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IGNOU BHIC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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IGNOU BHIC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

Answer the following in about 500 words each in Section A. Each question carry 20 marks.

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each in Section B. Each question carry 10 marks.

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each in Section C. Each question carry 6 marks.

SECTION A


1. Who were the Kushanas? Write a note on the assimilation of foreigners into the
Indian mainstream.

Assimilation, in anthropology and sociology, the process whereby individuals or groups of differing ethnic heritage are absorbed into the dominant culture of a society. The process of assimilating involves taking on the traits of the dominant culture to such a degree that the assimilating group becomes socially indistinguishable from other members of the society. As such, assimilation is the most extreme form of acculturation. Although assimilation may be compelled through force or undertaken voluntarily, it is rare for a minority group to replace its previous cultural practices completely; religion, food preferences, proxemics (e.g., the physical distance between people in a given social situation), and aesthetics are among the characteristics that tend to be most resistant to change. Assimilation does not denote “racial” or biological fusion, though such fusion may occur.

Attempts to compel minority groups to assimilate have occurred frequently in world history. The forced assimilation of indigenous peoples was particularly common in the European colonial empires of the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. In North and South America, Australia, Africa, and Asia, colonial policies toward indigenous peoples frequently compelled their religious conversion, the removal of children from their families, the division of community property into salable, individually owned parcels of land, the undermining of local economies and gender roles by shifting responsibility for farming or other forms of production from women to men, and the elimination of access to indigenous foodstuffs. Forced assimilation is rarely successful, and it generally has enduring negative consequences for the recipient culture.

India: Assimilation of foreigners

The presence of foreigners, most of whom settled in Indian cities and adopted Indian habits and behaviour in addition to religion, became…

Voluntary assimilation, albeit usually effected under pressure from the dominant culture, has also been prevalent in the historical record. One such case dates to the Spanish Inquisition of the late 14th and 15th centuries, when many Muslims and Jews responded to religious persecution by voluntarily converting to Roman Catholicism. Known as Moriscos and Marranos, respectively, they secretly continued to practice their original religions.

Another example of voluntary assimilation occurred during the 18th and 19th centuries, when millions of Europeans moved to the United States. In this case, being able to “pass” as a member of the dominant Anglo-Protestant culture was an important hedge against violent nativist groups such as the Know-Nothing Party (see United States: The people). Although popular notions generally presume that complete assimilation occurred among immigrants of European descent, research in the late 20th and early 21st centuries advocated a more nuanced and pluralistic view of historical culture change among American ethnic groups.


2. Discuss the economic, political and social organization of Tamilakam.

From the 6th century BCE to the 3rd century CE, the Sangam period or age encompasses the historic chronology of ancient Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and areas of Sri Lanka. In this article, we will learn about each dynasty and the political history of the Sangam age. We will learn about the type of polity that existed during the rule of each dynasty, the provincial and local administration, revenue administration and the military administration. 

The Sangam era or age, especially the third Sangam period, spans the historical chronology of ancient Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and parts of Sri Lanka from the 6th century BCE to around the 3rd century CE. It was named after the illustrious Madurai-based Sangam schools of poets and intellectuals.

The term Tamilakam referred to the entire ancient Tamil-speaking region, corresponding to the present Indian states of Tamil Nadu, parts of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, parts of Karnataka, as well as northern Sri Lanka.

Tamilham had three main kingdoms from the beginning: the Cheras, the Pandyas and the Cholas.  

Pandyas 

Megasthenes is the first to mention the Pandyas, who claimed their kingdom was famous for pearls.

The Pandyas controlled the southernmost & south-eastern portions of the Indian peninsula, roughly encompassing the contemporary Tamilnadu districts of Tinnevelly, Ramnad, and Madurai (capital of the kingdom). The Pandyas are well-known for their patronage of Tamil Sangam poets and intellectuals.

The Pandyan rulers benefited from commerce with the Roman Empire and sent envoys to Augustus, the Roman emperor. Korkai, a Pandyan port, was a major centre of trade and commerce, while Saliyur was another.

 In the early decades of the Christian period, the Brahmanas wielded enormous power, and Pandya rulers conducted Vedic sacrifices.

Cholas

In early mediaeval times, the Chola monarchy was located in the north-east region of the Pandyan region, between the Pennar and Velar Rivers, and was known as Cholamandalam (Coromandel). Their capital was originally at Uraiyur, a cotton trading centre, and then in Puhar or Kaveripattinam.

A Chola monarch called Elara is said to have conquered Sri Lanka in the second half of the second century B.C. and reigned over it for over 50 years. 

Cheras

The Cheras, also known as Kerala, were a people who lived towards the north and west of the Pandyas. It included parts of both Kerala and Tamilnadu and included the short stretch of land between the mountains and the sea. 

Sangam Administration

The king served as the epicentre and personification of government. He was known by the names Ko, Vendan,  Mannam, Korravan, and Iraivan.

  • Although the hereditary monarchy was the most common form of administration, contested successions and armed conflicts due to civil wars were not uncommon
  • The crowned monarch’s court was known as avai. The ‘conquering king’ (Vijigishu) concept was approved and implemented
  • Every year, the King’s birthday (Perumal) was commemorated. Several titles were given to kings
  • The Pandyas, for example, were recognized as Minavar,  Panchavar, Kavuriyar, Tennar,  Marar, Seliyar, Valudi, seliyar and so on; the Cholas were known as Sennis, Sembiyas, Valavan, and Killi; and the Cheras were known as Vanavar, , Kudavar, Villavar, Kuttuvar, Poraiyar,  Kuttuvar, and so on
  • The carp (fish) was the Pandyas’ royal insignia, the Cheras’ bow was the tiger, and the Cholas’ bow was the tiger
  • The supreme court of justice in the capital of the city was the king’s sabha or manram
  • The monarch was aided by a vast number of administrators, who were organised into five groups: 
  1. Amaichchar
  2. Purohitas
  3. Senapati
  4. Dutar 
  5. Arrar or spies

Administration at the Provincial and Local Levels

  • The whole kingdom was called mandalam in the Sangam period
  • The initial main mandalams were the Chola mandalam, Chera mandalam and the  Pandya mandalam
  • A large division, nadu / province existed beneath the mandalam
  • The ur was a town that was referred to as a huge village (perar), a little village (sirur), or an old village by diverse people (mudur)
  • Pattinam was the name given to a seaside town, while Puhar was the name given to the harbour area
  • Hereditary chiefs were in charge of the governance of Nadus
  • The town was the basic administrative unit, and local assemblies known as manrams were in charge of it

Administration of Revenue

  • The most frequent and arguably major source of income was a land tax known as Karai, although the king’s part of the agricultural pride, which he claimed and collected, is unknown 
  • The maa and veli were used to measure land, while the kalam was used to measure grain
  • A variyam ( tax) was a very good unit of territory that yielded revenue, and a Variyar was the official responsible to collect the tax from such a unit of land
  • The feudatories’ tributes and war loot (irai) made up a sizable portion of the royal coffers
  • Local and long-distance trade was a major source of imperial revenue
  • Tolls and customs fees were charged in ulgu or sungum currency
  • The king’s obligations were called Kadamai or paduvathu

SECTION B 


3. Write a note on the craft production in North India, explain its organizational nature.
4) Discribe the salient features of Pallava temple architecture.
5) What do you understand by the revival of commerce and trade in the early medieval period? Discuss. 


SECTION C


6. Indo-Greeks
7) Puranic Hinduism
8) Prakrit and Pali
9) Ports
10) Urban Process 


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IGNOU BHIC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



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IGNOU BHIC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BHIC 103 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BHIC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BHIC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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