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IGNOU BANS 183 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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IGNOU BANS 183 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

There are two Sections in the Assignment. You have to answer all questions in all the Sections.

Answer the following in about 500 words each in Section I. Each question carry 20 marks.

Answer the following in about 250 words each in Section II. Each question carry 10 marks.

Answer the following questions in about 150 words each in the second part of Section II. Each question carry 5 marks.

Assignment – I


a. Define anthropology. Discuss the role of anthropology in studying tourism.

ANTHROPOLOGY OFTOURISM: ROOTS AND DEVELOPMENT
Before the recognition of anthropology of tourism as a serious field of study many sociologists and anthropologists attempted to explore the elements of this subject. Durkheim has perhaps been the most successful anthropologist to establish the relationship between the individual and the society. His works have been applied to tourism by Nelson Graburn. In his book The Elementary Form of Religious Life, Emile Durkheim ({1912}1915) has said that all religious belief must have emanated as a sort of collective representation of society in the form of totemic symbols. Rituals and prayers done at the time of the periodic festivals, are devoted to the totemic spirit. At this time a collective representation of totemic clan members occur when all the clan people come together at one place and pray. Here the feelings Tourism of the people are heightened and a mystic feeling about togetherness arises. It is in these collective ceremonies that man first experienced religious beliefs. In other words, the group is god to the individual, according to Durkheim. In a similar classic work, The Rites of Passage (1909, 1960 {Eng Ed.}) in anthropology Arnold van Gennep theorised about the transition from one social category to another during the so called life cycle which usher individuals through the crucial crises of their lives such as birth, puberty, marriage, parenthood, advancement to a higher class, occupational specialisation and death. He discovered that the ceremonies for all these life cycles could be subdivided into three stages. Separation: the individual would first be ritually removed from the society as a whole. This involves break of an individual from his or her old group of status. The rituals concerning this phase symbolise the loss of the old status.

Tourism is essentially an applied topic. It involves real people in real situations. To satisfy the needs of tourism studies anthropological contributions need to become more applied both in its theoretical orientation and its practical reality Gardner and Lewis (1996: 158-160) discuss the application of anthropological methodology, skills and expertise in the development context, arguing a place for anthropologists to ‘work within’ the large industries that impact on the lives of indigenous people. Anthropology needs to meet this challenge in the tourism arena. The future challenge for anthropology is to increase its contribution; to expand its analytical work on tourism. As the practice of tourism becomes more focused on hosts (Burns and Sofield 2001), not just as objects or commodities but as active participants, the demand grows for anthropology to apply its specialised knowledge and generate new theoretical frameworks. Such application can assist not only the host communities, but also the tourists and the tourism operators that comprise the whole tourism system. In anthropology, the wide range of possibilities for the study of tourism is only being realised. Ultimately, anthropology is about people and so is tourism

SCOPE AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF ANTHROPOLOGY IN TOURISM STUDIES
Conducting studies through fieldwork is an integral part of an anthropologist’s work profile. As a discipline anthropology has contributed invaluable information about the nature of human beings and what governs it. On the other hand tourism is relatively a very recent addition as a serious discipline of study. Apart from having a major economic impact tourism has been also considered as a major factor that brings about cultural exchanges when tourists interact with the local population. Over a period of time this definitely causes changes in the behavioural patterns of the host population. Unplanned tourism activities can have serious consequences in that the authenticity of the destination or the very factor that made the place a ‘must travel’ for the tourist may be lost. Strategic tourism management requires a clear understanding not only about the way of life of the host population but also about that of the visitors and how the meeting between the two could influence each other. Anthropological studies and records come in extremely handy in such assessments. Anthropologists the world over are recognising the possibility of tourism as being a specialised sub discipline of anthropology. At the same time the planners of tourism are giving due respect to anthropological studies. The scope is unlimited. Let us now have a better understanding of the various avenues and possibilities of anthropology and tourism.

