IGNOU MGSE-003 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Free PDF : MGSE-003 Solved Assignment 2022 , MGSE-003 Solved Assignment 2022-23, MGSE-003 Assignment 2022-23, MGSE-003 Assignment, IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.
1. Beijing +15
Ans. The fifteenth anniversary of the adoption of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action was marked in a commemorative meeting during the fifty-fourth session of the Committee on Women which took place in New York from 1 to 12 March 2010 and brought together government officials and representatives of civil society, the media and the private sector to assess what was achieved since the Beijing Conference in 1995, share experiences and good practices and discuss priority actions to deal with persistent obstacles and new challenges. Organized, in collaboration with the LAS General Secretariat, UNIFE, CAWTAR and the Arab Women Organization, a training workshop on how to prepare national reports for Beijing +15 targeting experts from national women machineries and women ministries in the Arab region and based on the questionnaire prepared by the United Nations regional commissions for the purpose of monitoring the efforts exerted by countries at the practical and strategic levels to implement the Beijing Platform for Action. The meeting was held on 24 to 26 March 2009 at LAS headquarters, Cairo; Jointly prepared and coordinated with the League of Arab States a draft consolidated Arab report on the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action 15 years later, based on the national reports provided by countries; Organized an expert group meeting in Beirut on 19 and 20 October 2009 to review the progress achieved in the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action in the Arab region: Beijing +15 and discuss the draft consolidated Arab report on the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action 15 years later, introduce the necessary amendments, and come up with recommendations to be presented at the fourth session of the Committee on Women for discussion and adoption;
Included the Consolidated Arab Report on the Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action + 15 as one of the main themes to be discussed during ESCWA’s Fourth Session of the Committee on Women which was held in Beirut from 21 to 23 October 2009, whereby participants reviewed and assessed progress achieved in the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action 15 years later, adopted the consolidated Arab report on the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action (Beijing +15), determined future priorities for the period until 2015 and presented new initiatives and actions aimed at accelerating the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action and the Arab Plan of Action for the Advancement of Women to the Year 2005 and addressing challenges to implementation. Findings of the Arab report on the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action (Beijing +15) were presented by ESCWA’s Executive Secretary at the Fiftyfourth Session of the Commission on Women (CSW54) that took place in New York in March 2010, during the High-level Panel entitled “Regional Perspectives in Progress Achieved and Remaining Gaps and Challenges in the Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action”. A side event was also organized during CSW54 to present the work of ESCWA Centre for Women in promoting gender equality and women empowerment and the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action.
2. First World Conference on Women (1975):
Ans. In 1975, the first United Nations World Conference on Women took place between 19 June and 2 July in Mexico City, bringing together individuals from a wide range of backgrounds with the goal of promoting gender equality. The World Conference of Women (WCW) was the capstone event of International Women’s Year, the UN’s response to the transnational women’s liberation movement sweeping the globe. Mexico City had not been the first choice of venue— the event’s initial host country, Colombia, had backed out after not being able to come up with the necessary funding.
The Mexican government then stepped in, seeing the conference as a way to elevate its standing in the international community, particularly in comparison with the United States. In Mexico, after all, gender equality had been guaranteed since 1917 in the Mexican Constitution, while the United States was still struggling (and would eventually fail) to pass an equal rights amendment. Additionally, Mexican leaders wanted to showcase Mexico’s impressive International Women’s Year Program and use it as evidence that developing nations did not need to be under the supervision of industrialized countries when it came to laws of equality or execution of UN programs. The United Nations General Assembly agreed upon three primary objectives for the conference: gender equality and an end to gender discrimination, integration and participation of women in development, and increasing women’s contribution to world peace. In addition to the official conference, there was a parallel forum called The International Women’s Year Tribune, where 6,000 non-governmental organizations (NGOs) discussed various issues, although without the authority to implement any resulting action plans. The conference proceedings were hosted in the Gimnasio Olímpico Juan de la Barrera, an indoor arena that had previously served as one of the sites of the 1968 Mexico City Summer Olympics.s Looking back, it is easy to see the optimism participants felt at the conference. The UN managed to bring 133 governments together, most of which were led by female delegates. Margaret Bruce, the Deputy Secretary General of both International Women’s Year and the World Conference on Women told The New York Times that their goal was “to do such a good job in Mexico City that people won’t giggle anymore whenever they talk about women.” Helvi Sipilä, a Finnish diplomat who served as the Secretary General of WCW, explained that the conference would pay attention to matters such as “political decision making, educational opportunities, economic opportunities, a different status in civil courts and all questions of maternity.” The enthusiasm that Bruce expressed along with the confidence to tackle the topics Sipilä mentioned captured the powerful spirit of that moment. Women’s issues were finally being taken seriously.
