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IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2022 , MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MPC 004 Assignment 2022-23 , MPC 004 Assignment, IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).

SECTION – A

1.Discuss the historical developments of social psychology.

Ans. Because of the background of individualistic thought upon which it began to take form, social psychology got its first impulse from the side of the study of social life. This direction of social-psychological development is represented by folk psychology and modern sociology, especially psychological sociology.

The development of social psychology from the side of the study of individual behavior has come into view more recently. It is represented by the rise into prominence of modern instinct psychology on the one hand, and by the development of “interaction” social psychology in this country on the other. On the basis of these and related more recently defined standpoints, social psychology has so far been carrying on broad generalization and constructive criticism rather than specific and detailed investigation. It is, however, necessarily beginning to enter upon this more careful development of its theory at the present time.

The last few years have brought social psychology forward as a subject of recognized academic and scientific importance. The advance which social psychology has recently made in this respect is particularly notable in this country. It was only with the appearance of the two systematic treatises by Ross and McDougall, in 1908, that social psychology began to attract any considerable attention here. In 1904 Professor Ellwood expressed gratification that social psychology was recognized at all in the program of the International Congress of Arts and Science to the extent of having been given place in one of the section meetings on sociology And even as late as 1916 Dewey was sounding a plea on “The Need for Social Psychology” before the psychologists of the country Today, however, social psychology is established as a recognized field of endeavor alongside of general psychology on the one hand and

 general sociology on the other; it has a secure place in college and university curricula; a rapidly expanding specialized literature to which both psychology and sociology are contributing; and a growing popularity which fairly threatens its scientific balance at this time when it is just beginning to enter upon a career of more careful scientific development.

But this recent development of social psychology, as may well be expected, has left social-psychological theory in a rather chaotic state. There has as yet been very little co-ordination in the field, and most writers have presented their particular conception or theory more or less in isolation from the rest of the developing field. As a result we are confronted at the present time with a somewhat confusing array of distinct and even conflicting standpoints and positions. The mere mention of such terms as folk psychology, crowd psychology, instinct psychology, suggestion, imitation, collective representations, conditioned reflex, habit, attitude, interest, desire, gestalt, is enough to recall this condition of affairs to anyone who has even a moderate acquaintance with the field. An examination of the current conceptions of the scope, outlook, purpose, methods, and relations of social psychology would similarly reveal the situation.

A recent work on psychology came out under the suggestive title of Psychologies of 1925. Were a similar work to be prepared for the field of social psychology, it would almost be necessary to give place to as many types as there are writers in the field. In short, there are at the present time a considerable number of social psychologies, but as yet very little established or generally accepted social psychology.

The development of social psychology.—Social Psychology has come forward during the last few years as a subject of recognized academic and scientific importance. This is particularly evident in this country. The recent development of social psychology has, however, left social-psychological theory in a rather disorganized state. As we know it today, social psychology is a complex product with a bipolar basis in the study of social life and individual behavior.

That is why it is difficult at the present time to make a brief survey of the development of social psychology adequately representative of the whole field. Social psychology is still largely a matter of distinct “schools” and “standpoints,” and even of disconnected individual contributions to social psychological theory. To follow out the connections of these various individual developments would take us over a large part of modern psychological and psychosocial thought. For modern social psychology has been intimately a part, not only of the progress of modern thought in the

 ( 73) fields of psychology and sociology, but also in such related fields as cultural anthropology, psychopathology, general evolutionary thought, etc. All that can be attempted here, therefore, is the enumeration of certain basic currents of modern social-psychological development, and the relation, in a very general way, of the field of social-psychological theory as it has thus been constituted, to the pressing problems of verification and synthesis which confront it today.

