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IGNOU BANC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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IGNOU BANC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

There are three Sections in the Assignment. Answer all the questions in all the three sections.

Answer any two of the following questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks in Assignment one. 

Answer the following questions in the about 250 words. Each question carries 10 marks in Assignment three. 


Assignment –I

Answer any two of the following questions in about 500 words each. 20×2

a. Discuss normal growth variations.

INTRODUCTION

Normal growth is the progression of changes in height, weight, and head circumference that are compatible with established standards for a given population. The progression of growth is interpreted within the context of the genetic potential for a particular child [1]. Normal growth is a reflection of overall health and nutritional status. Understanding the normal patterns of growth enables the early detection of pathologic deviations (eg, poor weight gain due to a metabolic disorder, short stature due to inflammatory bowel disease) and can prevent the unnecessary evaluation of children with acceptable normal variations in growth.

A review of normal growth patterns during infancy and childhood will be provided below. Growth during puberty is discussed separately. (See “Normal puberty”.)

DETERMINANTS OF NORMAL GROWTH

Somatic growth and biologic maturation are influenced by several factors that act independently and in concert to modify a child’s genetic growth potential. The influence of maternal nutrition and intrauterine environment are reflected primarily in the growth parameters at the time of birth and during the first month of life, whereas genetic factors have a later influence [2]. The correlation coefficient between length and adult height is only 0.25 at birth but increases to 0.8 at two years of age [3,4].

Although primarily reflected in the growth parameters at birth, long-term influences of maternal nutrition and intrauterine environment on subsequent growth and pubertal development have been described [5,6]. Studies in various populations have demonstrated an association between catch-up growth or rapid growth in infancy or early childhood and subsequent obesity, suggesting that mechanisms that signal and regulate catch-up growth in the postnatal period may play a role in the development of obesity. (See “Definition, epidemiology, and etiology of obesity in children and adolescents”, section on ‘Metabolic programming’.)

NORMAL PATTERNS

Most healthy infants and children grow in a predictable fashion, following a typical pattern of progression in weight, length, and head circumference. Normal human growth is pulsatile; periods of rapid growth (“growth spurts”) are separated by periods of no measurable growth. Growth is also seasonal, with growth velocities increased during the spring and summer months.

This generalized information is a limited summary of diagnosis, treatment, and/or medication information. It is not meant to be comprehensive and should be used as a tool to help the user understand and/or assess potential diagnostic and treatment options. It does NOT include all information about conditions, treatments, medications, side effects, or risks that may apply to a specific patient. It is not intended to be medical advice or a substitute for the medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment of a health care provider based on the health care provider’s examination and assessment of a patient’s specific and unique circumstances. Patients must speak with a health care provider for complete information about their health, medical questions, and treatment options, including any risks or benefits regarding use of medications. This information does not endorse any treatments or medications as safe, effective, or approved for treating a specific patient. UpToDate, Inc. and its affiliates disclaim any warranty or liability relating to this information or the use thereof. 


IGNOU BANC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23

b. Describe in brief Sheldon’s method of somatotyping.

  • Somatotype is a discredited theory of personality that associates different body compositions with various personality traits and behavioral characteristics. A somatotype refers to the bodybuilder or physique of a person.
  • There have been theories surrounding body composition and personality since antiquity. However, William Herbert Sheldon originated Somatotype in the 1940s.
  • According to Sheldon, there are three somatotypes: slim ectomorphs, muscular mesomorphs, and smooth endomorphs. Endomorphs, in his view, are relaxed and sociable, mesomorphs active and assertive, and ectomorphs quiet and restrained. Three somatotypes are ideal types: most people have a mixture of multiple somatotypes.
  • Sheldon was heavily influenced by Ernst Kretschmer’s constitutional psychology. Ernst Kretschmer, using a similar classification of body types, attempted to find correlations between body type and psychiatric syndromes. Sheldon, in contrast, focused more on personality.
  • Somatotype studies from Sheldon to present suffer from substantial flaws such as confounding results, small sample sizes, and inconsistent findings. Nonetheless, somatotype spread through the 1950s and was used in earnest attempts to characterize personality as late as the 1980s.
  • Despite the discredited nature of somatotype, people unaware of the theory are still influenced in their assessments of personality by body type. This can compromise scientific data in cases where participants are rating the personalities of people with different body types.

Early Somatotypology
Attempts to correlate body composition with certain personality traits has a legacy dating to antiquity in many parts of the world. One early example of early somatic typology is Hippocrates theory of the four humors.According to Hippocrates, choleric temperaments were associated with yellow bile from the liver, melancholic temperament with black bile from the kidneys, sanguine temperament with red blood from the heart, and phlegmatic temperament with white phlegm from the lungs (Clark and Watson, 2008).There are also traditional Eastern ways of classifying people for the purpose of medical and psychological treatments. For example, the Indian physician R. D. Lele found a correlation of somatotypes with Prakriti, which is a system of classifying personality.W. H. Sheldon’s Three Somatotypes
In the 1940s, American psychologist William Herbert Sheldon developed a theory that associated body types with human temperament types.Sheldon proposed that the human physique could be classified according to how much they are composed of three elements.He called these classifications somatotypes, after the three layers of embryos: the endoderm, which develops into the digestive tract; the mesoderm, which develops into the muscle, heart, and blood vessels; and the ectoderm, which forms the skin and nervous system (Patwardhan, Mutalik, and Tilu, 2015).William Sheldon (1942) proposed a strong correlation between personality and somatotype (i.e. physique).From a study of several hundred male physiques he derived three made body types:

  1. The ectomorph, characterized by a thin, wiry frame.
  2. The endomorph, heavy and rounded.
  3. The mesomorph, with a solid, muscular frame.

Assignment –II

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. 10×2

a) Write short notes on any two of the following
i. General Principles of deriving RDA(ICMR)
ii. Physiological adaptation to heat stress
iii. Overweight and obesity
.


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Answer any two of the following questions in about 150 words each. 5×2

a) Application of Body composition study
b) Hawthrorne effect
c) Prenatal Growth


Assignment –III

Answer the following questions in the about 250 words 10×3=30

a) Discuss in brief obesity assessment
b) Describe in brief Dietary methods
c) Explain the procedure with precautions on measuring biceps skinfold and chest
circumference.


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IGNOU Instructions for the BANC 109 Human Growth and Development Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BANC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

IGNOU BANC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BANC 109 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BANC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BANC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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IGNOU BANC 109 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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