IGNOU MGSE-006 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Free PDF : MGSE-006 Solved Assignment 2022 , MGSE-006 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MGSE-006 Assignment 2022-23, MGSE-006 Assignment, IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.
1. Entitlement Relationships
Ans. The first conceptualization of entitlement most likely belongs to Freud (GeorgeLevi et al., 2014). If Freud (1916) talked about the patients who claimed more compensation for their congenital deficiencies, Jacobson (1959) suggested that some people may think they deserve more because of the exceptional qualities they believe they have. Later, the concept has been included among the five factors of narcissism, indicating the tendency to expect favored treatment from others (Exline et al., 2004). It is well-documented that narcissism has a negative impact on couple relationships by increasing vengefulness (Brown, 2004), interpersonal aggression (Reidy et al., 2010), and vindictive behavior (Ogrodniczuk et al., 2009). Also, some studies indicate that narcissism may predict higher marital satisfaction and commitment, but only in cases of narcissistic individuals with high self-esteem (Sedikides et al., 2004) and with communal feelings for the partner (Finkel et al., 2009). However, narcissism and entitlement are distinct constructs (Brown et al., 2009). First, more recent research showed a clear distinction between two forms of excessive entitlement, grandiose and vulnerable, both of them being unrelated to narcissism (Crowe et al., 2016). Second, entitlement and narcissism show different relationships with other psychological constructs. For example, while grandiose narcissism is negatively associated with short-term psychological distress, anxiety and depression, entitlement shows no relationships with them (Brown et al., 2009). Third, narcissism is a purely intrapersonal construct, while entitlement is a more interpersonal one (Williams et al., 2018). Finally, narcissism can be conceptualized as a personality trait and a personality disorder (Lamkin et al., 2017), while entitlement is a trait-like characteristic that can take both adaptive (assertive) and pathological (restricted or inflated) forms.
2. Gender and Rights-based approach
Ans. Too often, emergency response is limited to addressing practical, short-term emergency needs, through service delivery. Without minimizing the value of these services or their importance, they do not always fit within a framework that protects and promotes the rights of beneficiaries, like a rights-based approach would do. A rights-based approach is particularly important when working on VAWG, which cannot be addressed without working on basic gender equality rights and its root causes. As demonstrated in the table below, a rights-based approach invests beneficiaries as ‘rights-holders’, creates an avenue for their voices to be heard, and enables them to play an active role in rebuilding and development—as opposed to providing support or services on an assumed needs basis and having no say in what action is taken. A rights-based approach also seeks to empower women and girls. ‘Empowerment’ implies that women are powerful in the face of adversity and approaches must build on that. Empowerment programming involves building the tools and resources necessary on an individual and community level to strengthen women and girls’ ability to make life choices that affect their social and physical well-being. These choices include decisions regarding their sexual health, livelihoods, continuing education and the use and control of social and economic resources. This requires programmes to work with men and entire communities to create an environment where women and girls are supported to make these decisions safely. It also means building the capacity of communities to identify and change the structural environment that enables violence against women and girls to continue. It requires long-term engagement from the outset of an emergency through until peace and development have truly come to women and girls. Examples of empowerment programming include: ensuring access to information in the earliest days of the emergency, supporting women’s choice in using the family planning method they want to use, working with men in Village Savings Loan Associations to allow women to have more voice in the home and reduce violence, and creating a larger environment where women can move around safely (Source: IRC FAQs, 2011). Applying a rights-based approach to VAWG responses in conflict/post-conflict settings can strengthen the accountability of all humanitarian actors including the UN and governments by promoting participation and inclusion; in turn, this can reinforce a culturally sensitive and non-discriminatory response to emergencies. By understanding the social factors that influence decision-making during conflicts, and actively recognizing and analyzing changing roles and vulnerabilities of women and men, a rights-based approach can mitigate the short-term and long-term negative effects of a crisis situation (UNFPA and Harvard School of Public Health, 2010).
