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1.  Write short note on:

a) Forms of Hind Swaraj

Ans. Hind Swaraj is the most seminal work of Mahatma Gandhi and the most original contribution to political theory after Kautilya’s Arthashastra. It is an alternative to feudalism, Marxism and western style democracy based on majority-ism. It is key to understanding Gandhi’s life and philosophy; and to get over the present dilemma-growth without development. Published in 1909, it continues to evoke critical responses the world over. It is not a book on how to win political freedom for India; it is a book on how humanity can progress from conscious to super-conscious and moral beings.’ In fact Hind Swaraj is a manifesto for a new world order based on supremacy of ethics and morality over matter. It represents voice of the voiceless, voice of the common man of India, and the whole world.

b) Women in Kanthapura

Ans. The woman in India and other patriarchal countries symbolises weakness. She is supposed to live a miserable and dependent life. Our culture has neither given her the right to remain free and independent not to act on her own.

She is considered to be a creature to be commanded. She is transfigured into a cultural sign rather than a material being. In Indian sub-continent, before the 20th century, female emancipation was strictly forbidden. Educating a girl was considered to be a sin. Her only duty was to deal with the affairs of her home and remain dependent on her husband. But with the emergence of western education, the society underwent various changes and gradually the views on the women also changed. Towards the end of the 19th century, various social reformers and philosophers tried to uplift the women and give her freedom. Various movements like Widow-remarriage, Prohibition of Child Marriage, Prohibition of Dowry System etc were introduced to the society that helped in the betterment of women up to some extent.

c) The Harikatha Element

Ans. Harikatha is a composite art form composed of storytelling, poetry, music, drama, dance, and philosophy most prevalent in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra, and Karnataka. Any Hindu religious theme may be the subject for the Harikatha. At its peak Harikatha was a popular medium of entertainment, which helped transmit cultural, educational and religious values to the masses. The main aim of Harikatha is to imbue truth and righteousness in the minds of people and sow the seeds of devotion in them. Another of the aims is to educate them about knowledge of Ātman (the self) through stories and show them the path of liberation.

This is an ancient form that took current form during the Bhakti movement in around 12th century. Many famous Haridasa are Purandaradasa, Kanakadasa.

The Telugu form of Harikatha originated in Coastal Andhra during the 19th century. Harikatha Kalakshepam is most prevalent in Andhra even now along with Burra katha. Haridasus going round villages singing devotional songs is an age-old tradition during Dhanurmaasam preceding Sankranti festival. Ajjada Adibhatla Narayana Dasu was the originator of the Telugu Harikatha tradition, and with his Kavyas and Prabandhas has made it a special art form.

d) The Title of Midnight’s Children

Ans. Midnight’s Children contains literally hundreds of names. I will discuss only a few dozen of the most significant. First, however, because a discussion of its names may be difficult to follow if one has not read the book, a bit of background information is in order. The story line is too complicated to summarize in detail, but essentially the book is about the birth of independent India (and Pakistan); its
protagonist and narrator, Saleem Sinai, represents IndiajPakistan.
The title, Midnight’s Children, refers to the 1001 Indian babies born between midnight and 1:00 a.m. on August 15, 1947, when India received her independence. All of the children born during this hour had special powers of some kind. For example, one boy could increase or reduce his size at will and another boy could eat metal.
A sharp-tongued girl could inflict physical wounds with words, while another girl could grow crops even in the most arid desert. The closer the time of their birth to midnight, the greater the powers of the midnight’s children.
The protagonist and narrator, Saleem Sinai, was born on the stroke of midnight and could read people’s thoughts and communicate directly with their minds and hearts. Two other midnight’s children central to the story are Shiva and Parvati-the-witch. Shiva, Saleem’s alter ego and enemy, has the gifts of war. Parvati-the-witch has gifts of conjuration and sorcery. Saleem Sinai is (supposedly) the son of the Muslim businessman Ahmed Sinai and Amina Sinai (nee Mumtaz Aziz), and Shiva is (supposedly) the son of the street entertainer Wee Willie Winkie and his wife Vanita. However, Mary Pereira, Saleem’s nurse, exchanged the babies at birth, so Ahmed and Amina Sinai are Shiva’s biological parents. Further, though Wee Willie Winkie did not know this, the Englishman William Methwold had seduced Vanita and was the father of her child. Thus, Saleem’s biological parents are Vanita and Methwold, though he was raised to adulthood as a Sinai. Saleem married Parvati-the-witch, but their son, Aadam Sinai, was actually fathered by Shiva.