Cultural Anthropology and Tourism Studies
As mentioned in the previous chapters early armchair anthropologists mainly belonged to Europe. Curiosity to understand completely different cultures compelled them to gather information about these. The source of information was mainly based on the accounts of travelers, missionaries and administrators. It was only in the 20th century that anthropologists ventured to travel themselves in order to study new cultures. This method is known as fieldwork, which is the first hand systematic exploration of a variety of human cultures. This involves direct interaction between the fieldworker and his subject. One of the key elements in the study of tourism is to analyse its impact not only on the native culture but also the behaviour of the tourists. In studying such impacts anthropology has invaluable contributions to make. Smith says that human interaction and not business and marketing is the key factor in tourism’s many paradoxes. This statement makes the link between anthropology and tourism all the more important. Anthropology makes it possible to gather first hand information, which provides the primary data for studies in tourism. The information gathered in anthropological studies is extremely authentic though sometimes it becomes difficult to make completely objective studies of another culture. The various techniques used by anthropologists are observation, interviews, case studies and genealogy. The best approach to develop and study a cross-cultural perspective is the case study approach. While studying tourism impacts the most important point is to analyse the effect of tourism on the culture of the society. For this it is essential to have information and relevant data about the society before the tourists pour in and ‘pollute’, the host communities. The work of early anthropologists comes handy in such situations.


b. What is authenticity in tourism? Explain with suitable examples.

The meaning of authenticity

According to the dictionary, authenticity is;

  “Not false of copied: Genuine and original, as opposed to being a fake or reproduction”                      

Defining authenticity, however, is not such a straight forward task and it is one that has been debated for many years. In essence, authenticity is all about being ‘real’ or ‘true’. But what is or isn’t ‘real’ or ‘true’? It’s quite easy to say that an item such as a designer bag is a real or a fake- it’s black and white- it was either made by the real designer, or it wasn’t. Identifying authenticity of culture, however, is far less straight forward. In fact, some would argue that it is actually possible to determine authenticity in culture! 

There is a difference between ‘authentic’ and stereotypical… yet, we seem to use the two almost interchangeably much of the time! In actual fact, it is very difficult to determine what an ‘authentic’ Indian child looks like, just as it is difficult to identify any form of authenticity in culture. Yet, we try and we do. According to Justin Francis at Responsible Travel, authenticity is less about a dictionary definition and more about a feeling. He believes that when you personally feel that something is authentic, then it is authentic.

The tourist search for authenticity

Theorists such as MacCannel (1973) and Cohen (1972) state that tourism is a modern quest for authenticity. MacCannel(1976) suggests that Western tourists are looking for a sense of authenticity lacking in their home life; abroad, hosts provide this by creating authentic seeming presentations of their own culture. In effect, he is suggesting that tourists travel to experience something new that they don’t have at home. They may want to learn Salsa in Spain, drink Champagne in France or watch a traditional child dance show in Cambodia, for example. Heck, they may just want something as simple as a clean beach and some warm weather that is ‘authentically’ Spanish (or which ever destination they choose).

In contradiction to this, Boorstin (1964) differs by suggesting that modern tourists do not seek authenticity. Instead they seek only entertainment. He suggests that the tourists don’t care if the Salsa lessons are, in actual fact, a modified version of dance developed for the tourists. The tourists don’t mind if the Champagne wasn’t made from grapes grown in France. And people don’t care if the kids actually practice this dance in their everyday life outside of the tourism industry. That Spanish beach? If the sand was imported from the USA they couldn’t care less. Boorstin believes that tourists are easily satisfied by an inauthentic tourism experience. Tourists are not in search of authenticity at all. They are in search only of entertainment and enjoyment.

Staged authenticity

So we have identified that tourists may be in search of authenticity in tourism. We have also determined that they may not be. (I don’t have the answer here, only both sides of the argument) Staged authenticity in tourism is when what appears to be ‘authentic’, is actually inauthentic. Think Scotsman wearing a kilt, Chicken Tikka Masala at an Indian restaurant, Maasai Mara tribe carrying swords. These are all examples of staged authenticity. Tourists are often exploited by the hosts through the staging of authenticity and in many instances the tourists are unable to recognise that these events are fake. In fact, Turner (1994) argues that ‘the very existence of tourism rules out the possibility of authentic cultural experience’. In other words, if tourism takes place then what ever it is that the tourist is going to see is no longer ‘authentic’ BECAUSE the tourists are there!


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Assignment – II


I ) a.What is commodification? Discuss the commodification of religious sites and national parks.
b. Discuss preservation and conservation of two heritage sites in India.
c. Describe tangible and intangible heritage with suitable examples.

II ) a. Physical anthropology
b. Archaeological anthropology
c. Types of tourism
d. Local environment versus tourist
e. Eco tourism
f. Edible identities


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IGNOU BANS 183 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



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IGNOU BANS 183 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BANS 183 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BANS 183 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BANS 183 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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