3. Gender and Water sector
Ans. UN Women estimates 150 million women and girls are emerging from poverty by 2030, thanks largely to comprehensive education, labor, and social protection strategies and reforms implemented by governments around the world. Celebration of this anticipated Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) progress is tempered, however, by the realization that a majority — roughly two-thirds — of the 435 million women and girls experiencing extreme poverty will likely be left behind. The impact of gender inequality has severe costs and consequences for entire societies. Women and girls in 80% of households without on-premises drinking water access miss out on innumerable economic and educational opportunities due to daily water collection responsibilities. Women also are underrepresented in leadership and decision-making roles despite making up nearly half of the world’s population. Moreover, lifetime earnings of women could increase by more than half – that is, US $24,586 per person or $170 trillion globally – if women earned as much as men.
This year’s International Women’s Day, celebrated since 1911, aims to further raise awareness of and break the bias that perpetuates gender inequality in the 21st century. This bias continues despite gender mainstreaming and other public policy measures that unequivocally affirm the equal rights of women and men and officially integrate gendered perspectives in legislation, research, resource allocation, and project management and monitoring. In the water sector, blind spots pose a particular barrier to progress. Blind spots due to limited data, discriminatory structural and systemic violations such as stereotypes and norms, need to be urgently addressed. Even within the SDGs there are blind spots: none of the 11 indicators for SDG 6 (clean water and sanitation) are related to gender, for example. While “paying special attention to the needs of women and girls” is descriptively highlighted in Target 6.2 (adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene), all of SDG 6’s indicators are actually gender-blind as data such as the proportion of women and girls accessing safe services or involved in decision-making are not monitored. The water sector needs to collect gender-disaggregated data measuring women’s ability to meet their water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) needs, access resources, and exercise agency if it is to develop evidence-based gender equality policies and interventions.
4. Hindu Succession Act, 1956
Ans. The Hindu Succession Act, 1956 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to amend and codify the law relating to intestate or unwilled succession, among Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs. The Act lays down a uniform and comprehensive system of inheritance and succession into one Act. The Hindu woman’s limited estate is abolished by the Act. Any property possessed by a Hindu female is to be held by her absolute property and she is given full power to deal with it and dispose it of by will as she likes. Parts of this Act was amended in December 2004 by the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005. Any person who is a Hindu by religion in any of its forms or developments including a Virashaiva, a Lingayat or follower of the Brahmo, Prarthana or Arya Samaj; Any person who is Buddhist, Sikh by religion; and to any other person who is not a Muslim, Christian, Parsi, or Jew by religion unless it is proved that the concerned person would not have been governed by the Hindu Law or by any custom or usage as part of that law in respect of any of the matters dealt with herein if this Act had not been passed. Any child, legitimate or illegitimate, both of whose parents are Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, or Sikhs by religion; any child, legitimate or illegitimate, one of whose parents is a Hindu, Buddhist, Jain or Sikh by religion and who is brought up as a member of the tribe, community, group or family to which such parent belongs or belonged; Any person who is converted or re-convert to the Hindu, Buddhist, Jain, or Sikh religion. The property of a Hindu male dying intestate, or without a will, would be given first to heirs within Class I. If there are no heirs categorized as Class I, the property will be given to heirs within Class II. If there are no heirs in Class II, the property will be given to the deceased’s agnates or relatives through male lineage. If there are no agnates or relatives through the male’s lineage, then the property is given to the cognates or any relative through the lineage of females.