e) Roopa’s role in Tara 

Ans. Roopa is a character in the play with a lot of prejudices. She wants Tara to stay away from Prema and Nalini for their lack of English education. There is a blind admiration for the cultural capital of the privileged. At the same time, she accuses Tara‟s mother of madness despite all the love Bharati showers upon her.

Roopa is a theatrical character that has a lot of prejudices. She requests that Tara avoid Prema and Nalini due to their lack of English knowledge. There is a naive reverence for the privileged’s cultural capital. Despite all the love Bharati lavishes on Tara’s mother, she accuses her of being insane

Roopa is a theatrical character that has a lot of prejudices. She requests that Tara avoid Prema and Nalini due to their lack of English knowledge. There is a naive reverence for the privileged’s cultural capital. Despite all the love Bharati lavishes on Tara’s mother, she accuses her of being insane.Roopa mocks Tara as the “one-legged thing” by the end of the play and defines her relationship as a charitable effort. She even engages in body shaming during a particularly emotional scene in the play. Roopa represents the society’s hypocrisy regarding disabled people. Bharati is filled with remorse. The way she attempts to overprotect her daughter and actually begs Roopa to be friends with Tara, as well as the way she defends Tara to her husband, might be interpreted as an act of self-love rather than a display of motherly love and care.

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2. Discuss Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura as a novel written in the Gandhian spirit.

Ans. Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura as a novel written in the Gandhian spirit.  The novel of Raja Rao’s “ Kanthapura” explores how Gandhi’s gospel impacted Raja Rao, leading to the development of the character Moorthy. It also focuses on Moorthy’s attempts to encourage people to join the freedom movement while under the influence of Gandhi. Raja Rao believes that Gandhi represents the path, the verity, and the life. Gandhi’s gospel serves the same purpose in the book Kanthapura for Moorthy, who considers it to be the path, the verity, and the meaning of his actuality.

 Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura as a novel written in the Gandhian spirit.  Mahatma Gandhi was the first Indian public statuette to honor that revolutionising people without using the coffers of their religion was insolvable. He was India’s and the world’s leader, not just for his fight for Indian independence, but also for his impeccable character. Gandhian gospel and testament impacted education, politics, economics, religion, social life, language, and literature. Gandhi’s influence on ultramodern jotting is both particular and different. Raja Rao is a pen from the Gandhian period, and his new “ Kanthapura” portrays the influence of Gandhi, who started the Freedom Movement in India in the 1920s in order to free the country from the British social rule.M.K. Naik is correct in his assessment that the book is primarily political in nature and doesn’t reflect the author’s typical philosophical prepossessions, save in a broad sense. The author delves into Gandhi’s ideals of loving one’s adversaries, pacifism, and the eradication of untouchability with zeal. Gandhian testament had an influence on Mulk Raj Anand,R.K. Narayan, andK.A. Abbas. Gandhi’s gospel had a big impact on Raja Rao. Rao stayed to Gandhi’s vihara at Sevagram for a many days. Raja Rao was linked to the secret programmes of youthful socialist activists during the Quit India Movement. Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura as a novel written in the Gandhian spirit.



