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IGNOU MGSE-007 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Free PDF

IGNOU MGSE-007 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Free PDF : MGSE-007 Solved Assignment 2022 , MGSE-007 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MGSE-007 Assignment 2022-23, MGSE-007 Assignment, IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

PART- A

1. Gender and Organization

Ans. Gender and organization – a differentiated understanding The absence of women at higher levels in organizations can be seen as a product of earlier, historical patterns involving the division of labour between men and women in a public and a private sphere, stereotypes, prejudices, etc.. These pat-terns also characterize contemporary social practices. Changes are, however, taking place as the modernization process, involving a ‘rationalization’ of the gender issue, continues. From a human resource management point of view such a rationalization reduces, at least to some extent, the importance of ‘irrelevant’ factors when it comes to utilizing the workforce. At the same time, it is clear that such a process does not take a linear course. Its development differs drastically between nations and different time periods. In the USA and in Scandinavia it has slowly, but steadily, increased (at least to the middle management level). As our empirical studies showed the development also differs between different organi-zations. The understanding of counterforces to a development which otherwise is reducing inequality is important. Many of these forces can, as we saw, be found on the organizational level. The topic of gender has during recent years attained increasing interest in organization studies after having been neglected previously in organization and management theory. Historical examples of gender-blind approaches are well illustrated by Mills (1988). The gender and organization orientation is broader than the women in management (WIM) perspective which focuses mainly on female managers, whereas the majority of all women are not treated or are seen as a group of secondary interest and importance. While most of the earlier writings on the topic of women in management emphasized equality in the sense of equal access to and equal chances of functioning in higher-level jobs, some re-cent scholars have started to question the ‘gender neutrality’ of managerial jobs, workplaces and organizations in themselves (Balsamo, 1985; Calás & Smir-cich, 1992b; Ferguson, 1984; Hearn & Parkin, 1987; Mills, 1988; Mills & Tan-cred, 1992). This is a discourse with which we symphatize, even though our focus in major parts of this book has been on gender (with a certain emphasis on women) and managerial jobs. In this final chapter, we broaden our approach and contribute to a general understanding of gender and organization. As we remarked in the introduction to this book, we see the study of female managers and the relative absence of women at higher levels in organization partly as an entrance to a more general theory about gender and organization. Women and management is one issue, but far from the only significant issue regarding gender and organization. We do not have empirical material on other groups than those belonging to the middle and upper middle echelons of organization.

 2. Organization Diagnosis 

Ans. Organizational diagnosis is a creative method for getting to know an organization at all levels- from the surface levels to the deepest hidden parts that aren’t visible to the eye. Performing organizational diagnosis is not so far off from a doctor trying to diagnose their patients. Some doctors diagnose differently by focusing on nutrition, food, and natural remedies, whereas others diagnose by using chemical medications, or even by trying a remedy, seeing whether it has positive effects, and then trying something new. This is very similar to what we have learned to do in the business sense to organizations. Different diagnostic models can be used in different situations depending on the wants, needs, and goals of our clients (patients). Generally speaking, these models would be used by human resources or organizational development and change practitioners who either work internally in an organization, or have been hired as a contracted consultant to help figure out the root causes of issues an organization is facing and to provide recommendations to improve them. In either case, the diagnostic models provide a template or tool to break down the organization into components to understand it more in depth as well as to better visualize how all of the parts work together. From performing the diagnosis alone, it is often possible to begin to pick out issues that are present within an organization. In the cases I’ve come across, diagnosis allowed me to go from knowing almost nothing about the organizations to understanding the inputs to their organization which were derived from understanding their environment, getting a handle of the strategy or the organization and the goals of the key stakeholders, becoming familiar with the design components (structure, HR systems, technology, management processes), creating a clear picture of the organizational culture, and finally, understanding the organizational outputs and performance indicators based on the rest of the organizational components. Not only did I understand the organizations well after that diagnosis, but I was also able to see pieces of the organization that didn’t align. Because the diagnosis took a high level view of the organization but also required deeper level analysis for completeness, it became a relatively straight forward process to begin identifying inconsistencies and incongruences in relation to the organization’s values and goals.

3. Nature of Organization 

Ans. Nearly all organizations that use GIS share some common program and project management concerns and practices, but there are differences of mission, mandate, and structure among public, private, and non-profit organizations that affect how they use and manage GIS. An effective manager should acquire a solid understanding of the workings and structure of his or her organization and the external organizations with which it may interact in providing GIS products and services. This is important because a GIS project or program manager has a responsibility to support the organization’s mission and work within the established laws and policies. It is also likely, if not certain, that a GIS manager will need to coordinate with external organizations in the sharing of data or project coordination. Public-sector governmental agencies at the local, regional, state, and national level have been focal points of GIS implementation because their missions require the collection and use of maps and geographically referenced information. Croswell and Fries (2004) explain the prominence of GIS in the public sector. Private sector organizations using GIS technology include private utility companies, resource and land development firms, surveying and engineering services companies, geographic data providers, commercial and retail businesses, and many other types of private companies. They are profit-driven and use GIS to support their lines of business to develop, integrate, and deliver products and services to customers. Refer to Croswell, Section 1.4 for more information about organizations’ use of GIS technology.

