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IGNOU BHIE 143 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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IGNOU BHIE 143 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

Answer the following in about 500 words each in Section A. Each question carry 20 marks.

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each in Section B. Each question carry 10 marks.

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each in Section C. Each question carry 6 marks.


1. What do you understand by the term ‘Ecofeminism’? Elucidate with particular reference to Ecofeminism in the Indian context.

Ecofeminism, also called ecological feminism, branch of feminism that examines the connections between women and nature. Its name was coined by French feminist Françoise d’Eaubonne in 1974. Ecofeminism uses the basic feminist tenets of equality between genders, a revaluing of non-patriarchal or nonlinear structures, and a view of the world that respects organic processes, holistic connections, and the merits of intuition and collaboration. To these notions ecofeminism adds both a commitment to the environment and an awareness of the associations made between women and nature. Specifically, this philosophy emphasizes the ways both nature and women are treated by patriarchal (or male-centred) society. Ecofeminists examine the effect of gender categories in order to demonstrate the ways in which social norms exert unjust dominance over women and nature. The philosophy also contends that those norms lead to an incomplete view of the world, and its practitioners advocate an alternative worldview that values the earth as sacred, recognizes humanity’s dependency on the natural world, and embraces all life as valuable.

Origins of ecofeminism

The modern ecofeminist movement was born out of a series of conferences and workshops held in the United States by a coalition of academic and professional women during the late 1970s and early 1980s. They met to discuss the ways in which feminism and environmentalism might be combined to promote respect for women and the natural world and were motivated by the notion that a long historical precedent of associating women with nature had led to the oppression of both. They noted that women and nature were often depicted as chaotic, irrational, and in need of control, while men were frequently characterized as rational, ordered, and thus capable of directing the use and development of women and nature. Ecofeminists contend that this arrangement results in a hierarchical structure that grants power to men and allows for the exploitation of women and nature, particularly insofar as the two are associated with one another. Thus, early ecofeminists determined that solving the predicament of either constituency would require undoing the social status of both.Early work on ecofeminism consisted largely of first documenting historical connections between women and the environment and then looking for ways to sever those connections. One founder of ecofeminism, theologian Rosemary Ruether, insisted that all women must acknowledge and work to end the domination of nature if they were to work toward their own liberation. She urged women and environmentalists to work together to end patriarchal systems that privilege hierarchies, control, and unequal socioeconomic relations. Ruether’s challenge was taken up by feminist scholars and activists, who began critiquing not only ecological theories that overlooked the effect of patriarchal systems but also feminist theories that did not interrogate the relationship between women and nature as well.By the late 1980s, ecofeminism had grown out of its largely academic environment and become a popular movement. Many scholars cite the feminist theorist Ynestra King as the cause of that popularization. In 1987 King wrote an article titled “What Is Ecofeminism?” that appeared in The Nation. There she challenged all Americans to consider the ways in which their belief systems allow for the exploitative use of the earth and the further oppression of women. With the help of King’s article, the concept of ecofeminism grew both in support and philosophical scope.


Radical ecofeminism and cultural ecofeminism

As ecofeminism continued to develop, it witnessed the first of several splinterings. By the late 1980s ecofeminism had begun to branch out into two distinct schools of thought: radical ecofeminism and cultural ecofeminism. Radical ecofeminists contend that the dominant patriarchal society equates nature and women in order to degrade both. To that end, radical ecofeminism builds on the assertion of early ecofeminists that one must study patriarchal domination with an eye toward ending the associations between women and nature. Of particular interest to those theorists is the ways in which both women and nature have been associated with negative or commodifiable attributes while men have been seen as capable of establishing order. That division of characteristics encourages the exploitation of women and nature for cheap labour and resources.Cultural ecofeminists, on the other hand, encourage an association between women and the environment. They contend that women have a more intimate relationship with nature because of their gender roles (e.g., family nurturer and provider of food) and their biology (e.g., menstruation, pregnancy, and lactation). As a result, cultural ecofeminists believe that such associations allow women to be more sensitive to the sanctity and degradation of the environment. They suggest that this sensitivity ought to be prized by society insofar as it establishes a more direct connection to the natural world with which humans must coexist. Cultural ecofeminism also has roots in nature-based religions and goddess and nature worship as a way of redeeming both the spirituality of nature and women’s instrumental role in that spirituality.

Not all feminists favoured the bifurcation of ecofeminism. Some women, for instance, worried that cultural ecofeminism merely enforces gender stereotypes and could lead to further exploitation. Others wanted a greater emphasis on nature-based religion, while still others insisted that a celebration of Western organized religions could accommodate nature-based worship. Those same groups also differed with regard to the romanticization of nature and the roles that various practices (such as vegetarianism or organic farming) ought to play in the application of ecofeminist principles. As a result, the movement continued to grow and expand in order to accommodate those variations, and most self-identified ecofeminists celebrate the myriad definitions and applications available under the general rubric of ecofeminism.

