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IGNOU BPAC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23
We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BPAC 110 URBAN LOCAL GOVERNANCE Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920
Important Note – IGNOU BPAC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment A.
Answer the following short category questions in about 250 words each. Each question carries 10 marks in Assignment B.
Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 6 marks in Assignment C.
1. What are the major issues and challenges in urban areas?
Urbanization is an integral part of the process of economic growth. As in most countries, India’s towns and cities make a major contribution to the country’s economy. With less than 1/3 of India’s people, its urban areas generate over 2/3 of the country’s GDP and account for 90% of government revenues.
Urbanization in India has expanded rapidly as increasing numbers of people migrate to towns and cities in search of economic opportunity. Slums now account for 1/4 of all urban housing. In Mumbai, for instance, more than half the population lives in slums, many of which are situated near employment centers in the heart of town, unlike in most other developing countries.
Meeting the needs of India’s soaring urban populations is and will therefore continue to be a strategic policy matter. Critical issues that need to be addressed are:
- Poor local governance
- Weak finances
- Inappropriate planning that leads to high costs of housing and office space; in some Indian cities these costs are among the highest in the world
- Critical infrastructure shortages and major service deficiencies that include erratic water and power supply, and woefully inadequate transportation systems
- Rapidly deteriorating environment
- Many urban governments lack a modern planning framework
- The multiplicity of local bodies obstructs efficient planning and land use
- Rigid master plans and restrictive zoning regulations limit the land available for building, constricting cities’ abilities to grow in accordance with changing needs.
- Building regulations that limit urban density – such as floor space indexes – reduce the number of houses available, thereby pushing up property prices
- Outdated rent control regulations reduce the number of houses available on rent – a critical option for the poor
- Poor access to micro finance and mortgage finance limit the ability of low income groups to buy or improve their homes
- Policy, planning, and regulation deficiencies lead to a proliferation of slums
- Weak finances of urban local bodies and service providers leave them unable to expand the trunk infrastructure that housing developers need to develop new sites.
- Most services are delivered by city governments with unclear lines of accountability
- There is a strong bias towards adding physical infrastructure rather than providing financially and environmentally sustainable services
- Service providers are unable to recover operations and maintenance costs and depend on the government for finance
- Independent regulatory authorities that set tariffs, decide on subsidies, and enforce service quality are generally absent.
- Most urban bodies do not generate the revenues needed to renew infrastructure, nor do they have the creditworthiness to access capital markets for funds
- Urban transport planning needs to be more holistic – there is a focus on moving vehicles rather than meeting the needs of the large numbers of people who walk or ride bicycles in India’s towns and cities.
- The deteriorating urban environment is taking a toll on people’s health and productivity and diminishing their quality of life.
WORLD BANK SUPPORT
The World Bank will look to support policy reform in critical areas such as land use planning and municipal finance, as well as institutional reform. It will work with all three tiers of government in desiging programs to address slums, housing and urban infrastructure requirements.
- Karnataka Municipal Reform Project: Karnataka is one of India’s most rapidly urbanizing states; its capital city of Bangalore is known as the Silicon Valley of India. Enormous growth in business opportunities, as well as rising urban populations and incomes has led to strong demand for better infrastructure and services.
- Third Tamil Nadu Urban Development Project (TNUDP III) aims to help to improve civic services in the state.
- Andhra Pradesh Urban Reform & Municipal Services Project
- Gujarat Urban Development Program
- West Bengal Urban Development Project
- JNNURM Institutional Development and Capacity Building Program
2. Discuss the modes of urban planning.
Planning theory is the body of scientific concepts, definitions, behavioral relationships, and assumptions that define the body of knowledge of urban planning. There are eight procedural theories of planning that remain the principal theories of planning procedure today: the rational-comprehensive approach, the incremental approach, the transactive approach, the communicative approach, the advocacy approach, the equity approach, the radical approach, and the humanist or phenomenological approach. Some other conceptual planning theories include Ebenezer Howard’s The Three Magnets theory that he envisioned for the future of British settlement, also his Garden Cities, the Concentric Model Zone also called the Burgess Model by sociologist Ernest Burgess, the Radburn Superblock that encourages pedestrian movement, the Sector Model and the Multiple Nuclei Model among others.
