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1. Bring out the salient features of Plato’s attack on poetry’.
Ans. The salient features of Plato’s attack on poetry’. Plato, the prestigious Greek thinker who holds firm to his perspectives on craftsmanship, artists, and verse, dispatches a progression of attacks against the work of art of verse. In his Republic, he offers his viewpoints and thoughts exhaustively. Most of Plato’s perspectives are communicated as reactions of verse. Plato obviously felt that verse had power, and that this power enlivened others to copy the things they found in craftsmanship. In light of his supernatural perspectives, this is by all accounts a horrendous sign for him.
The salient features of Plato’s attack on poetry’. As per Plato, the embodiment of the world is that it is a duplicate of itself (mimesis). He believed that the truth is comprised of many levels. It is comprised of ideas at the top, and all of the lower layers are designed according to those thoughts. Mimesis, as per Plato, was only a portrayal rather than an articulation that was inventive. Plato guaranteed that an artist who portrays a seat in his sonnet doesn’t precisely portray the real household item. He was an adherent to the presence of an outright reality, as per him. This universe is comprised of ideal things, of which the specific things that make up this world are just duplicates or reflections. The painter or artist who copies these specific things is duplicating and impersonating, and therefore, is making something much more far off from reality than the first. For instance, a seat exists above all else as an idea, furthermore as a thing of workmanship, and thirdly as an object of creative articulation. Subsequently, mimesis is multiple times far off from the real world.
During the time of Plato Gods and Heroes were represented in an unfavourable light. Hence they were subjected to severe criticism by the philosophers and educationists. Thus poets were considered to be inferior to the philosophers and orators.
Plato’s Attack on Poetry
Plato being much aware of these things and being profoundly influenced was not in favour of poetry at all. His attack on poetry can be explained by dividing it into three categories:
- Morals Grounds
- Emotional Grounds
- Intellectual Grounds
- According to Plato poetry does not contribute to the social morality as the poet narrates the tales of the pleasant vices of the man.
- As Gods and great heroes were represented as corrupt, hence for Plato their admiration by the poets could corrupt the young minds.
- The poets are “divinely inspired” and thus their literature is quite non-rational. They give free play to their thoughts. Thus the poets, their emotional frenzies and the lack of moral restraint can afford no safe guidance moral or intellectual.
- Poetry makes the reader imitate the characters in the story. Thus one who imitates a female part tends to grow effeminate.
Plato divides the human soul into three parts-rational, spirited and appetitive. The poetry always focuses on the third part of the soul i.e. the appetitive or the desire as it gives great pleasure at the moment. Thus reason is ignored in the poetry which henceforth becomes full of vices.
Plato has criticised poetry on intellectual grounds as well. The poets are ignorant of cognition of truth as they imitate the appearance and not the reality. Thus poetry cannot be considered to be the valid source of knowledge.
Plato attacks poetry on moral, emotional and intellectual grounds and thus throws light on its uselessness and its corrupt influences.
His point of view is entirely utilitarian. In the ideal state of Plato, “no poetry should be admitted save hymns to the gods and oration on famous men”.
2. Write short notes on the following:
a) Aristotle’s theory of tragedy
Ans. Tragedy,” says Aristotle, “is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude…through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions.” Ambiguous means may be employed, Aristotle maintains in contrast to Plato, to a virtuous and purifying end.
To establish the basis for a reconciliation between ethical and artistic demands, Aristotle insists that the principal element in the structure of tragedy is not character but plot. Since the erring protagonist is always in at least partial opposition to the state, the importance of tragedy lies not in the character but in the enlightening event. “Most important of all,” Aristotle said, “is the structure of the incidents. For tragedy is an imitation not of men but of an action and of life, and life consists in action, and its end is a mode of action, not a quality.” Aristotle considered the plot to be the soul of a tragedy, with character in second place.
b) Poet as “a man speaking to men”
c) The woman as the ‘second sex’
Ans. The Second Sex is one of the earliest attempts to confront human history from a feminist perspective. It won de Beauvoir many admirers and just as many detractors. Today, many regard this massive and meticulously researched masterwork as not only as pillar of feminist thought but of twentieth-century philosophy in general.
