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IGNOU MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022 , MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MPC 002 Assignment 2022-23 , MPC 002 Assignment, IGNOU MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

IGNOU MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).

SECTION – A

1. Discuss cognitive development during middle childhood.

Ans. During middle and late childhood children make strides in several areas of cognitive function including the capacity of working memory, their ability to pay attention, and their use of memory strategies. Both changes in the brain and experience foster these abilities.

The goal of most intelligence tests is to measure “g”, the general intelligence factor. Good intelligence tests are reliable, meaning that they are consistent over time, and also demonstrate validity, meaning that they actually measure intelligence rather than something else.

Language is such a special topic that there is an entire field, linguistics, devoted to its study. Linguistics views language in an objective way, using the scientific method and rigorous research to form theories about how humans acquire, use, and sometimes abuse language. There are a few major branches of linguistics, which is useful to understand in order to learn about language from a psychological perspective.

Humans, especially children, have an amazing ability to learn language. Within the first year of life, children will have learned many of the necessary concepts to have functional language, although it will still take years for their capabilities to develop fully. As we just explained, some people learn two or more languages fluently and are bilingual or multilingual. Here is a recap of the theorists and theories that have been proposed to explain the development of language.

Human language is the most complex behavior on the planet and, at least as far as we know, in the universe. Language involves both the ability to comprehend (receptive) spoken and written (expressive) words and to create communication in real-time when we speak or write.

As children enter school and learn more about the world, they develop more categories for concepts and learn more efficient strategies for storing and retrieving information. One significant reason is that they continue to have more experiences on which to tie new information. In other words, their knowledge base, knowledge in particular areas that makes learning new information easier, expands.

As children’s experiences and vocabularies grow, they build schemata and are able to organize objects in many different ways. They also understand classification hierarchies and can arrange objects into a variety of classes and subclasses.

Identity: One feature of concrete operational thought is the understanding that objects have qualities that do not change even if the object is altered in some way. For instance, the mass of an object does not change by rearranging it. A piece of chalk is still chalked even when the piece is broken in two.

Reversibility: The child learns that some things that have been changed can be returned to their original state. Water can be frozen and then thawed to become liquid again, but eggs cannot be unscrambled. Arithmetic operations are reversible as well: 2 + 3 = 5 and 5 – 3 = 2. Many of these cognitive skills are incorporated into the school’s curriculum through mathematical problems and in worksheets about which situations are reversible or irreversible.

Conservation: Remember the example in our last chapter of preoperational children thinking that a tall beaker filled with 8 ounces of water was “more” than a short, wide bowl filled with 8 ounces of water? Concrete operational children can understand the concept of conservation which means that changing one quality (in this example, height or water level) can be compensated for by changes in another quality (width). Consequently, there is the same amount of water in each container, although one is taller and narrower and the other is shorter and wider.

Decentration: Concrete operational children no longer focus on only one dimension of any object (such as the height of the glass) and instead consider the changes in other dimensions too (such as the width of the glass). This allows for conservation to occur.

Seriation: Arranging items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight, in a methodical way is now demonstrated by the concrete operational child. For example, they can methodically arrange a series of different-sized sticks in order by length, while younger children approach a similar task in a haphazard way.

Children differ in their memory abilities, and these differences predict both their readiness for school and academic performance. During middle and late childhood children make strides in several areas of cognitive function including the capacity of working memory, their ability to pay attention, and their use of memory strategies. Both changes in the brain and experience foster these abilities.

Working Memory: The capacity of working memory expands during middle and late childhood, and research has suggested that both an increase in processing speed and the ability to inhibit irrelevant information from entering memory are contributing to the greater efficiency of working memory during this age. Changes in myelination and synaptic pruning in the cortex are likely behind the increase in processing speed and ability to filter out irrelevant stimuli.

Children with learning disabilities in math and reading often have difficulties with working memory. They may struggle with following the directions of an assignment. When a task calls for multiple steps, children with poor working memory may miss steps because they may lose track of where they are in the task. Adults working with such children may need to communicate: Using more familiar vocabulary, using shorter sentences, repeating task instructions more frequently, and breaking more complex tasks into smaller more manageable steps. Some studies have also shown that more intensive training of working memory strategies, such as chunking, aid in improving the capacity of working memory in children with poor working memory.

Attention: As noted above, the ability to inhibit irrelevant information improves during this age group, with there being a sharp improvement in selective attention from age six into adolescence (Vakil, Blachstein, Sheinman, & Greenstein.  Children also improve in their ability to shift their attention between tasks or different features of a task. A younger child who is asked to sort objects into piles based on type of object, car versus animal, or color of object, red versus blue, may have difficulty if you switch from asking them to sort based on type to now having them sort based on color. This requires them to suppress the prior sorting rule. An older child has less difficulty making the switch, meaning there is greater flexibility in their attentional skills. These changes in attention and working memory contribute to children having more strategic approaches to challenging tasks.

Memory Strategies: Bjorklund describes a developmental progression in the acquisition and use of memory strategies. Such strategies are often lacking in younger children but increase in frequency as children progress through elementary school. Examples of memory strategies include rehearsing information you wish to recall, visualizing and organizing information, creating rhymes, such “i” before “e” except after “c”, or inventing acronyms, such as “roygbiv” to remember the colors of the rainbow. Schneider, Kron-Sperl, and Hünnerkopf reported a steady increase in the use of memory strategies from ages six to ten in their longitudinal study. Moreover, by age ten many children were using two or more memory strategies to help them recall information. Schneider and colleagues found that there were considerable individual differences at each age in the use of strategies, and that children who utilized more strategies had better memory performance than their same aged peers.