It may be said that the first systematic attempt to build up a “‘social” psychology, in contradistinction to the individualistic general psychology which had held more or less undisputed ground during the early nineteenth century, was made by the folk-psychologists. The conception of social psychology which the folk-psychologists sought to work out resulted chiefly, it is true, in culture history rather than in social psychology as we know it today. Folk psychology has accordingly become more closely identified with anthropology than with social psychology as specialized fields of investigation. Furthermore, during the early period when we are most concerned with folk psychology as a direct factor in the modern social-psychological movement, it was dominated by the presuppositions of Hegelian philosophy and the individualistic conceptions of introspective psychology, to an extent which has kept it apart from the main current of modern social psychological development in France, England, and in this country. Nevertheless, folk psychology has had some important results for modern social psychology as a whole. In the first place, folk psychology brought conspicuous support to the growing dissatisfaction with the traditional purely individualistic psychology and to the resulting interest in the study of human phenomena from more adequate social standpoints. Then, folk psychology was on fundamental social-psychological ground in its attempt to relate the objective elements of culture with the mental development of the individual. In addition, folk psychology was not only a factor in the modern social-psychological movement, because, like cultural anthropology and sociology generally, it was helping to bring the social aspect of psychosocial life more clearly into view, but also because its analysis had a distinct psychosocial, rather than a merely psychological, reference. It thus sought to concern itself with the cultural significance of such collective mental phenomena as it designated by the terms “folk,” “people,” “group mind,” “social consciousness,” “collective will,” etc., phenomena which have ever since occupied psychosocial thought, and the subsequent investigation of which must be looked upon as a leading factor in the differentiation of modern social psychology. In all these ways, then, folk psychology introduced a challenging social and collectivistic emphasis into its work, which must thereby be recognized as one of the sources of modern social-psychological agitation and development.

IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23

2. Explain the attribution theory and its applicability in education.

Ans. Learners are engaged in the learning environment due to a desire to develop causes of behaviors. Causes of behaviors are defined as an individual’s attributions. According to Heider (1958), individuals are motivated to engage in learning due to a personal need to develop new attributions.

Attribution theory is defined as the way that individuals envision the success or failure of their own behavior or the behavior of others . Learners tend to explain their reasons for success or failure based upon three dimensions: 1) internal or external, 2) stable or unstable, and 3) controllable or uncontrollable.

INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL

When examining an individual’s attributions, one must first examine the influence that the individual has over the examined outcome. Rotter (1966) defined the individual’s influence on the attainment of an outcome as the individual’s locus of control. According to Rotter, an individual’s locus of control can be externally or internally influenced. An external locus of control occurs when an outcome is independent of the learner’s behavior, while an internal locus of control occurs when an outcome is significantly related to the individual’s behavior. Learners who believe that they control their own destiny have an internal locus of control. A learner who contributes success and failure to external factors possess an external locus of control.

Beyond an individual’s internal or external locus of control, Weiner et al. (1971) posited that the most common causal factors that contribute to a learner’s success and failure are ability, task difficulty, effort, and luck. Based upon the instructional environment, the causal factors of ability, task difficulty, effort, and luck can influence the outcome of an individual’s behavior in different ways. Individuals who have an internal locus of control will more often attribute their success and failure to their ability and effort, while those with an external locus of control will more often attribute their success and failure to task difficulty and luck. Therefore, an individual’s locus of control (external or internal) is an important factor of achievement within an instructional environment.

STABLE AND UNSTABLE CAUSES FOR OUTCOMES

The second causal dimension examines the stability of the cause of an outcome (Heider, 1958; Rotter, 1966). Heider and Rotter described that each contributing factor has consistent stability over time. Stability is defined as the consistency of the relationship between the causal factor and the outcome of the behavior. Both ability and task difficulty are considered to be relative to a stable relationship between the causal factor and the behavior over time. The difference between the two causal factors is that ability is considered to be internally controlled, while task difficulty is considered to be externally controlled. Furthermore, effort and luck are considered to be more unstable in nature, meaning that the strength of the relationship between the causal factor and behavior changes based upon the actual behavior. Effort is considered to be internally controlled, while luck is considered to be externally controlled.

CONTROLLABLE OR UNCONTROLLABLE BEHAVIORS

The third causal dimension is the ability of the individual to control the outcome of the behavior (Weiner, 1979). Weiner stated that a behavior can be controllable or uncontrollable by the individual. If a behavior is controllable, then the individual has the capability to influence the outcome of a task or behavior, whereas if a behavior is uncontrollable, the individual has limited or no capability to influence the outcome of the task or behavior. The effect that the controllability of the behavior has is based upon the individual’s locus of control and the stability of the behavior.

APPLICATION OF ATTRIBUTION THEORY

When applying attribution theory in a learning environment, it is essential for the instructor to assist learners to accept their effort as the main predictor of achievement. To do so, instructors must utilize the three causal dimensions together to influence the outcome of a behavior or task. The outcome of each behavior or task will be different and require different learner attributes.