Raja Rao’s faith in Gandhi’s gospel led him to see Mahatma Gandhi as a genuine saint. Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura as a novel written in the Gandhian spirit.  Rao portrays Mahatma Gandhi as a symbol of heavenly power in this book. Gandhi is portrayed as a reincarnation of Krishna who would give relief to the Indian people. Gandhi will slay the serpent of foreign domination in the same way that Krishna slew the serpent Kalia. Gandhi, as a leader, advises the people of India to spin yarn because if they do, the plutocrat that would else go to Britain would be kept in India to feed the empty and clothe the naked. The author raises Gandhi’s crusade to legendary proportions. Rao makes a great comparison between Ram and Ravana, with Ram standing in for Mahatma Gandhi and Ravana standing in for the British government. Mother India, or independence, is likened to Sita, Gandhi is compared to Ram, and Jawaharlal Nehru is compared to his family Bharta in this book. Gandhi’s exile is indicated to by the author. To free India, Gandhi leaves his house, travels the length and range of the country, and lives a life of exile. Rao claims that Gandhi, like Ram, would go to Britain and Lanka to secure our independence, Sita. It’s a battle between the gods and the devil.

Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura as a novel written in the Gandhian spirit.   Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura as a novel written in the Gandhian spirit.  Seetharamu’s ready acceptance of the torture by the British government increases Moorthy’s faith in Gandhi’s pacifism worldview. The expressionnon-violence refers to the junking of ill-will from one’s heart, since it’s the source of hostility and violence. When Ranga Gowda wishes to educate Puttayya a assignment for stealing all the conduit water for his crops, Moorthy teaches the Gandhian ideal of pacifism and love for the adversary to him. When Ranga Gowda wants to settle a score with Bade Khan, the British- appointed bobby in Kanthapura who oversees the political conditioning of the freedom fighters, Moorthy warns him against resorting to violence.

Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura as a novel written in the Gandhian spirit. Gandhi’s pacifism credo serves as an inconceivable model for the whole globe. Jayaramachar goes on to add that because verity is God, the people should tell the verity. It has the same tone as the Bhagavad Gita, which emphasises honesty as an important aspect of mortal conduct.

Rao was inspired by Gandhi’s gospel, which is one of the most delicate doctrines of the twentieth century, during his early times. Gandhi, according to Jawaharlal Nehru, is “ like a strong sluice of fresh air … like a ray of light that entered the darkness and removed the scales from our eyes; like a whirlwind that disturbed numerous effects, most specially the workings of people’s smarts.” Gandhi offered the people of India the tremendous armament of pacifism, which was latterly corroborated by thenon-cooperation and civil defiance juggernauts of the 1930s. Gandhi’s movement aspired not just for political independence, but also for profitable liberty and spiritual renewal. Gandhi wished for everyone, rich and poor, to live a staid actuality free of all forms of exploitation. Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura as a novel written in the Gandhian spirit.

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Rao’s belief in Gandhi’s gospel led him to see Gandhi as a real God. Mahatma Gandhi is portrayed at Kanthapura as a symbol of heavenly force as well as tremendous reality. Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura as a novel written in the Gandhian spirit.  The novel’s subject, “ Gandhi and Our Village,” has a mythological meaning in that the history and present are intertwined. The locals’long- held belief that gods tromp through the thoroughfares of Kanthapura during the month of Kartik shows that myth and reality attend. The gods walk through the potters’and weavers’ thoroughfares, and lights are turned on to view them. This allusion confirms the peasants’unwavering belief in gods, a belief participated by the author and his characters. Rao emphasises the significance of religion in the fight for freedom. As a result, religion and politics are intertwined throughout the book. A religious conceit is used to illustrate the value of freedom. The political participation of Kanthapura residers is fueled by their religious beliefs. Rao adroitly navigates traditional tradition while also incorporating ultramodern realities. The frequent use of myth adds fresh confines to the fight for liberty. Therefore, Raja Rao’s first book, “ Kanthapura,” depicts Gandhi’s peaceful gospel and the eradication of untouchability. The emphasis placed on estate, the mythological depiction of Gandhi and mama India, and the spiritualization of the emancipation struggle within the confines of Indian artistic tradition all point to Gandhian testament having a huge influence in “ Kanthapura.” Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura as a novel written in the Gandhian spirit.



