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IGNOU BHIE 141 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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IGNOU BHIE 141 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

Answer the following in about 500 words each in Section A. Each question carry 20 marks.

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each in Section B. Each question carry 10 marks.

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each in Section C. Each question carry 6 marks.

SECTION A


1. Write a note on the New Cultural Movement in China after 1911. Discuss the role of intellectuals in China’s Cultural Revolution.

The reign of the Chinese dynasties ended in 1911 leading to China’s emergence into the modern world. China’s weakness in the 20th century, as seen in the devastating loss in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95, stirred unrest and murmurs of uprising among the population. In 1911, armed rebellions broke out in response to the nationalization of railways in the Sichuan province, word of which spread across China. This snowballed and lead warlords to rebel against the weak imperial regime. Such rebellion in Wuchuan led to the overthrow of the provincial government and revolutionary leader Sun Yixian took advantage of the regime’s weakness. He later returned from exile, elected provisional president He saw that the emperor be abdicated, and resign power allowing Yuan Shikai, imperial minster entrusted with full power via the courts, to become the nation’s first president. In early 1912, the reign of Imperial China, Yuan Shikai’s attempt to become military dictator was thwarted and the Nationalist party, the Guomindang, also known as the Kuomintang (GMD) took control of the country in 1923. Sun Yixian, now president, reorganized the party that made it a centralized, democratic party. The GMD worked with the nearly formed Chinese Communist Party, with Soviet assistance, to reunite China and end the control of warlords running rampant in the country. During this period of conflict, Yixian died. Regardless, China, in 1926, became unified under the Guomindang Nationalists and new leader Chiang Kei-shek rose to national power. China, now with its capital in Nanjing and controlled by the Guomindang, entered the Nanjing decade.

Origins of Chinese Communism
The origins of Chinese Communism are traced to the foundation of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in 1921. With influence from the Soviets, the Marxist idealism took root in the country while the Qing dynasty was poorly governing the people. The party’s early efforts were lackluster, unable to find a base in urban and rural China, but one of the Party’s founders, Mao Zedong, began to formulate plans to utilizing the power of the peasantry in the countryside. While not disassociating from the leadership of the party, Mao continued to push to focus on the peasant masses. The party expanded their influence and start growing as the decade progressed growing more and more. The Communists joined the Guomindang in the Northern Expedition in 1926-1927 to rid the nation of warlords unifying the nation. This teamwork lasted until the “White Terror” situation of 1927. Chiang Kei-shek turned on the CCP in April 1927 and culled the communist
ranks. Numbers in Shanghai fell from 8000 when the culling started to around 300 seven years later in 1934, and numbers across the board met all time lows. In 1931 CCP special services unit leader was caught in April 1931 and resulted in 40 high ranking CCP officials and 800 local leaders being caught. The CCP was close to extinction until the Japanese drew the Nationalist government’s attention, allowing
the CCP to survive and recover.

Members of the party began to reintegrate and infiltrate the government organizations of Shanghai, “Red Mass Leagues”, which allowed the communists to embrace the population’s interests. Militant forces of the CCP formed a Red Army in preparation to seize urban areas.
The danger against Communists was greater than ever though, as the GMD continued their efforts to suppress and wipe them out. The Red Army attempted to flee Southern China but the withdrawal in September 1934 went very poorly with one-third of the forces being wiped out. In January 1935, eventually arrive in northern Guizhou and find respite. Mao during this time rose to power during the Long March. There was infighting and Maoultimately took control of the party. The Long March lasted until 1937 when the GMD unified with the CCP to defeat the Japanese invasion of World War II.


2. Analyze the economic, social and political programme of People’s Republic in China.

 Establishment of the People’s Republic

The communist victory in 1949 brought to power a peasant party that had learned its techniques in the countryside but had adopted Marxist ideology and believed in class struggle and rapid industrial development. Extensive experience in running base areas and waging war before 1949 had given the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) deeply ingrained operational habits and proclivities. The long civil war that created the new nation, however, had been one of peasants triumphing over urban dwellers and had involved the destruction of the old ruling classes. In addition, the party leaders recognized that they had no experience in overseeing the transitions to socialism and industrialism that would occur in China’s huge urban centres. For this, they turned to the only government with such experience—the Soviet Union. Western hostility against the People’s Republic of China, sharpened by the Korean War, contributed to the intensity of the ensuing Sino-Soviet relationship.

