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IGNOU BHIC 133 FREE Solved Assignment 2022-23 PDF
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Important Note – IGNOU BHIC 133 FREE Solved Assignment 2022-23 PDF Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).
Answer the following in about 500 words each in Section A. Each question carry 20 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each in Section B. Each question carry 10 marks.
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each in Section C. Each question carry 6 marks.
1. Critically examine the local administration of the Vijayanagara empire.
The Vijayanagar empire, 1336–1646
Founded in 1336 in the wake of the rebellions against Tughluq rule in the Deccan, the Hindu Vijayanagar empire lasted for more than two centuries as the dominant power in south India. Its history and fortunes were shaped by the increasing militarization of peninsular politics after the Muslim invasions and the commercialization that made south India a major participant in the trade network linking Europe and East Asia. Urbanization and monetization of the economy were the two other significant developments of the period that brought all the peninsular kingdoms into highly competitive political and military activities in the race for supremacy.
Development of the state
The kingdom of Vijayanagar was founded by Harihara and Bukka, two of five brothers (surnamed Sangama) who had served in the administrations of both Kakatiya and Kampili before those kingdoms were conquered by the armies of the Delhi sultanate in the 1320s. When Kampili fell in 1327, the two brothers are believed to have been captured and taken to Delhi, where they converted to Islam. They were returned to the Deccan as governors of Kampili for the sultanate with the hope that they would be able to deal with the many local revolts and invasions by neighbouring Hindu kings. They followed a conciliatory policy toward the landholders of the area, many of whom had not accepted Muslim rule, and began a process of consolidation and expansion. Their first campaign was against the neighbouring Hoysala king, Ballala III of Dorasamudra, but it stagnated; after the brothers reconverted to Hinduism under the influence of the sage Madhavacarya (Vidyaranya) and proclaimed their independence from the Delhi sultanate, however, they were able to defeat Ballala and thereby secure their home base. Harihara I (reigned 1336–56) then established his new capital, Vijayanagar, in an easily defensible position south of the Tungabhadra River, where it came to symbolize the emerging medieval political culture of south India. The kingdom’s expansion in the first century of its existence made it the first south Indian state to exercise enduring control over different linguistic and cultural regions, albeit with subregional and local chiefly powers exercising authority as its agents and subordinates.
In 1336 Harihara, with the help of his brothers, held uneasy suzerainty over lands extending from Nellore, on the southeast coast, to Badami, south of Bijapur on the western side of the Deccan. All around him new Hindu kingdoms were rising, the most important of which were the Hoysala kingdom of Ballala and the indhra confederacy, led by Kapaya Nayaka. However, Ballala’s kingdom was disadvantageously situated between the Maʿbar sultanate and Vijayanagar, and within two years after Ballala was killed by the sultan in 1343–44, his kingdom had been conquered by Bukka, Harihara’s brother, and annexed to Vijayanagar. This was the most important victory of Harihara’s reign; the new state now could claim sovereignty from sea to sea, and in 1346 the five brothers attended a great celebration at which Bukka was made joint ruler and heir.Harihara’s brothers made other, less significant conquests of small Hindu kingdoms during the next decade. However, the foundation of the Bahmanī sultanate in 1347 created a new and greater danger, and Harihara was forced to lessen his own expansionist activities to meet the threat posed by this powerful and aggressive new state on his northern borders.During Harihara’s reign the administrative foundation of the Vijayanagar state was laid. Borrowing from the Kakatiya kings he had served, he created administrative units called stholas, nadus, and simas and appointed officials to collect revenue and to carry on local administration, preferring Brahmans to men of other castes. The income of the state apparently was increased by the reorganization, although centralization probably did not proceed to the stage where salaried officials collected directly for the government in most areas. Rather, most land remained under the direct control of subordinate chiefs or of a hierarchy of local landholders, who paid some revenue and provided some troops for the king. Harihara also encouraged increased cultivation in some areas by allowing lower revenue payments for lands recently reclaimed from the forests.
Harihara was succeeded by Bukka (I; reigned 1356–77), who during his first decade as king engaged in a number of costly wars against the Bahmanī sultans over control of strategic forts in the Tungabhadra-Krishna Doab, as well as over the trading emporia of the east and west coasts. The Bahmanīs generally prevailed in these encounters and even forced Vijayanagar to pay a tribute in 1359. The major accomplishments of Bukka’s reign were the conquest of the short-lived sultanate of Maʿbar (Madurai; 1370) and the maintenance of his kingdom against the threat of decentralization. During Harihara’s reign the government of the outlying provinces of the growing state had been entrusted to his brothers—usually to the brother who had conquered that particular territory. By 1357 some of Bukka’s nephews had succeeded their fathers as governors of these provinces, and there was a possibility that the state would become less and less centralized as the various branches of the family became more firmly ensconced in their particular domains. Bukka, therefore, removed his nephews and replaced them with his sons and favourite generals so that centralized authority (and his own line of succession) could be maintained. However, the succession of Bukka’s son Harihara II (reigned 1377–1404) precipitated a repetition of the same action. A rebellion in the Tamil country at the beginning of his reign probably was aided by the disaffected sons and officers of Bukka’s deceased eldest son, Kumara Kampana, who were not ready to acknowledge Harihara’s authority. Harihara was able to put down the rebellion and subsequently to replace his cousins with his own sons as governors of the provinces. Thus, the circle of power was narrowed once again. The question of succession to the throne had not been settled, however. On many occasions, the conflict resumed between the king and his lineal descendant, who tried to centralize the state, and the collateral relatives (cousins and brothers), who tried to establish ruling rights over some portion of the kingdom.