3. Engendering Communication.
Ans. There is growing evidence of increases in information and communication technology (ICT) penetration being associated with increases in the rate of economic growth Roeller and Waverman, 2001; Kelly et al. , 2010). As countries are more closely integrated into the global information economy, benchmarking participation and use of ICTs, almost absent until recently across Africa, is critical to establishing the status of ICT access and usage as a result of the success and failure of ICT policies aimed at promoting ICT uptake and, ultimately, the progress of nations. The greatest challenge facing developing countries is the development of the human capital required to operate a modern economy and society effectively. Harnessing the human potential of both men and women is the only route to meeting the developmental needs of countries, and ensuring their competitiveness in the global economy. That ICTs play an important role in development is now well documented. The use of wider access to telephone services to enable social inclusion through employment generation and improvements in social services, and in fishing and farming practices, has been documented ( de Silva et al. , 2009; Jensen, 2007). Access to such simple ICTs as telephones can break down the isolation of individuals, enhance their chance of economic inclusion and thus “provide diverse avenues for women’s social, political and economic empowerment” UNDAW, 2003). Most of the studies in recent years on women’s access to and usage of ICTs argue that there is a significant gender divide, particularly in remote rural areas in developing countries. A 2005 study by the Gender and ICT Network (Reseau Genre et TIC), reveals that, globally, women’s chances of benefiting from the advantages of the information society are one-third less than men’s ( Mottin-Sylla, 2005). There is also evidence that women’s ability to contribute to their own development and to that of their children, communities and the wider economy, is dependent on the achievement of more equitable power relations in society; and that current inequalities inhibit the development of nations and the potential of women to deploy ICTs towards these ends ( Todaro and Smith, 2007).
4. Percy Amendment
Ans. Around the world, Peace Corps Volunteers are working with communities to address gender equality and empower women and girls. In 1974, Congress signed the Percy Amendment requiring Peace Corps Volunteers to actively integrate women into the economic, political, and social development of their countries. (Source) Many Peace Corps Volunteers implement the Camp GLOW program, or Girls Leading Our World, to help girls develop self-esteem and leadership skills. Recognizing that men and boys must be equal partners in achieving gender equality, Volunteers also teach leadership and life skills to boys through Teaching Our Boys Excellence (TOBE) camps. Peace Corps Volunteers promote gender equality and women’s empowerment through health education, business development, and by raising awareness of women’s rights and contributions to their communities. Learn more about how Peace Corps Volunteers are working with communities by visiting the Paul D. Coverdell World Wise Schools resources.
1. Write an essay on the welfare approach with examples.
Ans. Welfare, or commonly social welfare, is a type of government support intended to ensure that members of a society can meet basic human needs such as food and shelter. Social security may either be synonymous with welfare, or refer specifically to social insurance programs which provide support only to those who have previously contributed (e.g. most pension systems), as opposed to social assistance programs which provide support on the basis of need alone (e.g. most disability benefits). The International Labour Organization defines social security as covering support for those in old age, support for the maintenance of children, medical treatment, parental and sick leave, unemployment and disability benefits, and support for sufferers of occupational injury. More broadly, welfare may also encompass efforts to provide a basic level of wellbeing through free or subsidized social services such as healthcare, education, welfare, infrastructure, vocational training, and public housing. In a welfare state, the state assumes responsibility for the health, education, infrastructure and welfare of society, providing a range of social services such as those described.
2. Discuss the UNDP initiative to mainstream gender at the organizational level.
Ans. This report presents the findings of an independent Evaluation of Gender Mainstreaming in UNDP, undertaken in 2005. The main purpose was to take stock of UNDP’s efforts to develop and implement gender mainstreaming policies; and to assess the overall performance of UNDP in gender mainstreaming and the promotion of gender equality in the last ten years. The evaluation is primarily forward-looking, responding to corporate concerns to increase the effectiveness of the organization’s gender mainstreaming policies and strategies. Action by governments, the United Nations and civil society in the last 30 years has produced international normative frameworks; acknowledgement that women’s rights are human rights and broad acceptance that gender equality is a critical and indispensable component of human development. However, poverty, wars, health pandemics such as HIV and AIDS and the impact of rapid globalisation continue to pose even greater challenges for women. In many parts of the world, the deficits presently outweigh the gains: progress in some areas is being eroded in others.
3. How should we mainstream Gender at the grassroots level? Explain through examples drawn from grassroots in India.
Ans. Gender equality and gender equity are emerging as major challenges in the global development debate. Social scientists and development activists are giving increasing emphasis to these fields in their agenda for research and development.4 As Noble Prize-winning economist Amartya Sen has pointed out, “Democracy is not only the goal of development, it is the primary means of development.”5 Women’s participation in political processes is important for strengthening democracy and for their struggle against marginalisation, trivialisation and oppression. Emergence of women as a strong group would change the prevailing political practices, the nature and content of debates in the legislature and women’s issues can be taken care of from the feminist perspective both in policy formulation and implementation.
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