1. What is the relationship between women and the forest? Explain with suitable examples.
Ans. In the early 1960s, an interest in women and their connection with the environment was sparked, largely by a book written by Esther Boserup entitled Woman’s Role in Economic Development. Starting in the 1980s, policy makers and governments became more mindful of the connection between the environment and gender issues. Changes began to be made regarding natural resource and environmental management with the specific role of women in mind. According to the World Bank in 1991, “Women play an essential role in the management of natural resources, including soil, water, forests and energy…and often have a profound traditional and contemporary knowledge of the natural world around them”. Whereas women were previously neglected or ignored, there was increasing attention paid to the impact of women on the natural environment and, in return, the effects the environment has on the health and well-being of women. The gender-environment relations have valuable ramifications in regard to the understanding of nature between men and women, the management and distribution of resources and responsibilities, and the day-to-day life and well-being of people Different discourses have shaped the way that sustainable development is approached, and as time goes on women have become more integrated into shaping these ideas. The definition of sustainable development is highly debated itself, but is defined by Harcourt as a way to “establish equity between generations” and to take into account “social, economic, and environmental needs to conserve non-renewable resources” and decrease the amount of waste produced by industrialization. The first discourse that emerged in relation to women was Women in Development (WID), the perspective that advocated for women’s status to be improved in developing countries which then transformed into Women, Environment, and Development (WED). Critiques for WID included its place in a larger western mindset, perpetuating a colonial and liberal discourse that was not compatible with supporting the global population of women. WID placed women as central actors in household, rural and market economies and looked to the hierarchical institution of western development to fix the issues that arise because of this.
2. Explain indicators and measurements of food security and food insecurity.
Ans. Food security is a flexible concept as reflected in the many attempts at definition in research and policy usage. Even a decade ago, there were about 200 definitions in published writings.Whenever the concept is introduced in the title of a study or its objectives, it is necessary to look closely to establish the explicit or implied definition The continuing evolution of food security as an operational concept in public policy has reflected the wider recognition of the complexities of the technical and policy issues involved. The most recent careful redefinition of food security is that negotiated in the process of international consultation leading to the World Food Summit (WFS) in November 1996. The contrasting definitions of food security adopted in 1974 and 1996, along with those in official FAO and World Bank documents of the mid-1980s, are set out below with each substantive change in definition underlined. A comparison of these definitions highlights the considerable reconstruction of official thinking on food security that has occurred over 25 years. These statements also provide signposts to the policy analyses, which have reshaped our understanding of food security as a problem of international and national responsibility. Policy statements on food security give less and less prominence to transitory food insecurity and the risks of acute food crisis. The frequently reiterated assurance that there is globally enough food to feed everyone is supported, moreover, by the success in limiting the impact of the Southern Africa drought crisis of 1991/92. Such considerations may even suggest that the risk of a natural disaster, an economic shock or a humanitarian problem resulting in a severe food crisis is diminishing.
Before accepting that comfortable conclusion, it is appropriate to re-examine the issue of transitory food insecurity and the possible links with liberalization. According to the World Bank, in 1986 “The major sources of transitory food insecurity are year-to-year variations in international food prices, foreign exchange earnings, domestic food production and household incomes. These are often related. Temporary sharp reductions in a population’s ability to produce or purchase food and other essentials undermine long term development and cause loss of human capital from which it takes years to recover.
Ans. A social enterprise is an organisation that applies commercial strategies to maximize improvements in financial, social and environmental well-being. This may include maximizing social impact alongside profits for co-owners. Social enterprises can be structured as a business, a partnership for-profit or nonprofit, and may take the form (depending on in which country the entity exists and the legal forms available) of a co-operative, mutual organization, a disregarded entity,a social business, a benefit corporation, a community interest company, a company limited by guarantee or a charity organisation. They can also take more conventional structures. Social enterprises have business, environmental and social goals. As a result, their social goals are embedded in their objective, which differentiates them from other organisations and companies.A social enterprise’s main purpose is to promote, encourage, and make social change. Social enterprises are businesses created to further a social purpose in a financially sustainable way. Social enterprises can provide income generation opportunities that meet the basic needs of people who live in poverty. They are sustainable and earned income from sales is reinvested in their mission. They do not depend on philanthropy and can sustain themselves over the long term. Their models can be expanded or replicated to other communities to generate more impact.
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