2. Throw light on the environmental movements in post-independence India against antienvironmental capitalist extraction and natural resource degradation.
Two decades into paternalistic model of state-led development that supported a particular model of economic growth, multiple critical voices began to emerge. Social and ecological impacts of the model of development of last two decades began to be questioned. Best known among these is Chipko movement in present Uttarakhand state of India where local people objected to commercial exploitation of local Himalayan forests that they used for their livelihoods. The movement became famous for its form of protest: rural women, in absence of men, hugged trees in their local forests to prevent private contractors supported by state forest department from cutting down trees. Scholars have contextualized this action by rural women in long history of peasant struggles in the region demanding and asserting local control over natural livelihood resources. The movement’s demand for local control over local natural resources echoed far and wide in practice, even while global discourse on this movement exclusively focussed on environmentalism and gendered nature of protests. Similar movements demanding decentralized control over natural livelihood resources, protesting extractive development that impoverished local communities, were occurring across the world. This is evocatively expressed in a quote by Chico Mendes, a second-generation rubber tapper and radical trade Unionist in Brazil who was assassinated:
“At first, I thought I was fighting to save rubber trees, then I thought I was fighting to save Amazon rainforest. Now I realize I am fighting for humanity”. While environmental concerns of previous decades were state-led and drew their inspiration from Western industrial nations, these social movements illuminated environmental concerns as integrated with livelihoods and justice for the marginalized. While national parks’ legislation defined environmental protection as excluding local use of pristine nature, movements such as Chipko highlighted connection between capitalist extraction and resource degradation. Such movements reimagined ways of locally using and sustaining nature, integrating development and environmental concerns as one.Some movements were successful in establishing local control while others sustained struggle for years against powerful state and international pressures. Narmada Bachaao Aandolan (NBA) in India, for instance, brought together aadivaasis, farmers, environmentalists and human rights activists in a continuing struggle against juggernaut of large-scale damning of rivers that simultaneously disrupts ecosystems and local lives, livelihoods and cultures. Destructive import of large development projects, unfair distribution of costs and benefits of previous model of development and further marginalization of the already marginalized were clearly illuminated by environmentalist movements such as NBA. These clearly articulated the hubris, injustice and ecological and social unsustainability of earlier development models and proposed several alternatives. One of world’s worst industrial disasters occurred in 1984 at Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. Over 500,000 people were exposed to Methyl Iso Cyanate (MIC) gas that leaked from the factory located amidst a dense working-class urban habitation resulting in death, disability and intergenerational health impacts. Ignoring warnings from workers unions, corporate negligence, underinvestment, inadequate safety equipment, poor regulation and safety audits were noted in subsequent investigation. Legal proceedings involving UCIL, United States and Indian governments, local Bhopal authorities and disaster victims stretched for decades. While profit extraction was global, responsibility for safety of workers and ordinary citizens was located nowhere. After decades of legal wrangle and compensation disproportionate to scale of the tragedy, affected people continue to struggle for justice with public demonstrations held on anniversary of the accident. Bhopal gas tragedy remains a continuing reminder of integral connection between development and environment and the need to examine both simultaneously in terms of their impact of society. While initially movements that demanded proper accounting for social and environmental costs of development were castigated as anti-development movements, they have been recognized now as conceptualizing an alternate development and as environmentalism of the poor. Environmentalism of the North was recognized as limited to post-industrial concerns and opposition that is set up between environmental concerns and development was critiqued. Unlike high consumptive societies that consumed global resources, it was recognized that poor and indigenous groups consumed meagre local resources and their livelihoods and well-being were integrally linked to sustainability of local natural resources. At national level post-colonial states continued to be influenced by dichotomous model opposing development to environmental conservation. However, an alternate perspective of development-environment nexus was gaining ground in sections of civil society. At global level, United Nations in 1983 set up Brundtland Commission to examine possibilities of economic growth without environmental damage. In its report – “Our Common Future” – the Commission defined “Sustainable Development” as development that meets needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The concept was general and vague enough to attract widespread acceptance. However, it also mainstreamed environmental concerns and intergenerational equity connecting them to development.
One of major shifts brought about by pressures of environmental movements is the shift to participatory development and community-based natural resource management models. While these emerged under different names with diverse acronyms in this period across the world, the commonality lay in emphasis on local consultation on what should be the nature of development. Some initiatives took an institutional approach attempting to include stakeholder inputs in design and implementation of development projects while others broadened it to a social movement perspective, seeking to mobilize people as active participants in development decision-making. While the discourse was dominant, practice varied in terms of commitment and actual practice. Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) emerged as a model, particularly in rural and poor, densely populated areas of post-colonial societies with rich natural resources. It drew from sustainable and participatory development concepts and underlined connection between development and conservation. Another conceptual turn that influenced this was common property resources movement that highlighted the fact that vast resources in poorer countries are held in common and have been historically sustainably managed.


3.How do you see man-environment relationship, interaction and interface during medieval India? 

4. Define ‘Green Imperialism’. Assess the role of European colonialism towards Green Imperialism. 

5. How are environmental elements and components like forests, lakes etc. envisioned in Indian philosophy? 


6. Environmental history
7. Role of water resources in river-valley civilizations during ancient India
8. Animal hunting under East Indian Company
9. Role of NGOs in environmental conservation and restoration in contemporary India
10. Tinai concept during Sangam age

IGNOU BHIE 143 Solved Assignment 2022-23 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BHIE 143 HISTORY OF ENVIRONMENT Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920

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IGNOU Instructions for the BHIE 143 HISTORY OF ENVIRONMENT Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BHIE 143 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.

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IGNOU BHIE 143 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BHIE 143 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BHIE 143 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BHIE 143 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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