IGNOU MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23

2. Define life span development. Discuss the characteristics of life span development.

Ans. Development describes the growth of humans throughout the lifespan, from conception to death. It refers to development as patterns of change over time. It does not just involve the biological and physical aspects of growth, but also the cognitive and social aspects associated with development.

The scientific study of human development seeks to understand and explain how and why people change throughout life. This field examines change across a broad range of topics including motor skills and other psycho physiological processes. Cognitive development involves areas such as problem solving, moral understanding, and conceptual understanding; language acquisition; social, personality, and emotional development; and self-concept and identity formation. Growth is defined as an increase in size; development is defined as a progression toward maturity. Life span development includes issues such as the extent to which development occurs through the gradual accumulation of knowledge versus stage like development, or the extent to which children are born with innate mental structures versus learning through experience. Many researchers are interested in the interaction between personal characteristics, the individual’s behaviour, and environmental factors including social context, and their impact on development. The scientific study of development is important not only to psychology, but also to sociology, education, and health care. By better understanding how and why people change and grow, one can then apply this knowledge to helping people live up to their full potential.

A number of major issues have emerged in the study of human development. These issues include the following: Is development due more to genetics or environment? Does development occur slowly and smoothly, or do changes happen in stages? Do early childhood experiences have the greatest impact on development, or are later events equally important? Continuity and Discontinuity: The question of whether development is solely and evenly continuous, or whether it is marked by age-specific periods. Developmental Psychologists who advocate the continuous model describe development as a relatively smooth process, without sharp or distinct stages, through which an individual must pass. That is, development is conceived of as a process of the gradual accumulation of a behaviour, skill, or knowledge. In contrast, those who hold to the second view would suggest that developmental change is best characterised as discontinuous in nature. They describe development as a series of discrete stages, each of which is characterised by what had gone on in the past and how well the child was able to master the developmental tasks of that period etc. These theorists suggest that behaviours or skills often change qualitatively across time, and that new organisations of behaviours, skills, or knowledge emerge in a rather abrupt or discrete fashion.

Stability and Change: Another issue which is of importance to developmental psychologists is the issue of stability versus change. Whether development is best characterised by stability, for example, does a behaviour or trait such as shyness stay stable in its expression over time or change example: Could a person’s degree of shyness fluctuate across the life span? Nature vs. Nurture: Whether the behaviour ultimately developed by the child is due to hereditary factors or environmental factors. This issue of great to psychologists. The debate over the relative contributions of inheritance and the environment is one of the oldest issues in both philosophy and psychology. This debate concerns the relative degree to which heredity and learning affect the behaviour of the individual. Both genetic traits and environmental circumstances are involved in an individual’s development, although the amount of influence the two has is not clearly evident. In fact it may be stated that the individual and his or her circumstances decide how much of the behaviour is influenced by heredity factors and how much by environmental factors. Today, most psychologists believe that it is an interaction between these two forces that causes development. Some aspects of development are distinctly biological, such as puberty. However, the onset of puberty can be affected by environmental factors such as diet and nutrition.

Stability and Change: Another issue which is of importance to developmental psychologists is the issue of stability versus change. Whether development is best characterised by stability, for example, does a behaviour or trait such as shyness stay stable in its expression over time or change example: Could a person’s degree of shyness fluctuate across the life span? Nature vs. Nurture: Whether the behaviour ultimately developed by the child is due to hereditary factors or environmental factors. This issue of great to psychologists. The debate over the relative contributions of inheritance and the environment is one of the oldest issues in both philosophy and psychology. This debate concerns the relative degree to which heredity and learning affect the behaviour of the individual. Both genetic traits and environmental circumstances are involved in an individual’s development, although the amount of influence the two has is not clearly evident. In fact it may be stated that the individual and his or her circumstances decide how much of the behaviour is influenced by heredity factors and how much by environmental factors. Today, most psychologists believe that it is an interaction between these two forces that causes development. Some aspects of development are distinctly biological, such as puberty. However, the onset of puberty can be affected by environmental factors such as diet and nutrition.

It is generally agreed that there are periods in children’s lives in which they become biologically mature enough to gain certain skills that they could not have easily picked up prior to that maturation. For example, only at the age of 3 years the child may be able to have such muscular coordination that he can learn to write very few alphabets when taught so. In other words there is a certain readiness needed to learn a skill and children develop that readiness only at a particular age. For instance you cannot expect a 3 months old baby to stand on his two legs as it is impossible due to the immaturity of the organs that are needed for standing. Children are ready and open to develop certain things during specific stages but they need proper stimulating environment to develop the concerned abilities. Infants can grow in length and weight if proper and adequate nutrition is made available to them. If however there is a lack of nutrition the child will not grow as expected. This is why it is important for parents to understand how their children are growing and what nutrition to be given at what time etc.

IGNOU MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23

3. Discuss psychosocial challenges in older adults.


SECTION – B

4. Define intellectual disability. Explain its identification process in children and effective
teaching strategies

5.  Elucidate Marcia’s identity status.

6. Describe the ageing process in men and women.

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IGNOU MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23

7. Explain Levinson’s seasons of life theory.

8. Describe cognitive changes during middle adulthood.

IGNOU MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23

SECTION – C

9. Exceptional children

10. Cross-sectional method

11. Grammar and pragmatics

12. Signs of negative self-concept in adolescents

IGNOU MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23

13. Growth spurt

14. New egocentrism

15. Sociometric rejections

16. Social hazards during early childhood

IGNOU MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23

17. Continuity vs discontinuity

18. High-risk behaviours during adolescence


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IGNOU Instructions for the MPC 002 LIFE SPAN PSYCHOLOGY  

IGNOU MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU MPC 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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MPC 002 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

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