Technical aspects of urban planning involve the application of scientific, technical processes, considerations and features that are involved in planning for land use, urban design, natural resources, transportation, and infrastructure. Urban planning includes techniques such as: predicting population growth, zoning, geographic mapping and analysis, analyzing park space, surveying the water supply, identifying transportation patterns, recognizing food supply demands, allocating healthcare and social services, and analyzing the impact of land use. In order to predict how cities will develop and estimate the effects of their interventions, planners use various models. These models can be used to indicate relationships and patterns in demographic, geographic, and economic data. They might deal with short-term issues such as how people move through cities, or long-term issues such as land use and growth. One such model is the Geographic Information System (GIS) that is used to create a model of the existing planning and then to project future impacts on the society, economy and environment. Building codes and other regulations dovetail with urban planning by governing how cities are constructed and used from the individual level. Enforcement methodologies include governmental zoning, planning permissions, and building codes, as well as private easements and restrictive covenants.
An urban planner is a professional who works in the field of urban planning for the purpose of optimizing the effectiveness of a community’s land use and infrastructure. They formulate plans for the development and management of urban and suburban areas, typically analyzing land use compatibility as well as economic, environmental and social trends. In developing any plan for a community (whether commercial, residential, agricultural, natural or recreational), urban planners must consider a wide array of issues including sustainability, existing and potential pollution, transport including potential congestion, crime, land values, economic development, social equity, zoning codes, and other legislation. The importance of the urban planner is increasing in the 21st century, as modern society begins to face issues of increased population growth, climate change and unsustainable development. An urban planner could be considered a green collar professional. Some researchers suggest that urban planners around the world work in different “planning cultures”, adapted to their local cities and cultures. However, professionals have identified skills, abilities and basic knowledge sets that are common to urban planners across national and regional boundaries.
The school of neoclassical economics argues that planning is unnecessary, or even harmful, because market efficiency allows for effective land use. A pluralist strain of political thinking argues in a similar vein that the government should not intrude in the political competition between different interest groups which decides how land is used. The traditional justification for urban planning has in response been that the planner does to the city what the engineer or architect does to the home, that is, make it more amenable to the needs and preferences of its inhabitants. The widely adopted consensus-building model of planning, which seeks to accommodate different preferences within the community has been criticized for being based upon, rather than challenging, the power structures of the community. Instead, agonism has been proposed as a framework for urban planning decision-making. Another debate within the urban planning field is about who is included and excluded in the urban planning decision making process. Most urban planning processes use a top-down approach which fails to include the residents of the places where urban planners and city officials are working. Sherry Arnstein’s “ladder of citizen participation” is oftentimes used by many urban planners and city governments to determine the degree of inclusivity or exclusivity of their urban planning. One main source of engagement between city officials and residents are city council meetings that are open to the residents and that welcome public comments. Additionally, there are some federal requirements for citizen participation in government-funded infrastructure projects. Many urban planners and planning agencies rely on community input for their policies and zoning plans. How effective community engagement is can be determined by how member’s voices are heard and implemented.
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IGNOU BPAC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BPAC 110 URBAN LOCAL GOVERNANCE Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920
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3. Discuss the role of cities in urbanisation.
4. Examine the role of State Election Commission.
5. Analyse the interrelationship between State and Urban Local Government.
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6. Write a short note on National Commission on Urbanisation.
7. Enumerate the sources of funds for the Urban Local Bodies.
8. Describe inter-governmental grants and transfers.
9. Write a note on Mayor-in-Council system.
10. Highlight the e-Governance services provided by the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation.
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IGNOU Instructions for the BPAC 110 URBAN LOCAL GOVERNANCE Solved Assignment 2022-23
IGNOU BPAC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
- Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
- Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
- Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
- Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
- Write the relevant question number with each answer.
- You should write in your own handwriting.
GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23
IGNOU BPAC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:
- Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BPAC 110 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
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