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IGNOU BECE 141 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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IGNOU BECE 141 Solved Assignment 2022-23

We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BECE 141 ECONOMICS OF HEALTH AND EDUCATION Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920

Important Note – IGNOU BECE 141 Solved Assignment 2022-2023  Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

Answer all the questions.

Assignment A


A. Long Answer Questions (word limit-500 words)

1) Derive the growth equation showing the conditions under which higher growth can be realised.

Introduction
In theory, any kind of organism could take over the Earth just by reproducing. For instance, imagine that we started with a single pair of male and female rabbits. If these rabbits and their descendants reproduced at top speed (“like bunnies”) for 7 years, without any deaths, we would have enough rabbits to cover the entire state of Rhode Islandstart superscript, 1, comma, 2, comma, 3, end superscript. And that’s not even so impressive – if we used E. coli bacteria instead, we could start with just one bacterium and have enough bacteria to cover the Earth with a 1-foot layer in just 36 hoursstart superscript, 4, end superscript!
As you’ve probably noticed, there isn’t a 1-foot layer of bacteria covering the entire Earth (at least, not at my house), nor have bunnies taken possession of Rhode Island. Why, then, don’t we see these populations getting as big as they theoretically could? E. coli, rabbits, and all living organisms need specific resources, such as nutrients and suitable environments, in order to survive and reproduce. These resources aren’t unlimited, and a population can only reach a size that match the availability of resources in its local environment.
Population ecologists use a variety of mathematical methods to model population dynamics (how populations change in size and composition over time). Some of these models represent growth without environmental constraints, while others include “ceilings” determined by limited resources. Mathematical models of populations can be used to accurately describe changes occurring in a population and, importantly, to predict future changes.
Modeling population growth rates
To understand the different models that are used to represent population dynamics, let’s start by looking at a general equation for the population growth rate (change in number of individuals in a population over time):
start fraction, d, N, divided by, d, T, end fraction, equals, r, N
In this equation, d, N, slash, d, T is the growth rate of the population in a given instant, N is population size, T is time, and r is the per capita rate of increase –that is, how quickly the population grows per individual already in the population. (Check out the differential calculus topic for more about the d, N, slash, d, T notation.)

If we assume no movement of individuals into or out of the population, r is just a function of birth and death rates. You can learn more about the meaning and derivation of the equation here: 

[How we get to the population growth rate equation]
The equation above is very general, and we can make more specific forms of it to describe two different kinds of growth models: exponential and logistic.
  • When the per capita rate of increase (r) takes the same positive value regardless of the population size, then we get exponential growth.
  • When the per capita rate of increase (r) decreases as the population increases towards a maximum limit, then we get logistic growth.
Here’s a sneak preview – don’t worry if you don’t understand all of it yet:

We’ll explore exponential growth and logistic growth in more detail below.

Exponential growth
Bacteria grown in the lab provide an excellent example of exponential growth. In exponential growth, the population’s growth rate increases over time, in proportion to the size of the population.
Let’s take a look at how this works. Bacteria reproduce by binary fission (splitting in half), and the time between divisions is about an hour for many bacterial species. To see how this exponential growth, let’s start by placing 1000 bacteria in a flask with an unlimited supply of nutrients.
  • After 1 hour: Each bacterium will divide, yielding 2000 bacteria (an increase of 1000 bacteria).
  • After 2 hours: Each of the 2000 bacteria will divide, producing 4000 (an increase of 2000 bacteria).
  • After 3 hours: Each of the 4000 bacteria will divide, producing 8000 (an increase of 4000 bacteria).
The key concept of exponential growth is that the population growth rate —the number of organisms added in each generation—increases as the population gets larger. And the results can be dramatic: after 1 day (24 cycles of division), our bacterial population would have grown from 1000 to over 16 billion! When population size, N, is plotted over time, a J-shaped growth curve is made.

2) Analyse the trend in the public financing of education in India over the period 1980s to 2010s.

The Indian higher education system is presently facing several challenges. The challenge of global competitiveness has been added to other demanding tasks such as access, equity, relevance, quality, privatisation and internationalisation in the face of a resource crunch. This article gives an overview of trends in the expansion of higher education and examines variations in participation across states, gender and social groups. An attempt has also been made to discuss the trends in the financing of higher education and the required resources to meet the target of allocating 6 per cent of the GDP to education. It argues that without appropriate policy interventions in school education, it would be of little use to have interventions at the higher educational level, which discriminate in favour of girls, SCs and STs.

Introduction
well developed and equitable system of higher education that promotes quality learning as a consequence of both teaching and research is central for success in the emerging knowledge economy. It is widely acknowledged that education contributes significantly to economic development. The developed world understood much earlier the fact that individuals with higher education have an edge over their counterparts. They are the ones who always believed that any amount of investment in higher education was justifiable. It is, therefore, imperative for developing countries too, to give due importance to both the quantitative and qualitative expansion of higher education.

From 1950 to the late 1980s, the planning strategy in India was geared towards ensuring distributive justice, balanced regional growth and positive discrimination in favour of disadvantaged sections. However, with the adoption of new economic policies, since the early 1990s, the development approach has taken an about-turn with the enhanced role of the private sector and the diminishing role of the state. Such an approach appears to be threatening the goals of social justice, equity and cultural diversity.

In the recent past, the growth trends in higher education seem to have found favour with those courses of study that have high economic payoffs. The participation of the private sector has resulted in the truncated growth of higher education. Besides, the implicit policy pursued by both central and state governments since the mid-1990s to promote school education at the cost of higher education has almost put the brakes on the expansion of public institutions. Such a policy has serious implications for making even existing institutions internationally competitive. Indian higher education system is, indeed, facing several challenges like access, equity, relevance and quality.

Even after significant expansion in the post-independence period, access to higher education in India continues to be poor and more so for the disadvantaged groups. Unfortunately, the country has no comprehensive database to help assess the response of the higher education system to the impact of globalisation in the last one and a half decades. The present paper makes a modest attempt to discuss the trends in the growth and financing of higher education, besides highlighting some important issues regarding development of higher education in India. Given the limitations in available data, the paper gives an overview of trends in the expansion of higher education, and also attempts to examine variations in the participation in higher education across states, gender and social groups. An attempt has also been made to discuss trends in the financing of higher education and the resources required to meet the target of allocating 6 per cent of GDP to education. In the end the paper offers certain suggestions on critical development issues such as access, equity, quality, financing, privatisation, internationalisation and the need for creating a comprehensive database.


B. Medium Answer Questions (word limit-250 words) 

3) Delineate the four characteristics of healthcare services.
4) Discuss the method of ‘Impact Evaluation (IE)’ for evaluating the benefits from health projects.
5) Present an overview of the early contributors to the concept of ‘human capital’. 


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C. Short Answer Questions (word limit 100 words) 

6) Differentiate between:
(a) Healthcare Market and Markets for other Goods.
(b) Cost Effective Analysis (CEA) and Cost Utility Analysis (CUA).
(c) Social Marginal Cost and Social Marginal Benefit.

7) Write short notes on the following.
(a) Health Equity.
(b) Linkage between Health and Education.
(c) Merit Good.


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IGNOU Instructions for the BECE 141 ECONOMICS OF HEALTH AND EDUCATION Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BECE 141 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

IGNOU BECE 141 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BECE 141 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BECE 141 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BECE 141 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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