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IGNOU BPAE 143 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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IGNOU BPAE 143 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

All questions are compulsory.

Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment A. 

Answer the following short category questions in about 250 words each. Each question carries 10 marks in Assignment B. 

Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 6 marks in Assignment C. 

Assignment A

1. Discuss the constitutional framework of Brazil and Russia.

Politics of the Empire of Brazil took place in a framework of a quasi-federal parliamentary representative democratic monarchy, whereby the Emperor of Brazil was the head of state and nominally head of government although the Prime Minister, called President of the Council of Ministers, was effectively the de facto head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power was exercised by the government. Legislative power was vested in both the government and the two chambers of the General Assembly (or Parliament). The Judiciary was independent of the Executive and the Legislative. There was also a fourth power, the Moderating power, exercised by the emperor. The Empire of Brazil was divided into 20 provinces and the Neutral Municipality, capital of the country.

Upon gaining independence from Portugal in 1822, the Brazilian nation as a whole was almost entirely in favor of a monarchical form of government. There were a variety of reasons for this political choice. There was fear among various social groups of the possibility that Brazil would fall into the same political, social, and economic chaos experienced by most of the former Spanish American colonies: territorial dismemberment, coups, dictatorships and the rise of caudillos. The perceived necessity was for a political structure that would allow the Brazilian people not merely to enjoy the advantages of liberty, but also that would guarantee the country’s stability, in conformance with the liberalism of the time. Only a neutral entity, completely independent of parties, groups or opposing ideologies, could achieve this end. And there was “always a powerful ideological element remaining from independence as the result of a great national union over particular interests.” The Brazilian monarchy was “a form of government that assured a Brazil that would include the whole of the old Portuguese dominion, in a climate of order, peace, and freedom.”

There was also another reason for adoption of the monarchy, or more precisely, its maintenance. The Europeans, as much as the Africans and the Native Americans, came from monarchical societies. To remain under this form of government was a way of maintaining the traditions and identity of the Brazilian people, a people descended from those three distinct ethnic groups. The choice of a member of the House of Braganza came not just from the historical moment, but also from the fact that Prince Pedro descended from the pure male line of the Portuguese kings. The House of Braganza originated with Afonso, 1st Duke of Braganza, an illegitimate son of John I of the House of Aviz who, in turn, was the son of Peter I of the House of Burgundy, which was founded 300 years earlier in 1143 by Afonso Henriques, the first king of Portugal. Thus, the strong popular appeal of the monarchy, and a tradition of more than three hundred years (or seven hundred if Portuguese history is considered), enabled Prince Pedro to take on the role of a symbol of national unity. The monarchical regime maintained on Brazilian soil “was a force of continuity and tradition”. A third element in the choice of monarchy was the necessity to comply with the powers of the era, all located in Europe. The possibility of European countries seeking to dominate the young nation, strengthened the desire to prevent the adoption of the republican form at all costs and to avoid any territorial dismemberment into small republics, weak and in constant rivalry with one another. Given that other Latin American countries and also Portugal were becoming easy prey to European (mainly British) greed, maintaining the monarchy with a monarch of European origin acted as a deterrent and allowed Brazil to ensure the predominance of its international interests. And in fact, “after the phase of the regency, turbulent but transitory by its very nature, the imperial order dominated from above, assuring internal peace and external prestige.” For the reasons cited above, Brazil chose a representative constitutional monarchical system. The imperial regime was based on the idea that sovereignty resided in the Nation, not the State, symbolically represented by the emperor. While the Nation wished to experience freedom and prosperity, the State, in turn, wanted “permanence, duration and existence.”[8] In this form, the Constitution expressed in its text that both the Emperor and the General Assembly were representatives of the Brazilian nation. The monarch represented the constant, general interests of the nation as a whole, while the Assembly represented particular, ephemeral, momentary interests. However, the Emperor was not sovereign of the country; the sovereign was the Brazilian Nation, who delegated this role to the Emperor, as they did to the General Assembly.

Parliamentary system A major difference between parliamentarism and presidentialism is that in the first, the Head of State and of the Government are distinct individuals, while in the second, both roles reside in a single individual. Under the Brazilian monarchy, nonetheless, the emperor was head of both the State and the Government. This basic characteristic of presidential republicanism was transplanted by the Brazilian Constitutional Order. The Constitution of 1824 was rather less parliamentary than the draft prepared by the Constituent Assembly. In fact, it was for all purposes a peculiar and unique regime: a presidential monarchy. That did not mean, by any means, that the Brazilian monarch had prerogatives resembling those of a tyrant or dictator. The individual guarantees that guarantee human liberty and dignity were inserted into the articles of the Charter and were respected. The Emperor would not act in areas reserved to the legislative branch and the judiciary, such as to create laws or to judge and sentence. Still, the creation of the Moderating Power (Portuguese: Poder Moderador) and natural evolution of Brazilian representative system enabled a transition from presidential to the parliamentary model, which “would give the Empire a position of illustrious companion next to the British lion” [the United Kingdom]. It was unnecessary to modify the letter of the law in order to transmute one system of government into another: the Constitution itself in its elasticity (in terms of legal interpretation of the Charter) enabled this.