De Beauvoir’s primary thesis is that men fundamentally oppress women by characterizing them, on every level, as the Other, defined exclusively in opposition to men. Man occupies the role of the self, or subject; woman is the object, the other. He is essential, absolute, and transcendent. She is inessential, incomplete, and mutilated. He extends out into the world to impose his will on it, whereas woman is doomed to immanence, or inwardness. He creates, acts, invents; she waits for him to save her. This distinction is the basis of all de Beauvoir’s later arguments.
d) Base-superstructure relationship in Marxist criticism
Ans. Society’s superstructure includes the culture, ideology, norms, and identities that people inhabit. In addition, it refers to the social institutions, political structure, and the state—or society’s governing apparatus. Marx argued that the superstructure grows out of the base and reflects the ruling class’ interests. As such, the superstructure justifies how the base operates and defends the power of the elite.
Neither the base nor the superstructure is naturally occurring or static. They are both social creations, or the accumulation of constantly evolving social interactions between people.
In “The German Ideology,” written with Friedrich Engels, Marx offered a critique of Hegel’s theory about how society operates. Based on the principles of Idealism, Hegel asserted that ideology determines social life, that people’s thoughts shape the world around them. Considering the historical shifts production has undergone, especially the shift from feudalist to capitalist production, Hegel’s theory did not satisfy Marx.
Ans. Patriarchy is a social system in which men dominate over others, but can also refer to dominance over women specifically; it can also extend to a variety of manifestations in which men have social privileges over others to cause exploitation or oppression, such as through male dominance of moral authority and control of property. Patriarchal societies can be patrilineal or matrilineal, meaning that property and title are inherited by the male or female lineage respectively.
Patriarchy is associated with a set of ideas, a patriarchal ideology that acts to explain and justify this dominance and attributes it to inherent natural differences between men and women. Sociologists hold varied opinions on whether patriarchy is a social product or an outcome of innate differences between the sexes. Sociobiologists have argued that the roots of inequality were set in humanity’s earliest period and are primarily due to genetic and reproductive differences between men and women. Aligned closely with evolutionary psychology, this theory posits that gender inequity is an inherent part of human social structures.
3. How are myths and archetypes examined to grasp the significance of twentieth century English writing? Explain.
Ans. Myths and archetypes examined to grasp the significance of twentieth century English writing. The fantasy catches the substance of all Greek writing, including verse, theater, account, exposition, and verse. The Greek expression ‘mythos,’ which essentially signifies “story” However, by the fifth century B.C., the kinds of stories that have been held from the earliest starting point of racial and aggregate memory of Greek culture were at that point disengaged from the existences of conventional Greeks. Legends and stories that have been kept in racial memory by means of stylized reenactments on strict days, just as through portrayals in mold, stoneware, sanctuaries , uncommon engravings, safeguards, jars, consecrated things, and different sorts of antiques, for example, toys.
Myths and archetypes examined to grasp the significance of twentieth century English writing. Legends and stories that have been kept in racial memory by means of formal reenactments on strict days, just as through portrayals in design, ceramics, sanctuaries , exceptional engravings, safeguards, containers, hallowed things, and different sorts of antiquities, for example, toys. In this day and age, there are a wide range of perspectives on what legends are for and what down to earth esteem they have in a Myths and archetypes examined to grasp the significance of twentieth century English writing. general public. These translations are perspectives on history and writing (oral and composed) of non-European societies like African, local American, and Asian societies, just as the antiquated Mediterranean through the eyes of the Euro-American countries which have wound up losing their own legends and confidence in the strict cosmology of Christianity, just as the old Mediterranean. In these methodologies of getting significance from legends, a crucial methodolgy is followed, as per which all accounts are diminished to a representative way of communicating a solitary idea. Thusly, fantasies are seen by moderns as stories portraying a contention between normal components, or as images of an occasional cycle, or the occasional pattern of fruitfulness and rot, or the occasional pattern of want, deterrent, satisfaction, halfway satiation, or dissatisfaction, or as images of racial rushes of relocation of etymological or strict networks, or as images of a conflict of civilisations, among others. What consistently hypothesizing about fantasies might be presently, old social orders used legends to control the existences of people who had a compelling passionate connection to the divine beings, goddesses, brilliant creatures, magnificent creatures; saints and lords; just as their precursors, who were portrayed in fantasies. Myths and archetypes examined to grasp the significance of twentieth century English writing.