2. Discuss Mughal relations with the Marathas.
Mughal-Maratha War (1680 to 1707)
Between the deaths of Shivaji and Aurangzeb (1680 to 1707), the Mughals and Marathas constantly met with strife over the territory that each wanted in the name of their religions. Both had large armies of men that would in the 30-year war continue to establish and re-establish dominance in the area. Traditionally, the Narmada river was the dividing line between Deccan, the Marathas’ stronghold, and the North, the Mughals’ (Keay 2000, p. 357). Shivaji left his son Sambhaji in a strong position to continue developing the Empire, which he did. He led the troops to victory time and time again, and was only defeated after one of his men betrayed his position to Aurangzeb. Sambhaji was executed in 1689. His half brother, Rajaram, took up leadership for the next 11 years. He continued the legacy that his father and brother set, but after nearly two decades of fighting, spoke with Aurangzeb about a cease-fire. The vindictive Mughal emperor refused, and the wars continued.
It would appear that even Aurangzeb, in his later years, realised that the war was fruitless, but he maintained his position. With every defeat, the Mughal reputation and authority both took hits. While, to the contrary the Marathas were seen as a guiding light for many people. Upon invading certain areas, for example Hyderabad, they established a ‘protection racket’ against the Mughal armies and revenue collectors (Keay 2000, p.357-9). In this way, Marathas were highly regarded among the citizens for their ability to save them from violence and poverty, while the Mughals were increasingly painted in a villainous image. Despite having given up hope of winning the wars, Aurangzeb prolonged them for many years, then later planned his retreat.
Aurangzeb died in 1707, an event which completely changed the dynamics of the war because all of his approximate 17 heirs were of age to ascend the throne (Keay 2000, p.359). It is rumored that Aurangzeb requested that his empire be divided among his sons (Sunidhi). But instead, succession wars ensued among Mughal royalty, diverting their attentions from their external threats, whereby the Marathas were able to cross the Narmada river and successfully take a large amount of the Mughal territory. In a similar way to how Aurangzeb took to the throne, Bahadur Shah I defeated his brother on the same battle ground. The new Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah I, released Shahuji, grandson of Shivaji, from prison, who boldly took the Maratha throne (Keay 2000, p. 363). Shortly thereafter, the Marathas also experienced a succession war as Shivaji’s aunt challenged him on behalf of her son. Bahadur Shah I began attempts to unify the empire contrary to Aurangzeb’s decentralised system. But he was unsuccessful, and revolts from the Rajput and Sikh nobility arose for the proper authority to manage their lands. His death, after a mere five years in power, sparked yet another expensive competition for the throne (Keay 2000, p.364).
The Saiyid Brothers’ Legacy
The Saiyid brothers were the powerful duo of Saiyid Husain Ali Khan and Saiyid Hassan Ali Khan Barha. They have also been nicknamed the ‘kingmakers’ because of their impressive influence over deciding who would ascend the throne. The two were elite political actors in the Mughal empire. Whoever they chose to back, would become the new emperor, and in exchange the two brothers would gain even more credibility and power. For example, this was the case with Farrukhsiyar (1713-1719), who was unable to challenge his brother on his own and was supported by a number of troops provided by the Saiyids. During his reign, the Saiyids yearned for more power and attempted to manipulate Farrukhsiyar to follow the policies that they set out, but he refused (Sunidhi). As a result, the Saiyids successfully plotted for his dethrone, and roped in the Marathas in the process. They arranged for Farrukhsiyar’s death when he would not sign a peace treaty with the Marathas. The Saiyids then promoted two ineffectual young emperors one after the other, both whom were unable to remain in power for more than six months. One did, however, agreed to the treaty overseen by the Saiyids to end the Mughal-Maratha wars, by compromising Mughal rule of Deccan for Maratha’s autonomy in their homeland (Keay 2000, p. 366). Next, the Saiyids supported Muhammad Shah as emperor, who reigned for nearly 30 years from 1719 to 1748. To his relief, the Saiyids, who closely hovered over his rule for the first year of his reign, were eliminated in 1720. However, their influence was paramount to Mughal history and the end of the Mughal-Maratha wars.
The Mughal Empire: Breaking Apart
Following the peace treaty, the Marathas were granted a farman, or an ‘imperial directive’ establishing status or privilege (Keay 2000, p. 370), of autonomy over their homelands. They thus began to expand outward to reclaim their traditional lands, including to the west to the Gaikwads, south to the Peshwas, north to the Scindias, and east to the Bhonsles. Despite the policies established by the Saiyid brothers to reconcile all of the nobles in the remaining states and create a centralised administration, many nobles across the empire disobeyed them, primarily because they envied the seemingly limitless power that the Saiyids had, and wanted the same for themselves (Sunidhi). The nobles maintained their power in their states, and in the decades that followed, the Mughal Empire was further divided into several successor states.
3. Briefly discuss Deccan policy of the Delhi Sultans.
4. Discuss the main features of the Sultanate architecture.
5. Give a brief account of the main features and working of the jagir system under the Mughals.
6. Arabic and Persian Historiography
7. Humayun and the Afghans
8. Alauddin Khalji’s market control measures
9. Monotheistic Movements
10. European influence on Mughal school of painting
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