3. What are the major issues in the poetry of Sri Aurobindo?

Ans. The major issues in the poetry of Sri Aurobindo. The contact of the Indian mind with Western literature is the most important and significant result of the British subjection over India. To quoteR.C. Majumdar, “ the preface of English education broke the hedge which had heretofore effectively shut India from the Western world …. English education opened theflood-gates of the Western ideas.” The preface of the English language and English system of education inspired a big section of the clerisy to speak and write in English. They were fascinated by the power, inflexibility and beauty of the English language and turned to write creatively in English. A special artistic terrain intimate with Western Culture in which they moved and grew favoured their learning the language in all its niceties of erudite expression. With their jotting in English there came into actuality a unique erudite miracle, for “ the case of a pen of a dependent country espousing the language of his foreign master for creative purposes, is rather a rare bone.” The major issues in the poetry of Sri Aurobindo.

 The jottings of Indians in English have been similarly designated by different scholars in the field. George Sampson reviews erudite workshop written in English by native Indians as‘Anglo-Indian’3K.R.S. The major issues in the poetry of Sri Aurobindo. Iyengar, the colonist critic of the Indian jotting in English, prefers to call it‘Indo-Anglian’4P.C. Kotoky calls it‘Indo-English’, whileC. Paul Verghese prefers to call it‘Indian Creative Writing in English’6 There has also been a disagreement about its place in English literature as well as in Indian literature. JamesH. Cousins remarked that Indo-English muses could neither add to English literature nor “ carry on the noble tradition of Indian literature in a foreign lingo, the illustration of Devi Sarojini not- opposing.” The major issues in the poetry of Sri Aurobindo.

 Indo-English Poetry has been growing gradationally since the morning of the nineteenth century to the new poetry of Dom Moraes, Nissim Ezekiel,P. Lal and Pritish Nandyetc., but “ our critical performance in the interpretation and evaluation of Indo-Anglian literature is still largely an unaccomplished task.” 8 JamesH. Cousins,G.T. Garratt, George Sampson,T.D. Dunn and some others have tried to assess Indo-English Poetry in their own way. A number of Indian pens have also studied the different aspects of The major issues in the poetry of Sri Aurobindo. Indo-Englishwriting.Sri Aurobindo’s poetry stands a class piecemeal in Indo-English poetry and offers compass for critical reassessment. George Sampson has appertained to Sri Aurobindo as “ more notorious as an exponent of Indian nationalism than as a minstrel.” 9 The poetry of Sri Aurobindo has been responded to in three ways; one that shows absolute ignorance about Sri Aurobindo as a minstrel, as in an composition on Indian literature in Cassell’s Encyclopaedia of Literature, Vol. I (1953) which refers to Toru Dutt and Aru Dutt and also to Sarojini Naidu, but doesn’t mention Sri Aurobindo. Also, there’s the appreciation of his poetry by his votaries full of reverential praise, and eventually there’s the denouncing review condemning Sri Aurobindo’s poetry as‘blurred and resilient sentiment’which is the‘ utmost dangerous thing that infects our poetry moment’.K.R.S. Iyengar has made a substantial and balanced donation to Aurobindonian review. He realises that a new kind of poetry like Sri Aurobindo’s “ demands a new intelligence in the philanthropist as well as in the pen.” The major issues in the poetry of Sri Aurobindo.  To quote him “ without question, Sri Aurobindo is the one unconstestably outstanding figure in Indo-Anglian literature. Tagore, no mistrustfulness, holds a similar position in ultramodern Bengali literature, though Anglian literature can claim him as one of its own unique reflected glories. But Sri Aurobindo wasn’t simply a pen who happed to write in English, but really an English pen, nearly as important as say-so, a George Moore, a Laurence Binyon or aW.B. Yeats., English was no lower than his mama- lingo and his belief that “ Numerous Indians write better English than numerous educated English- men,” 12 is unstintingly proved by his own jottings.

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The major issues in the poetry of Sri Aurobindo.

