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IGNOU BPCC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BPCC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment one.
Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks in Assignment two.
1. Discuss the nature, types and theories of motivation.
Motivation is a reason for actions, willingness, and goals. Motivation is derived from the word ‘motive’, or a need that requires satisfaction. These needs, wants or desires may be acquired through influence of culture, society, lifestyle, or may be generally innate.
Motivation is the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. Motivation is an important factor that encourages individuals to give their best performance and help them reach enterprise goals. A strong positive motivation will enable increased production of employees but a negative motivation will reduce their performance. A key element in personnel management is motivation.
Definitions of motivation by jurist’s
- Berelson and Steiner: – “A motive is an inner state that energizes, activates, or moves and directs or channels behaviour goals.”
- Lillis: – “It is the stimulation of any emotion or desire operating upon one’s will and promoting or driving it to action.”
- The Encyclopedia of Management: – “Motivation refers to degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designated goal and implies the determination of the nature and locus of the forces, including the degree of readiness.”
- Dubin: – “Motivation is the complex of forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organization.”
- Vance: – “Motivation implies any emotion or desire which so conditions one’s will that the individual is properly led into action.”
Nature of motivation
Motivation is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a person. A person lacks some needs, which makes him satisfied that he works more. The need to satisfy the ego motivates a person to do better in general.
The following conclusions can be drawn from the definitions given earlier: –
- Motivation is an inner feeling that makes a person excited to do more work.
- A person’s feelings or desires motivate him to perform a particular task.
- A person has unsatisfying needs that impair his balance.
- A person proceeds to fulfill his dissatisfied needs by conditioning his energies.
- A person has passive energies that are activated by channeling in actions.
Types of motivation
When a manager wants to take more work from his subordinates, he has to be motivated to improve his performance. They will either be offered incentives for more work, or they may be in place of rewards, better reports, recognition, etc., or they may instill fear in them or use force to achieve the desired task.
The following are the types of motivation: –
1. Positive motivation: –
- Positive motivation is based on reward. Workers are offered incentives to achieve desired goals. Incentives may be in the form of higher salaries, promotions, recognition of work, etc. Employees are offered incentives and seek to improve their performance voluntarily.
- According to Peter Drucker, genuine and positive motivators are responsible for placement, high levels of performance, sufficient information for self-control, and worker involvement as a responsible citizen in the plant community. Positive motivation comes from the support of employees and they feel happy.
2. Negative motivation: –
- Negative or fear is based on motivation or fear. Fear causes employees to act a certain way. In case, they do not act accordingly then they can be punished with demotion or take-off. Fear acts as a pushing mechanism. Employees do not cooperate voluntarily; instead they want to avoid punishment.
- Although employees work to a level where punishment is avoided, this type of motivation leads to anger and frustration. This type of motivation usually becomes the cause of industrial unrest. Despite the drawbacks of negative motivation, this method is commonly used to achieve desired results. There can hardly be any management who has not used negative motivation at one time or another.
Theories of motivation
1. Maslow’s need hierarchy theory
It is probably safe to say that the most famous theory of motivation is Maslow’s requirement hierarchy theory. Maslow’s theory is based on human needs. Primarily based on their clinical experience, they categorized all human needs from lower to higher order.
In short, he believed that once the level of need given is satisfied, it does not work to motivate man. Then, the next higher level need to be activated to motivate the man. Maslow identified five levels in its need hierarchy
These are now discussed one by one below: –
1. Physiological needs: –
- These needs are basic to human life and, therefore, include food, clothing, shelter, air, water and life requirements. These are related to the existence and maintenance of human life.
- They have a tremendous impact on human behavior. These needs must be met at least partially before high levels of needs emerge. Once physical needs are met, they do not motivate the man.
2. Safety needs: –
- After satisfying the physical requirements, the next needs to be felt are called the need for safety and security. These require expression in desires such as economic security and protection from material threats.
- To meet these needs more money is required and hence, the person is motivated to do more work. Like physical needs, they become inactive after being satisfied.
3. Social needs: –
- Man is a social animal. Therefore, he is interested in social interaction, companionship, belonging, etc.
- It is because of this socialization and belonging that individuals like to work in groups and especially older people go to work.
4. Esteem needs: –
- These refer to self-esteem and self-respect. They include requirements that indicate confidence, achievement, ability, knowledge, and independence.
- Meeting the requirements of respect creates confidence, strength and the ability to be useful in the organization. However, inability to meet these needs creates feelings of inferiority, weakness and helplessness.
5. Self-Actualization needs: –
- This level represents the culmination of all lower, intermediate and higher needs of humans. In other words, the last step under the needs hierarchy model is self-realization. It refers to fulfillment.
- The term self-realization was coined by Kurt Goldstein and it means that what is probably good becomes real. In fact, self-realization is the motivation to change one’s perception of oneself in reality.
2. Elaborate upon the nature, types and models of memory.
The ongoing success of Lego, Kinex and modelling kits and the observed hours of pleasure that children and adults spend constructing models bears witness to the fact that the building of models is a pleasurable activity for many humans. Models enable us to understand and interpret something that we have perceived. Children use material like Lego, blocks and modelling clay to construct their perception of the world around them. The process of creating with our hands what we have perceived, albeit on a smaller scale or with different material, facilitates learning and interpretation and consolidates our perception of what we have ‘seen’.
Model building does not cease with the advent of adulthood. As adults we construct mental models to help us understand and interpret concepts. The concept of memory has generated the construction of many models in the attempt to explain, understand and interpret its functioning.
Memory as a Metaphor
It is important to understand that these models are in actual fact only metaphors.
A metaphor, according to the Oxford dictionary is ‘an application of name or descriptive term or phrase to an object or action to which is imaginatively but not literally applicable’.
