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IGNOU BPAC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-23
We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BPAC 104 ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM AT STATE AND DISTRICT LEVELS Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920
Important Note – IGNOU BPAC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
All questions are compulsory.
Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment A.
Answer the following short category questions in about 250 words each. Each question carries 10 marks in Assignment B.
Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 6 marks in Assignment C.
1. Discuss the state and district administration during British period.
As we all know “India, that is, Bharat” is a “Union of States”. The territory of India comprises the territories of states and union territories. Though development of the states in Indian Union can be traced back to the British rule in India, the foundation of state administration has been laid in the ancient times and continued in the different periods of Indian History. The “District” as a unit of state administration has been in existence in the past; and all the succeeding imperial power – the Guptas, the Mughals and the British invariably adopted the territorial pattern evolved by the Mauryas, and made the district indeed a sub-state.
District Administration has been one of the important institutional legacies bequeathed by the British to India. As a unit of administrative system, it has been a pivotal point of contact between the citizens and administration. The institution of District Collector was created as the pivot of administration. It combined the revenue, managerial and general administrative duties, but it was deemed to be absolutely essential for maintaining the British power, influence and authority throughout the country. As we have already discussed about evolution of Indian Administration in detail in Block 1 (BPAC-133), which is divided into four units, namely Unit 1 Ancient Administrative System, Unit 2 Medieval Administrative System, Unit 3 British System and Unit 4 Continuity and Change in Indian Administration – Post 1947, therefore in this unit we will briefly describe the evolution of state and district administration in India. The science of Politics and Government was much cultivated in ancient India. The first textbook dealing with the statecraft, Kautilya’s Arthasastra, epic literature – the Shanti Parva of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana of Valmiki highlight the administrative machinery of the kingdoms. Numerous other treatises like Nitisara (Essence of Politics) of Kamandaka written during the Gupta period, and the Nitivakyamitram (Nectar of aphorisms on Politics) of Somadeva Suri, a Jaina writer of the tenth century provide interesting information on ancient Indian statecraft. In the subsequent section, we will discuss the Mauryan and Gupta Administration from the ancient period of Indian History, as they reflect the significant features of the contemporary administration.
MAURYAN AND GUPTA PERIOD
In this section, we shall discuss the Mauryan and Gupta Administration, from the ancient period of Indian History, as they reflect the following significant features of the administration.
The Kingdom was divided into provinces. The provincial Governor usually belonged to the royal family, and was appointed directly by the king. During Ashoka’s rule, there were four Viceroys with headquarters at Taxila, Ujjain, Tosali and Suvarnagiri. The provincial Viceroys of the Mauryan Empire were generally assisted by the Council of Ministers, who were of the status of Mahamatras. The foreign rulers like the IndoGreeks, Parthians, Sakas and the Kushanas borrowed the Achaemenian pattern of designating the provincial heads as Kshatrapas and Mahakshatrapas. The Guptas changed the pattern of provincial setup. The Gupta emperors appointed the most competent person as Provincial Governor, known as the Uparika. Sometimes the provincial Governor seemed to be hereditary as the same family acted as Provincial Head under several rulers. Provinces had branches of almost all the departments working at the Centre. The category of provincial officials includes Kumaramatya (Chief Minister), Ranabhandadhikarana (office of the military exchequer), Danda-pasadhikarana (Chief of Police), Mahadandanayaka (Chief Justice), Bhatasvapati (Chief Censor) and Mahapratihara (Chief Chamberlain).
The provinces were divided into divisions (Visaya or bhoga in the North and Kottams or Valanadu in the South). The other units of administration in descending order were the districts (adhisthana in the North and Kurram in the South), and groups of villages (agrahara in the North and Kurram in the South).
In the medieval period, though different dynasties rose in power, Mughals took a commanding role in the Indian medieval history; and their administration assumes a significant place in the Indian History. The emperor was supreme authority in the state, that is, the head of government, the supreme commander of the forces, the lawmaker and law enforcer. For effective administration, the empire was divided in provinces.
During the time of Akbar, a strong base for the provincial administration was formed. The whole kingdom was divided into Subas (provinces). The territories of the provincial units were fixed, and a uniform administrative model was established subjected with minor changes to suit the local circumstances. The control over the provinces was more effective with a team of officials, representing the different branches of the state activity. However, the number of provinces differed under different Mughal rulers. For example, under Akbar, there were 15 provinces while under Jahangir and Aurangzeb their number rose to 18 and 23 respectively. Each province was under a Governor, also known as Nazim, Naib, Subedar or Wali. The Governor was a sort of mini King within his own Province, who was mainly responsible for the maintenance of law and order, control of the local army, realisation of state dues and provision of justice. Usually members of the royal blood or confident nobles were appointed to this office. The Governor received authority from the Sultan, and stayed in the office as long as he remained in the good books of the king. Another important office, which was only second but not subordinate to the Subedar was that of Diwan who was in charge of the revenue administration. The Diwan was also appointed by the Sultan.