2. Examine the administrative reforms undertaken in China.

One of the important components of public administration reform is to improve the civil service system in the process of structural reform in order to build a highly qualified and professional administrative management workforce. Administrative reform confronts two major problems-streamline the workforce and divide responsibility. The structure reform that was launched in 1998 and still underway results in reductions of public workforce of an unprecedented magnitude. The central and provincial governments see a 50% of workforce downsizing, the city and county governments 20%, which mean about one million government workers have been separated from government. We took this great pressure as a propelling force, transforming the structural reform into an ideal opportunity for deepening personnel system reform. In accordance with the overall requirements of structural reform, we moved to adjust and optimize the structure of civil service and grassroots workforce in order to improve the civil service system; We strengthen career and on the job training, retained the capable and fully utilizing their expertise, in order to raise the administrative efficiency and to build a lean, clean, of high quality and professional civil service that can satisfy the needs of the people. In the restructuring process, particularly with regard to determine the department, determine their functions and determine their staffing quotas, following has been stressed: compliance with the job requirements, participation of broad masses, comprehensive evaluation, and decision by the leadership. By compliance with the job requirements, it means to assign position to the appropriate persons in compliance with the requirements of the position and optimizing the staff structure in order to achieve the ability of the staff be fully tapped. By participation of the broad masses, it means to increase the transparency and enable the general civil servants to participate in and monitor the reorganizing process. By comprehensive evaluation, it means that, in assigning person to positions of director general or division director, to publicize the positions and qualifications, recommend candidates by certain method before the candidates are determined by management departments of the civil servant through comprehensive evaluation. Decision by the leadership means that the responsible civil servant management department leadership makes collective decision on the appointment from the candidates in accordance with their personnel responsibilities and in strict compliance with provision of appointment procedures and regulations.

At present, China’s public administrative reform is progressing further in term of depth and magnitude on the basis of completing the restructuring and personnel system reform. Some highlights include: 1. Make public administration open by focusing on providing service to the public. All government agencies that handle affairs matter to the interests of the people, so long as the affairs do not involve state secrets, must make the process open within the agencies, to certain degree or to the general public in accordance with needs of the serviced. Subjecting the government and civil servants into the outside scrutiny in their discharging their responsibilities can help to avoid subjectivism, secrecy, arbitrariness, abusive of power, and corruptive behavior , will provide necessary check to government and its officials, and safe guard the public interests. 2. Promote community services. Government agencies such as industry and commerce, taxation, personnel management, labor, health care and residence administration that provide services to the general public have their field offices based in community so that people can have convenient access to government agencies, make fewer trips to and spend less time on going to government offices. 3. Build e-government. Government construct net platform where public can have access to all the information that can go public. Public services wherever possible will be delivered via internet. Since 1999 when the government launched “Government Internet Program”, there has been steady progress in e-government. For instance, the Ministry of Personnel started to provide services such as civil service exams, personnel mobility, issuance of residence permits and employment of Chinese nationals that return from overseas studies via internet. All these administrative reform measures have contributed the transform the government functions into services and thus make government become truly organ in providing social regulations and services.

Four. Reflections on the Administrative Reforms in China

Inretrospect, public administrative reform in China has experienced some ups and downs over the past twenty years. It is an ever deepening process un~l to date. In this process, we learnt experiences from the market economy countries and some Asian countries, draw on modern public administration theories, and developed theories that typical of our own conditions. In a nutshell, it can be summarized as public administration reform must proceed from the national conditions with a particular focus on streamlining government workforce and delegation of power, properly settle the division of responsibilities among government agencies of various levels and various government agencies of the same level. Bold in reform on the one hand and giving adequate attention to stability in a gradual manner so as to establish a clean and efficient small government suitable to the requirements of market economy.

I. Division of Administrative Functions and Delegate Power.

II. Proceeding from the National Condition.

III. Downsizing to Achieve Small Government.

IV. Taking Both Reform and Stability into Consideration, Advance Step by Step.

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Assignment B

3. Highlight the executive authority in South Africa.
4. Explain the role of bureaucracy in public policy process of Brazil.
5. Analyse the role of LBSNAA in training of Civil Servants in India.

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Assignment C

6. Discuss the audit system in Russia.
7. Examine the role of developmental local government in South Africa.
8. Write a note on citizenship in India.
9. Discuss the process of provincial planning in China.
10. Enumerate the powers and functions of the State Duma.


IGNOU Instructions for the BPAE 143 ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM IN BRICS Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BPAE 143 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.

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IGNOU BPAE 143 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BPAE 143 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BPAE 143 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BPAE 143 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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BPAE 143 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

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