When the CCP proclaimed the People’s Republic, most Chinese understood that the new leadership would be preoccupied with industrialization. A priority goal of the communist political system was to raise China to the status of a great power. While pursuing this goal, the “centre of gravity” of communist policy shifted from the countryside to the city, but Chairman Mao Zedong insisted that the revolutionary vision forged in the rural struggle would continue to guide the party.

In a series of speeches in 1949, Chairman Mao stated that his aim was to create a socialist society and, eventually, world communism. These objectives, he said, required transforming consumer cities into producer cities to set the basis on which “the people’s political power could be consolidated.” He advocated forming a four-class coalition of elements of the urban middle class—the petty bourgeoisie and the national bourgeoisie—with workers and peasants, under the leadership of the CCP. The people’s state would exercise a dictatorship “for the oppression of antagonistic classes” made up of opponents of the regime.

The authoritative legal statement of this “people’s democratic dictatorship” was given in the 1949 Organic Law for the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, and at its first session the conference adopted a Common Program that formally sanctioned the organization of state power under the coalition. Following the communist victory, a widespread urge to return to normality helped the new leadership restore the economy. Police and party cadres in each locality, backed up by army units, began to crack down on criminal activities associated with economic breakdown. Soon it was possible to speak of longer-term developmental plans.

The cost of restoring order and building up integrated political institutions at all levels throughout the country proved important in setting China’s course for the next two decades. Revolutionary priorities had to be made consonant with other needs. Land reform did proceed in the countryside: landlords were virtually eliminated as a class, land was redistributed, and, after some false starts, China’s countryside was placed on the path toward collectivization. In the cities, however, a temporary accommodation was reached with noncommunist elements; many former bureaucrats and capitalists were retained in positions of authority in factories, businesses, schools, and governmental organizations. The leadership recognized that such compromises endangered their aim of perpetuating revolutionary values in an industrializing society, yet out of necessity they accepted the lower priority for communist revolutionary goals and a higher place for organizational control and enforced public order.

Once in power, communist cadres could no longer condone what they had once sponsored, and inevitably they adopted a more rigid and bureaucratic attitude toward popular participation in politics. Many communists, however, considered these changes a betrayal of the revolution; their responses gradually became more intense, and the issue eventually began to divide the once cohesive revolutionary elite. That development became a central focus of China’s political history from 1949.

Reconstruction and consolidation, 1949–52

During this initial period, the CCP made great strides toward bringing the country through three critical transitions: from economic prostration to economic growth, from political disintegration to political strength, and from military rule to civilian rule. The determination and capabilities demonstrated during these first years—and the respectable showing (after a century of military humiliations) that Chinese troops made against UN forces on the Korean peninsula in 1950–53—provided the CCP with a reservoir of popular support that would be a major political resource for years.

PLA troops—called Chinese People’s Volunteers—entered the Korean War against UN forces in October 1950. Beijing had felt threatened by the northward thrust of UN units and had attempted to halt them by its threats to intervene. However, Douglas MacArthur, commander of the UN forces, ignored the threats, and, when UN troops reached the Chinese border, Beijing acted. By the time hostilities ended in July 1953, approximately two-thirds of China’s combat divisions had seen service in Korea.

In the three years of war, a “Resist America, aid Korea” campaign translated the atmosphere of external threat into a spirit of sacrifice and enforced patriotic emergency at home. Regulations for the Suppression of Counterrevolutionaries (1951) authorized police action against dissident individuals and suspected groups. A campaign against anticommunist holdouts, bandits, and political opponents was also pressed. Greatest publicity attended Beijing’s dispatch of troops to Tibet about the same time that it intervened in Korea. The distinctiveness and world reputation of the Tibetan culture was to make this a severe test of communist efforts to complete the consolidation of their power. In 1959, after a period of sporadic clashes with the Chinese, the Tibetans rose in rebellion, to which Beijing responded with force.


SECTION B 


3. Analyse the significance of the Opium Wars in the evolution of the Sino-Western relation in the 19th Century.
4. Write a note on Confucianism and Taoism.
5. Discuss the emergence of the Chinese bourgeoisie as a social force. 


SECTION C


6. Write a note on Chinese Communist Party.
7. Explain the importance of the Self-Strengthening Movement
8. Discuss the consequences of the May Fourth incident.
9. How did Marxism emerge in China?
10. Briefly discuss post-Mao reforms in China


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IGNOU BHIE 141 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



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IGNOU BHIE 141 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BHIE 141 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BHIE 141 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BHIE 141 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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