice,” “configurations, “culture themes,” and “core culture” (Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck, 1961/1973, pp. 1–2).”
Koltko-Rivera lists three main features of a worldview, which are as below.
1) A given worldview is a set of beliefs that includes
a) limiting statements and assumptions regarding what exists and what does not (either in actuality or principle).
b) what objects or experiences are good or bad, and what objectives, behaviours, and relationships are desirable or undesirable.
2) A worldview defines
a) what can be known or done in the world, and
b) how it can be identified or done
c) what goals can be sought in life,
d) what goals should be pursued.
3) Worldviews include assumptions
a) that may be unproven, and even unprovable,
b) but these assumptions are superordinate,
c) They provide the epistemic and ontological foundations for other beliefs within
a belief system.
Further, Koltko-Rivera (2004) says that “sets of beliefs and assumptions about life and reality” can “powerfully influence human cognition and behaviour.” They have implications “for theories of personality, cognition, education, and intervention” at the individual level and at the collective level, they “can provide a basis for psychological theories of culture and conflict, faith and coping, war and peace.” (p. 1). This recognition alerted many psychologists across the globe to the possibility that the dominant worldview prevalent in Western societies, which is materialistic, has shaped modern scientific psychology and there are other societies and cultures which share a different worldview that can lead to other psychologies.
Indian Worldview – Darśana and Dharma
We have already noted that Indian culture is characterized by spiritual worldview. Two terms darśana and dharma are used in India which refer to many elements included in the definition of worldview given above. They are grounded in the spiritual experiences of ancient seer, sages,and saints that later led to logically arrived systems of understanding of the nature of reality. Hence, Hindu, Jaina and Bauddha darśana, and dharma form the foundations of Indian psychological thought. There are many differences in the three traditions. But they also agree on certain basic features, which help us to highlight the differences between Indian and Western psychology. Most important of them are listed below in the next section from among several such features.
Some Important Differences between Indian and Western Psychology
The traditions agree that humans have specific instinctual or biological needs for food, security, sexuality, and sleep like other animals. But, a person can sublimate or conquer his/her basic needs, emotions, passions, and desires. S/he has the potentiality to actualize and develop capacities which are extraordinary that transforms her/himinto a superhuman being, who may be called Divine or God. Such persons can go beyond the barriers of space-time and experience connectedness with the whole of the universe. That provides them access to information about fellow humans, animals, and also about what happens at far off places on this earth and even in parallel unvierses (loka). That makes them omnipresent, omnipotent and omniscient.
Life and Death
Life and death is a cyle and a continuous process. All organisms pass through this cycle. Humans undergo such repeated sequences, and bodily death is not the end of life force (jiva). It can continue the journey and return to earth through another fresh body, immediately or after a duration small or significant. The results of actions performed in one particular life time accumulate creating certain tendencies, impressions, habit patterns and constitute what is known as karma. The cumulative karma of several life times is the force that keeps the cycle of birth and death going. Karma is the prime motivating factor for our actions. But humans can consciously choose to break this cycle in a particular life period and put an end to this process. That is called liberation or moksha. Such liberated beings are venerated as Divine persons, and they have the freedom to return to earthly life to help others to get liberated. Western psychology having been influenced by Darwinian evolutionary theory treat humans as superior primates and hence the further evolutionary possibilities available for humans are not considered.
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4. Explain the measurement of intelligence.
5. Differentiate between aptitude and interest.
6. Discuss the meaning of the term Indian Psychology.
7. Differentiate between ‘Atman’ and ‘Jiva’.
8. Explain the optimal arousal theory.
9. Discuss the stages of creativity.
10. Describe different tests for assessing creativity.
11. Discuss ways to increase extrinsic motivation.
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