Memory cannot be described literally as we are unable as yet to observe the physiological functioning of individual neurons and connections between neurons in the live human brain, although with the advent of PET technology this may one day be possible. Until that happens we must be content with metaphors to explain and clarify what is believed to be occurring.
A Definition of Memory
Memory can be defined as the storage of information, signals and stimuli received by our five senses and the retrieval of this stored information.
Different Models of Memory
- The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model
This Model divides memory into:
- Sensory Memory – click here for Characteristics and Mechanism of Loss
- Short Term Memory – click here for Characteristics and Mechanism of Loss
- Long Term Memory – click here for Characteristics and Mechanism of Loss
Information enters these structures as a result of the type of cognitive processing it undergoes.
- Maintenance in the form of Rehearsal
- The Level of Processing Model
This approach by Craik and Lockhart (1972) proposes that Information is retained according to the level of processing it has undergone on a shallow to deep continuum.Shallow processing results in a fragile memory trace (can be compared with the short term memory of the Atkinson-Shiffrin Model) and deeper processing results in a more durable memory trace (long term memory).
Within the concept of the continuum of shallow and deep processing two types of rehearsal are proposed which are seen to determine the level of processing. Maintenance rehearsal is the repetition of the information in the form it is presented and Elaborative Rehearsal is the association of prior images and experiences with the new information in regard to meaning or interpretation.
- Maintenance rehearsal
- Elaborative Rehearsal
- Maintenance rehearsal
- Tulving’s Model of memory
Similar to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model Tulving proposes that memory consists of short term and long-term memory. Within the concept of long-term memory he develops the categories of Explicit, Semantic and Procedural memory.
- Explicit Memory
- Semantic Memory
- Procedural Memory
- Explicit Memory
- Parallel Distributed Processing
The recent development of this model has caused much enthusiasm in scientific circles. As the name suggests this model proposes that memory is the activation of connections in different areas ( distribution) at the same time (parallel). This is a totally different approach to the serial concept presented in the previous models.
Cognitive processes are conceived of as networks within which the elements have multiple links. The emphasis in this model is on the connections rather than the elements they link.
Units or nodes once accessed or activated then in turn excite or inhibit other nodes through the many links that exist.
The patterns of the activations that occur give rise to cognitive representations such as memory and knowledge. Learning takes place as the strength of the connections between the relevant sites is changed.
The first three models or metaphors outlined above – Atkinson-Shiffrin, Levels of Processing, Tulving’s – present memory in a serial framework where the different types of memory are categorised according to capacity, function and manner of encoding. The metaphor of a serial-processing digital computer can be applied to these models; information is processed in steps or in a series. The Duplex model of memory integrates these three models whereby the basic assumption is that memory can be understood in terms of Short Term and Long Term functions. This eclectic approach is seen in a framework of long-term memory proposed by Lefrancois (1995). Declarative or Explicit memory is distinguished from Non Declarative or Implicit Memory. In this model Declarative memory consists of both Semantic and Episodic memory.
3. Discuss the nature and scope of psychology.
What does the word Psychology mean? People use it so often. Do people know what it means?
Psychology is the exploration, description, and formulation of the brain and mind situated in a living body in relation to an environment with a deep focus on behavior (observable states), cognition (mental processes), and conation (motivation to behave).
- Exploration, description, and formulation: This aspect makes psychology a scientific body of knowledge that tries to describe observed phenomena, uncover how they work, and predict what would happen.
- Brain and mind situated in a living body in relation to the environment: Psychology concerns itself with things that are alive and how they interact with elements around them (people, movement, objects, tools, goals, adaptation). However, the word behavior is used instead of psychology to describe the movement and interactions of elements for non-living things or things without brains.
- Deep focus on behavior, cognition, and conation: These 3 areas broadly describe the fundamental building blocks of the mind as we perceive it ourselves. The mechanisms and processes underlying this are often redefined as the science progresses.
American Psychological Association definition
Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior. The discipline embraces all aspects of the human experience — from the functions of the brain to the actions of nations, from child development to care for the aged. In every conceivable setting from scientific research centers to mental health care services, “the understanding of behavior” is the enterprise of psychologists.
Merriam Webster definition
- The science of mind and behavior
- The mental or behavioral characteristics of an individual or group
- The study of mind and behavior in relation to a particular field of knowledge or activity
Some more variations of the meaning of psychology
- Psychology is the scientific investigation of how people behave, think, and feel. It includes underlying mechanisms that involve the environment, biology, and the mind.
- Psychological investigations try to describe, predict, analyze, and create actionable outcomes that help people. Actionable outcomes include therapy, learning design, altering protocols at a workplace, etc.
- Today, psychology is closely related to fields such as cognitive science, neuroscience, economics, law, public health, UX & UI.
- I want to understand the psychology of people who just pick up a gun and shoot.
- What is the psychology of a customer?
- Are you going to study my psychology and tell me who I am?
- You have to understand the psychology of farmers to understand what troubles them.
- Architects have to understand the psychological needs of their clients so their house becomes a home.
- Psychological experiments show that people do not understand what they really desire.
- I am going to study psychology and help people.
- Is psychology a science? Is it the same as philosophy?
- Economics depends on the psychology of people.
- Darling, help me understand your psychology.
- Why can’t we go to the reunion? You have psychological issues.
- What is the psychology of an abused kid?
- Your psychology is very bad. Your psychology is very good.
These are just sentences. It may not be hard to understand them at first but let’s put the word under a microscope and study it.
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IGNOU BPCC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BPCC 101 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920
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4. Manifestation and Measurement of Emotions
5. Decision Making.
6. Laws of Organization: Gestalt Principles.
7. Monocular Cues.
8. Stages of Perception.
9. Psychology: As a Science.
10. Cognitive learning.
11. Language in Infants.
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