The major issues in the poetry of Sri Aurobindo. Throughout his long career, amid all the numerous-faceted achievements he noway abandoned his first love, poetry. He has given us poetry — lyrical, narrative, dramatic, grand, which, in volume and in variety, in volume and in quality can be compared with the work of the topmost muses who have amended the lyrical literature of the world. But he’s not a extensively- known minstrel, incompletely because his end wasn’t success and particular fame, but to express spiritual verity and experience of all kinds in poetry. He tried to use the English lingo for the loftiest spiritual expression. He realised that “ the expression of church in the English lingo is demanded and no bone can give the real stuff like Easterners and especially Indians.” 13 It was his verified view that since English language has a‘ inflexibility and rigidity,’it had a lesser eventuality of development for the expression of the spiritual verity of the New Age. In writing his poetry he constantly tried to realise this eventuality. There can not be any doubt about the worth of his poetry, which in its outbursts of spiritual alleviation and vision, achieves the utterance of the Mantra. The major issues in the poetry of Sri Aurobindo.

The major issues in the poetry of Sri Aurobindo.  After the Collected Runes and Plays his runes were published in book form — Runes, History and Present (1946), Last Runes (1952), Further Runes (1958), Savitri, including the author’s Letters on the Poem (1954) and now all his runes, banning Savitri, are published in one Volume Collected Runes (1972). With the publication of his poetry a wider erudite public had an occasion to know Sri Aurobindo, the minstrel.K.D. Sethna’s‘The Lyrical genius of Sri Aurobindo (1947) was the first book simply devoted to the critical evaluation of Sri Aurobindo’s poetry 15 and since also numerous scholars are attracted to the study of his poetry and erudite genius. There are the workshop of Nolini Kanta Gupta,A.B. Purani andK.R.S. Iyengar who had done remarkable service in the field and who had the honor of being the associates of Sri Aurobindo. It’s also significant to note that among Indo-English muses Sri Aurobindo is the most favourite of exploration scholars in English literature.



4. Discuss the personalities of Bim and Tara as depicted in Clear Light of Day.

Ans. Tara offers a sharp contrast to her elder sister, Bim. This contrast became quite clear when they were both at school. While Bim was an active, dynamic person with strong qualities of leadership and an enterprising spirit, Tara was a retiring sort of person, diffident and timid. Subsequently, Bim developed a strong prejudice against Raja who had forsaken her and Baba, and had also written a humiliating letter to Bim, Tara continued to maintain a normal, sisterly attitude towards him because she had not been living in India but traveling to foreign countries with her husband Bakul who was in the Indian Foreign Service, and who had served in the Indian embassies in various capitals of the world. When the marriage of Raja’s eldest daughter is to take place, Tara goes to Hyderabad to attend it, while Bim refuses to go because of her grievance against Raja. Tara has a gentle and passive nature, but she is not so sharp as Bim and does not have such a penetrating and analytical mind as Bim has. Nor is she stubborn like Bim. Besides, Tara gets married as soon as she gets the opportunity, while Bim remains unmarried and grows into a spinster, teaching history in a college, and looking after Baba at home. While Bim’s life is full of responsibilities and worries, Tara is comparatively carefree. Tara’s only worry is that Bim is not happy because of her house-hold responsibilities and the burdens which she has to shoulder.

Raja:

He is the eldest child of Mr. and Mrs. Das. While yet at school he acquires a taste for the Urdu language and Urdu literature and becomes especially interested in Urdu poetry. Then, over time, he begins to write poems in Urdu. His interest in Urdu leads to his becoming acquainted with Hyder Ali, a rich Muslim landlord in one of whose old houses the Das family lives as tenants. In the beginning. Raja is very fond of Bim and spends much of his time with her. But subsequently, he leaves Delhi altogether and goes to Hyderabad where he gets married to Hyder Ali’s daughter, Benazir. After Hyder Ali’s death, Raja and Benazir inherit all his property including the old house in which the Das family has been tenants, and in which Bim and Baba are still living. Raja writes to Bim a letter about this house and the rent payable by Bim for it. This letter is regarded by Bim as most humiliating and insulting to her, and she begins to harbor a strong grievance against Raja. Over time, Raja becomes the father of as many as six children, five of them daughters. When his eldest daughter Moyna is to be married, he sends invitations to both his sisters, Bim and Tara; but, while Tara does go to attend the marriage which is to take place in Hyderabad, Bim refuses to go. Eventually, however, Bim softens towards Raja and forgives him for his desertion of her and Baba, and also for the humiliating letter which he had written to her.