The Suba/Province was further divided into Sarkars. The nearest equivalent of the District was Sarkar, during the Mughal times. Each Sarkar was headed by Fauzdar who was executive head of the district administration. He worked under the control of subedar. In addition, the Amal-Guzar was the revenue official who worked under the control of provincial Diwan and he was assisted by number of subordinates. The District was further sub-divided into Parganas and such Pargana was headed by a Shigdar. He was responsible for the maintenance of law and order as well as criminal justice. The other revenue officials at the Pargana level were Amil and Qanungo, who dealt with the survey, assessment and collection of revenue. In certain Parganas, Qazis decided the disputes.
2. Describe the state-local administrative relations.
The Constitution of India divides the legislation over the central, states, and the local bodies to perform efficient governance over people and their problems. The constitution has classified the relations between the Union, States, and the local bodies into three fields. One of them is the administrative relationship among Union, States, and Local bodies. It deals with the administrative authority of the government in case of any chaos in the country or state. The Union government has superior authority over the state and local bodies. The state or local bodies cannot annul an amendment passed by the Union legislature.
Relationship among Union, States and Local bodies
The relationships among the union, states, and the local bodies ensure efficient governance in the nation. The relations between the union and the states can be classified into two different fields. They are:
- Legislative relations – It includes Articles 245 to 255
- Administrative relations – It includes Articles 256 to 263
Administrative relationship among Union, States and Local bodies
- The administrative relationship among the union, states, and local bodies distributes the administrative legislature among each of them.
- The union governs and passes laws to the whole or any part of the country.
- Whereas, the state legislature exerts complete power over the whole or any part of the State.
- The local bodies function as tiny self-governments, taking care of even the minute part of any province.
Administrative relationship between Union and the States
Articles 256 to 263 talk about the administrative relationship between the union and the States.
- The union can impose laws on states that ought to be followed by the states, even when the list of items comes under states’ legislation.
- The judiciary of the state cannot overrule the union’s legislation.
- The legislation of functions relating to a matter can be exchanged to the states’ legislation by the Prime Minister of the nation when necessary.
- So, under such conditions, the state legislature can function to make a decision even though it is the union’s responsibility.
- It deals with the involvement of the Indian government in the legislation of the territories outside the Nation.
- This Article has been in effect since April 26, 1975.
- The public acts, records, and judicial proceedings have full rights to be executed and credited throughout the nation.
- The Parliament can make decisions regarding the state and interstate rivers and water bodies.
- It deals with the water dispute within the country.
- The President of the nation has the power to form an interstate council to discuss local matters efficiently.
- Article 263 was put in effect on May 28, 1990, under the recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission.
- The Sarkaria commission is looked upon when forming an interstate council.
Administrative relationship between the States and the local bodies
The administrative power is distributed between the states and their local bodies to govern the areas efficiently. The local bodies function as mini-government within the states. Yet, the states have supreme power over the local bodies. The state governments look over the local bodies. The local bodies of a state include associations like Panchayats and Municipalities.
The gram sabha is the base of the Panchayat system. Article 243 deals with the Panchayat systems of the state.
- It tells about the power of the Gram Sabha in a Panchayat that it may exercise such powers and perform such functions at its level when provided by law..
- It categorises Panchayat at three levels – village, intermediate and district levels in the state.
- It speaks about the composition of the Panchayat of a state.
- It delivers official allotments in the case of Panchayat elections.
Municipalities are self-governing bodies of the states. Article 243 extends to municipalities too.
- It details the constitutions and their setups in the state.
- It describes the seat allotments in the municipality election.
- It describes the constitution and composition of the wards and candidates.
- It lists the authority and responsibility of the Municipality in the State.
In short, the administrative relations between the State and their local bodies include the following.
- Approval of by-laws and rules
- Exercises control on the local bodies
- Issuing directions to the local bodies
- Submission of periodic reports to state governments
- The power of the state legislature
- An appeal against the unfair
- The behaviour of a local body
- Control on arbitrary practices
- Dissolution of municipality
The administrative relationship among the union, states, and local bodies is one of the official relations prevailing in India to ensure an effective rule over the nation. The other relations are, namely, the legislative relations and the financial relations. The legislature of the union is superior to that of the states. The legislature of the states is superior to that of the local bodies. The local bodies of the State include the Panchayat and municipalities. The union makes laws for the whole or any part of the Nation. The states make laws for the whole or any part of the State. The local bodies function as self-governing bodies in the states.
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IGNOU BPAC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BPAC 104 ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM AT STATE AND DISTRICT LEVELS Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920
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3. Examine the role of the Chief Minister.
4. Write a short note on Kerala State Planning Board.
5. Describe the judicial system in India.
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6. Write a note on the Chief Secretary.
7. Discuss the constitutional provisions of the State Public Service Commission.
8. Highlight the procedures and powers of the State Finance Commission.
9. Analyse the role of State Election Commission.
10. Examine the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013
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IGNOU Instructions for the BPAC 104 ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM AT STATE AND DISTRICT LEVELS Solved Assignment 2022-23
IGNOU BPAC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
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IGNOU BPAC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:
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