When examining the instructor’s influence on a learner’s locus of control, instructors can assist learners in developing an internal locus of control by utilizing learner-centered instructional strategies when presenting new content. By utilizing learner-centered instructional strategies, learners are able to acquire new knowledge in a manner where they are required to apply and utilize their knowledge in a practical setting. When utilizing learner-centered instructional strategies, the instructor becomes a facilitator of knowledge. Therefore, learners develop knowledge based on their experiences and interaction with the content, rather than through verbal instruction. When learners are taught through learner-centered instructional strategies, their individual internal locus of control is strengthened. Examples of learner-centered instructional strategies are:

  • individualized application,
  • demonstration,
  • inquiry-based instruction, and
  • problem-based learning.

Example Scenario

Roger, a county extension agent, was conducting a program on designing and implementing community gardens. During the presentation he asked participants to design and layout a sample garden for the courtyard of the county municipal building. Luis, who has limited artistic abilities, immediately got Roger’s attention and expressed his concern regarding the assigned activity. Roger responded to Luis’s concerns and provided further instruction to alleviate Luis’s hesitation and perceived inevitable failure. As Luis began the activity, he realized that his lack of artistic ability would have little impact on the completion of this activity. Quickly, Luis was able to apply the previously presented content to the activity and began to feel more confident in his ability to design a community garden.

As learners complete a behavior, they associate the outcome of that behavior to the four causal factors of ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck. Depending on the outcome of a behavior the learner’s response to each of the causal factors will differ (see Table 3). However, the instructor can influence the learner’s perceived ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck. Throughout instructional time, instructors should provide learners with opportunities to practice and apply their knowledge. This can be through guided practice in the instructional environment or through assignments that should be completed outside of instructional time. Regardless of where a learner is able to practice, instructors should provide learners with support and assistance to ensure that every learner fully grasps the given behavior or task. By providing learners with instructional practice, the instructor can assist the learner in promoting the learner’s internal causal factors of ability and effort.

Example Scenario

During a feed ration lesson, Mr. Jackson finished his introduction of the mathematics principles of calculating feed rations for livestock by giving students an opportunity to begin calculating the feed rations assigned for homework. As Mr. Jackson handed out the homework assignment, he reminded students to utilize the example problems that he worked through during the lesson and encouraged each of the students to ask questions before leaving the classroom. During the provided work time, Mr. Jackson moved around the classroom, answering questions and helping students follow the steps for solving the provided problems. The following day when students returned to class with the completed problems, Mr. Jackson spent the first 15 minutes of class reviewing the problems and answering the specific questions that students had related to each question.

The emphasis that each factor has on a learner’s success and failure can also be determined based upon the evaluative feedback that the learner receives from the instructor. The instructor’s feedback can also influence a shift in an individual’s locus of control from internal to external. Therefore, instructors should provide constructive feedback that is positively worded. For example: instructors should utilize “Good Attempt” instead of “Try Again.”

Example Scenario

George, a docent, was hosting several families with children of various ages on a tour of a local botanical garden. During the tour, George pointed to a hydrangea and asked the group, “Can anyone tell me the type of flower this is?” Jerome, a young adult, immediately raised his hand and shouted out, “It is a rose!” George looked at Jerome and replied, “Good try, but let’s look at the difference in the petals and the way that the individual flowers form a cluster. Does that help you identify the flower?” After a few moments of silence from the group, George stated, “This is a hydrangea.” George then took a few more minutes to describe how to identify a hydrangea plant and flower. Later in the tour, when the group came across a rose plant, George took a few moments to describe the characteristics of the rose flower and plant. By waiting until they came across a rose plant, George was able to defer the group’s attention away from Jerome’s incorrect answer and back to the actual plant characteristics being observed.

Instructors must recognize the diversity of their learners. Depending on the learner’s background, the learner may have different preconceptions or misconceptions regarding content, levels of success, and motivation. The learner may place a greater emphasis on one of the causal factors of behavior outcomes.

 

IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23

3. Discuss the different factors that affect helping behavior.


SECTION – B

4.Discuss the experimental design in social psychology

5. Explain the evolutionary theories of human interpersonal attraction.

6. Describe intervention to reduce aggression. 

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IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23

7. Explain the nature and characteristics of attitudes.

8. Discuss the two dimensional model for conflict resolution.

IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23

SECTION – C

9. Characteristics of group.

10. Measurement of group dynamics.

11. Schemas

12. Ethical issues in Social Psychology

IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23

13. Obedience

14. Altruism

15. Social Learning theory

16. Stereotypes

IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23

17. Overt Conflict

18. Group Development


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IGNOU Instructions for the MPC 004 ADVANCED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU MPC 004 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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MPC 004 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

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