Bim:

She is an independent-minded and self-assertive girl. She shares Raja’s interest in poetry and, although she does not know Urdu, she keeps him company in the reading and the recitation of English poems, especially those written by Byron, Swinburne, and T.S. Eliot. Indeed, Bim becomes quite conversant with these English poets. But her chief subject of study is history and, later, she becomes a lecturer in history in a women’s college in Old Delhi. She harbors a strong grievance against Raja who had written a humiliating letter to her: but ultimately she relents towards him and forgives him. Bim is a very introspective kind of girl, and the author has devoted plenty of space to an analysis of her mind and her thoughts. She is the most conspicuous figure in the novel, and she may be regarded as the protagonist.



Tara:

While Raja and Bim were very close to each other as children, Tara had remained somewhat aloof from them because of a marked difference between her interests and theirs. On growing up, Tara becomes acquainted with a young man by the name of Bakul who proposes marriage to her, and who then marries her. Over time, Tara gives birth to two daughters who are fairly grown-up when the novel begins.

Tara is wandering around the garden of her childhood home, noticing the neglect and dust. The only unscathed part is the rose walk, which she delightedly points out to her sister Bim. Bim is heavy, grey, and looks like their mother did. Bim is disapproving that Tara, a married woman with children, seems delighted by a snail and the wrinkled roses.

Bim thinks of lines of T.S. Eliot but does not say them aloud because she does not wish to conjure that summer long ago when she nursed her sick brother. Instead, she asks Tara how she slept. Bim’s dog Badshah begins to bark loudly and she laughs at his theatrics.

Tara remarks that everything goes on and never changes here. Bim wryly asks if she wanted it to change. Surprised, Tara says not at all. Bim wonders if she would actually want to go back to childhood—the dullness, the boredom.

Bim says she never went anywhere like Tara and her husband Bakl, and wonders what they must think coming back to see her and their other brother Baba. All they would need is their old aunt to complete the picture, and maybe Raja reading Lord Byron. Tara is quiet. Bim states that there is a danger in coming back to Old Delhi because it only decays and does not change; it is the backwater and anyone who isn’t dull and grey leaves.

Tara ventures that she keeps coming back and she likes to come. She awkwardly says Bakul thinks it is important to represent his country. She then asks if Bim and Baba are coming to Raja’s daughter’s wedding; she hopes they will, and it can be like a family reunion.

Bim is distracted by her beloved cat, and bitterly tells Tara she knows she is thinking that old spinsters care about their animals only because they wished they had children. Tara recognizes this as the moment Bim goes too far, as she always did in childhood.



5. Discuss Amitav Ghosh as a writer of travelogues.

Ans.  Amitav Ghosh as a writer of travelogues.

For me, relations with people were a big part of the experience, as was the geography and slice all cookeries. Every station had a thing — they were common knowledge and a big part of road trip. Merchandisers would run up and down the train with food and other goods

It’s not a straightforward process. I ’ll give you an illustration, while pursuing Social Anthropology at Oxford I went to Tunisia for four weeks to learn Arabic. From there I went to the Algerian Sahara, also Morocco and on to Spain, and discovered some extraordinary places. Three times latterly, when I started writing my first novel, all my gests plant their way into the book. Amitav Ghosh as a writer of travelogues.

