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IGNOU BEGG 172 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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IGNOU BEGG 172 Solved Assignment 2022-2023

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

Answer each question in about 300 words. (Based on Blocks 1 and 2) in Section A. Each question carry 5 marks.

Answer each question in about 300 words. (Based on Blocks 3 and 4) in Section B. Each question carry 5 marks.

Answer each question in about 700 words. (Based on Blocks 1 to 4) in Section C. Each question carry 15 marks.

SECTION A


1. What is Language? State the various functions of language?

language, a system of conventional spoken, manual (signed), or written symbols by means of which human beings, as members of a social group and participants in its culture, express themselves. The functions of language include communication, the expression of identity, play, imaginative expression, and emotional release.

Characteristics of language

Definitions of language

Many definitions of language have been proposed. Henry Sweet, an English phonetician and language scholar, stated: “Language is the expression of ideas by means of speech-sounds combined into words. Words are combined into sentences, this combination answering to that of ideas into thoughts.” The American linguists Bernard Bloch and George L. Trager formulated the following definition: “A language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group cooperates.” Any succinct definition of language makes a number of presuppositions and begs a number of questions. The first, for example, puts excessive weight on “thought,” and the second uses “arbitrary” in a specialized, though legitimate, way.

A number of considerations (marked in italics below) enter into a proper understanding of language as a subject:

Every physiologically and mentally typical person acquires in childhood the ability to make use, as both sender and receiver, of a system of communication that comprises a circumscribed set of symbols (e.g., sounds, gestures, or written or typed characters). In spoken language, this symbol set consists of noises resulting from movements of certain organs within the throat and mouth. In signed languages, these symbols may be hand or body movements, gestures, or facial expressions. By means of these symbols, people are able to impart information, to express feelings and emotions, to influence the activities of others, and to comport themselves with varying degrees of friendliness or hostility toward persons who make use of substantially the same set of symbols.

BRITANNICA QUIZ
Official Languages
What is the official language of Grenada? What language do most Argentineans speak? Translate your smarts into a high score in this study of world languages.

Different systems of communication constitute different languages; the degree of difference needed to establish a different language cannot be stated exactly. No two people speak exactly alike; hence, one is able to recognize the voices of friends over the telephone and to keep distinct a number of unseen speakers in a radio broadcast. Yet, clearly, no one would say that they speak different languages. Generally, systems of communication are recognized as different languages if they cannot be understood without specific learning by both parties, though the precise limits of mutual intelligibility are hard to draw and belong on a scale rather than on either side of a definite dividing line. Substantially different systems of communication that may impede but do not prevent mutual comprehension are called dialects of a language. In order to describe in detail the actual different language patterns of individuals, the term idiolect, meaning the habits of expression of a single person, has been coined.

Typically, people acquire a single language initially—their first language, or native tongue, the language used by those with whom, or by whom, they are brought up from infancy. Subsequent “second” languages are learned to different degrees of competence under various conditions. Complete mastery of two languages is designated as bilingualism; in many cases—such as upbringing by parents using different languages at home or being raised within a multilingual community—children grow up as bilinguals. In traditionally monolingual cultures, the learning, to any extent, of a second or other language is an activity superimposed on the prior mastery of one’s first language and is a different process intellectually.

Language, as described above, is species-specific to human beings. Other members of the animal kingdom have the ability to communicate, through vocal noises or by other means, but the most important single feature characterizing human language (that is, every individual language), against every known mode of animal communication, is its infinite productivity and creativity. Human beings are unrestricted in what they can communicate; no area of experience is accepted as necessarily incommunicable, though it may be necessary to adapt one’s language in order to cope with new discoveries or new modes of thoughtAnimal communication systems are by contrast very tightly circumscribed in what may be communicated. Indeed, displaced reference, the ability to communicate about things outside immediate temporal and spatial contiguity, which is fundamental to speech, is found elsewhere only in the so-called language of bees. Bees are able, by carrying out various conventionalized movements (referred to as bee dances) in or near the hive, to indicate to others the locations and strengths of food sources. But food sources are the only known theme of this communication system. Surprisingly, however, this system, nearest to human language in function, belongs to a species remote from humanity in the animal kingdom. On the other hand, the animal performance superficially most like human speech, the mimicry of parrots and of some other birds that have been kept in the company of humans, is wholly derivative and serves no independent communicative function. Humankind’s nearest relatives among the primates, though possessing a vocal physiology similar to that of humans, have not developed anything like a spoken language. Attempts to teach sign language to chimpanzees and other apes through imitation have achieved limited success, though the interpretation of the significance of ape signing ability remains controversial.