4. Inverted Pyramid 

Ans. Dentify your key points. What piece of information is the key fact you want your readers to know, even if they only read a single paragraph or sentence on the page? What effectively summarizes all the information that will follow? Rank secondary information. Outline the story details and supporting information, prioritizing the information that is most likely to be of interest to the broadest audience, and moving down the list to the smaller and more nuanced details. Write well and concisely. The structure only helps readers if the content is strong. Cut unnecessary information. Get to the point quickly. Use straightforward language. Use short paragraphs and bulleted lists. Frontload all elements of content with important information. The main headline should be descriptive. The story should start with the main point. Each heading or subheading should be descriptive. The first sentence of every paragraph should be the most important. The first words in each sentence should be information-carrying and indicate what content will follow. Consider adding a summary or list of highlights. Some sites go a step beyond and add a summary (like this article does) or a bulleted list of key points to further emphasize the main takeaways of the content.

PART- B

1. Define the Glass ceiling. Discuss factors responsible for the glass ceiling. 

Ans. The term glass ceiling refers to a metaphorical invisible barrier that prevents certain individuals from being promoted to managerial- and executive-level positions within an organization or industry. The phrase is commonly used to describe the difficulties faced by women and minorities when trying to move to higher roles in a male-dominated corporate hierarchy. The barriers are most often unwritten, meaning that these individuals are more likely to be restricted from advancing through accepted norms and implicit biases rather than defined corporate policies. Marilyn Loden first coined the phrase “glass ceiling” while speaking as a panelist at the 1978 Women’s Exposition in New York. As a fill-in for her employer’s only female executive, Loden was invited to discuss how women were to blame for the barriers preventing them from advancing in their careers. Instead, she spoke about deeper, ignored issues that historically kept women from occupying positions of authority: the glass ceiling This concept was later popularized in a 1986 Wall Street Journal article discussing the corporate hierarchy and how invisible barriers seemed to prevent women from advancing in their careers past a certain level. In 2015, the publication reported (quoting Gay Bryant, former editor of Working Woman magazine) that the concept goes back to the 1970s and may have originated with two women at Hewlett Packard.5 The concept expanded in more contemporary times to include minorities in addition to women.

2. What is a gendering organization? Explain. 

Ans. Understanding organizational practices and processes is central to explaining gender inequality. While women remain clustered in secondary labor markets marked by lower wages, uncertainty, short career ladders, and few if any benefits, most men find employment in primary labor markets characterized by greater economic rewards. Occupational and job segregation continue to be an enduring feature within most firms. Additionally, gender differences in income, power, authority, autonomy, and status translate into men, particularly white men, enjoying systematic advantages over women. Despite changing social and economic conditions and legislation prohibiting sex discrimination, these inequalities persist and subsequently inform an impressive body of labor market and workplace analyses. The study of ‘‘gendered organizations’’ as a distinct area of scholarly inquiry has developed over the last 15 years in an effort to explain such inequality. The concept, coined by Joan Acker, means that ‘‘advantage and disadvantage, exploitation and control, action and emotion, meaning and identity, are patterned through and in terms of a distinction between male and female, masculine and feminine’’ (Acker 1990:146). Although relatively new, this field has roots in second wave and radical feminist scholarship dating back at least to the 1960s. Scholars began merging gender studies with organizational literature in an effort to render visible women’s experiences, place men’s experiences in a gendered context (rather than a universal experience shared by all), and identify the ways in which gender inequality is (re)created and maintained over time.

3. Discuss the role of the Organization in building the capacity of the Organization.

Ans. Capacity building (or capacity development, capacity strengthening) is the improvement in an individual’s or organization’s facility (or capability) “to produce, perform or deploy”. The terms capacity building and capacity development have often been used interchangeably, although a publication by OECD-DAC stated in 2006 that capacity development was the preferable term. Since the 1950s, international organizations, governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and communities use the concept of capacity building as part of “social and economic development” in national and subnational plans.

The United Nations Development Programme defines itself by “capacity development” in the sense of “‘how UNDP works” to fulfill its mission. The UN system applies it in almost every sector, including several of the Sustainable Development Goals to be achieved by 2030. For example, the Sustainable Development Goal 17 advocates for enhanced international support for capacity building in developing countries to support national plans to implement the 2030 Agenda. Under the codification of international development law, capacity building is a “cross cutting modality of international intervention”. It often overlaps or is part of interventions in public administration reform, good governance and education in line sectors of public services. The consensus approach of the international community for the components of capacity building as established by the World Bank, United Nations and European Commission consists of five areas: a clear policy framework, institutional development and legal framework, citizen participation and oversight, human resources improvements including education and training, and sustainability. Some of these overlap with other interventions and sectors. Much of the actual focus has been on training and educational inputs where it may be a euphemism for education and training. For example, UNDP itself focuses on training needs in its assessment methodology rather than on actual performance goals.

 

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