 Yes. Over the times, I ’ve spent a lot of time in Venice and seen how important it has changed. It’s astounding, but moment the megacity’s entire working population is Bengali. Climate change has a lot to do with it — Bengal and its girding regions are low-lying areas and see submerging all the time. This has led to migration in great figures, though utmost of it’s inland or to Bangladesh, especially Dhaka.

Amitav Ghosh as a writer of travelogues.Venice is magical. That’s why it’s the most habituated name in the world — there’s Venice sand in California and there are little Venices each over the world. One of my most pictorial recollections from that first visit in 1981 is of this huge jubilee organised by L’ Unita, the Communist Party’s sanctioned review, which used to be a institution in Italian life. The youthful and old were dancing, singing, eating together … it was buoyant. As the left movement withered down, so did the jubilee. Back also, a lot more Venetians lived there. Now it’s just a sightseer megacity; you do n’t find numerous old shops. Mass tourism irruption is making it tough for locals, crowding the megacity in the worst ways. Also, as excursionists to Venice do n’t always stay there, the day and night- time population are veritably different. Then you begin to see how destructive tourism can be.

 One place is the Querini Stampalia Library. The sightseer drift tends to turn towards particular places, but you should go to the less- visited, quiet corridor like the Cannaregio. Known for its Jewish Ghetto, it’s a lovely walk. Also there are islets similar as Murano and Burano that I ’ve mentioned in my book. It’s also worth checking out graveyards on different islets; they ’re veritably intriguing, they ’re haunting, with beautiful sepultures. One thing that always makes a great difference is knowing people at the destination you ’re travelling to. Now that I’ve musketeers in Venice, they show me effects similar.

Yes, I love to cook and going to requests everyplace I travel. Being around fresh yield, seeing what people are growing, is the most intriguing thing to do. As I formerly have too numerous effects, I ’m trying to throw effects out rather than collect further. But if I’ve to bring commodity back from a trip, it would be a original condiment or commodity. There are two requests worth visiting in Venice — the Rialto Fish Market, all shopkeepers there are Bengalis, and this lovely road request near the station in the Cannaregio quarter. A dish you must have while you ’re in Venice is baccalà mantecato, a dip made out of dried codfish, eaten with chuck.

Travel forms the bulk of Amitav Ghosh’s first novel,
The Circle of Reason
 (1986). At its last full stop, its protagonists are poised for further travel. Except for one character who travels to the West, the rest journey from Calcutta to North Africa. These elements will recur in Ghosh’s later work. His first non-fiction travel book,
 In an Antique Land   
also about travel in the East, was published in 1992. Six years later came the slim and riveting
 Dancing inCambodia; At Large in Burma

 (1998). Based on Ghosh’s own travels inCambodia and Burma in the 1993 and 1995-960s, the two tracts are about the

intertwining of recent history with the past.
The Imam and the Indian
is not entirely about travel but its title essay was reprinted in
The Best of Granta Travel 
, while others, such as “An Egyptian in Baghdad” and “Tibetan Dinner,” manifest his interest in other travellers.
 There is enough evidence, in other words, to consider Ghosh as chiefly a travel writer. Ghosh himself is wary of labels: “[W]e must not allow them to become tools for a new kind of intellectual colonization.”
 The issue must have troubled him considerably for he opens
The Imam and the Indian
with a sort of directive to critics:
To those of a taxonomic bent of mind, it may appear that the contents of this collection are heterogeneous enough to require classification under several headings. I have resisted the temptation to do this in the belief that in the circuitry of the imagination, connections are of greater importance thandis junctions.
Quotable critical touchstones apart, almost every reviewer has said that Ghosh’s writing defies categories.
 In An Antique Land 
, for instance, has been described as Simultaneously an anthropologist’s field diary, a historical novel, a detectivestory, a research monograph a travelogue, a memoir, and  an essay protesting against irrational divisions between people based on ethnicity.
Either critics cannot discuss a work without first capturing it within a genre orGhosh’s work is in genuinely new forms. Analogies are, after all, a sort of preliminary description before a summing up word is found for unprecedentedexperiences and objects.


 

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  1. Nilaksshi

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