2. Distinguish between spelling and sound in English.

Spelling refers to the way we structure words visually (using letters of the alphabet), while pronunciation refers to the way in which these words are formed verbally (using different speech sounds). Both spelling and pronunciation are notorious aspects of English, as there are many inconsistencies, irregularities, and seemingly illogical aspects to how each is formed. To help make sense of them, we’ve divided this guide into four major chapters: The Alphabet, Spelling Conventions, Pronunciation Conventions, and Common Mistakes and Commonly Confused Words.

The Alphabet

The first chapter will go into detail about the vowels and consonants that make up The Alphabet, describing the variety of sounds each letter can make. We’ll also look at digraphs, trigraphs, and tetragraphs (sets of two, three, and four letters, respectively, that create single, unique speech sounds), as well as other letters, marks, and symbols that are not part of the regular alphabet but may still be encountered in English spelling.

Spelling Conventions

The second chapter will deal with the various conventions that can help us make sense of English spelling. Notice that we use the word conventions, not rules; while there are some concrete patterns in the way words are spelled, very few constitute real “rules,” as most of them have many exceptions and irregularities.
The majority of these spelling conventions deal with affixes, which primarily comprise prefixes and suffixes. Prefixes are small, word-forming elements that attach to the beginning of words, while suffixes are word-forming elements that attach to the end of words. While prefixes are largely self-contained in their impact on spelling, there are a number of spelling conventions with suffixes that dictate the multiple aspects of words’ spelling, such as changing Y to I before vowel suffixes, adding suffixes after silent E, and doubling consonants with vowel suffixes. We’ll go in depth with each of these conventions, examining their various patterns and rules as well as all the various exceptions for each.
Closely related to suffixes is the notion of inflection in spelling, which refers to the ways in which a word’s spelling may change to reflect its grammatical function in a sentence. Most instances of inflection are achieved by attaching a suffix (such as attaching “-s” or “-es” to form a plural), but some instances of inflection occur when the entire word changes (as with the inflection of personal pronouns, e.g., I, me, my, mine).
The remaining spelling conventions are much narrower in scope than suffixes and inflection. We’ll discuss how to form contractions (words formed from two words joined together with an apostrophe), the three-letter rule (which states that words consisting of fewer than three letters will usually be grammatical function words), the “I Before E, Except After C” rule (which states that I will usually appear before E unless they both come after the letter C), and rules for capitalization (both for specific words in a sentence and the words in a title).
The final sections we’ll cover in the Spelling Conventions chapter have to do with other languages and other dialects of English. First, we’ll look at foreign loanwords and loan translations, which are words that are taken directly from other languages (either in translation or in the original language). After that, we’ll compare the various differences in American English vs. British English spelling that tend to give writers trouble.

Pronunciation Conventions

The third chapter will cover various conventions for how words are pronounced. First, we’ll look at tricky vowel sounds, specifically focusing on the difference between monophthongs (standard vowel sounds), diphthongs (two vowel sounds that glide together in a single syllable), and triphthongs (three vowel sounds that glide together in a single syllable).
After that, we’ll look at tricky consonant sounds—specifically, how to form the /k/ sound, the /z/ sound, and the /ʒ/ sound (the G sound in beige), as well as the various ways of pronouncing the letter S.
Next, we’ll go over the various silent letters. The most ubiquitous of these is silent E, which has a variety of different functions depending on the letters around it in a word, but U can also be silent, as can many different consonants.

The next convention we’ll look at in this chapter is the way in which letters are grouped into syllables, as well as how syllables are divided and counted within a word. Closely related to that is word stress, which dictates which syllable within a word will receive the most vocal emphasis in speech. Finally, we’ll look at sentence stress, which governs which words in a sentence receive more emphasis than others.


3. Discuss various stress patterns in words with suitable examples.
4. Discuss the Saussurean concepts of structural linguistics. 


SECTION B 


1. Write a short note on origin of words in English.
2. Discuss the grammatical categories associated with the English verb.
3. Distinguish between functional and formal labels.
4. Explain the different types of nouns by giving suitable examples. 


SECTION C


1. What do you understand by having ‘knowledge of a Language’? Discuss with examples.
2. Discuss the feature of stressed and unstressed syllables in a connected speed by giving suitable examples.
3. Discuss various word building processes in English by giving suitable examples.
4. Discuss the seven basic sentence patterns in English by giving suitable examples. 


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IGNOU BEGG 172 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



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IGNOU BEGG 172 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BEGG 172 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BEGG 172 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BEGG 172 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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