Myths and archetypes examined to grasp the significance of twentieth century English writing. A wide assortment of translations are accessible for writing, and there are numerous particular ways to deal with writing, one of which is the model methodology. “Paradigm” alludes to an extraordinary idea or example of something, from which others are motivated to make copies. Utilizing an original technique, one might inspect and investigate a book by considering the social examples that have been involved in it; these social practices are fixated on the folklore and customs of a specific race, identity, or gathering of people.
Myths and archetypes examined to grasp the significance of twentieth century English writing. As of late, this sort of basic way to deal with a book has filled in prominence among artistic pundits. It is James George Frazer and Carl Gustav Jung who are viewed as the two most significant specialists who have made huge commitments to the advancement of the model strategy. Frazer was a social anthropologist, and his work The Golden Bough is an investigation of enchantment, religion, and folklore of many races, which may all be found in various societies. Jung was an analyst who was subsidiary with Sigmund Freud. Jung’s concept of “shared awareness” is a huge piece of his work. An acculturated man “unwittingly” holds the thoughts, originations, and goals of life prized by his far off predecessors, as per Jung, thus thoughts are epitomized in a general public’s or alternately race’s folklore and formality. Fantasies have been fused into scholarly works by innovative writers, and artistic pundits inspect texts looking for “fanciful examples.” Archetypal analysis is the term used to depict this kind of basic assessment of a book. TS Eliot has used fanciful themes in his innovative works, and “The Waste Land” is an incredible outline of how he has done as such. Accordingly, Northrop Frye’s article doesn’t zero in on a particular fantasy or unbelievable figure in a work; rather, he offers an assessment of “legendary examples” that have been utilized by writers since forever.
4. What is Structuralism? How is it helpful in grasping the appeal and intent of a literary text?
Ans. Structuralism it helpful in grasping the appeal and intent of a literary text. Structuralism can be characterized as an applied and strategic way to deal with characterizing and breaking down a scope of objects of request. These objects of request incorporates societies, financial matters, orders, to give some examples models. The structuralist way to deal with exposition writing offers a new and imaginative system for breaking down composition writing. A portion of the results of abstract structuralism incorporate the advancement of the fiction peruser’s job, the language, writing, folklore, governmental issues, and social utilization of story as a device to serve for language, and the utilization of story not exclusively to address substantial reality yet in addition to grow new, context oriented, and pluralistic intricacies in language spaces.
Structuralism it helpful in grasping the appeal and intent of a literary text. Mid 20th century Russian formalists, as Ferdinand de Saussure, assisted with building up the establishments for structuralist hypothesis in its contemporary application. Words in verse, according to the formalists, didn’t just fill in as signifiers, yet additionally as signifieds, as they were likewise signifieds. As characterized by formalists, artistic works were viewed as utilitarian frameworks, made out of gadgets whose worth was chosen by the value of different gadgets that were set up to contend with them. Moreover, they believed writing to be a sort of language, with every specific work filling in as an occurrence of parole. The structuralists of the 1960s and 1970s in France made these etymological equals a stride further by applying them to different dialects.
Structuralism it helpful in grasping the appeal and intent of a literary text. Be that as it may, if “structuralism” can be utilized to depict both “structures” and their working, it very well might be followed right back to Plato and Aristotle. In light of the personality of graceful mimicry, as per Plato, it was a subservient and untruthful discourse, both as far as substance and as far as design, and accordingly, it should have been removed from his domain. His attention on the consistent and moral construction of verse, then again, is the thing that is known as Aristotelian “structuralism.” as far as the previous, he believed that a sonnet ought to have a start, a center, and an end that are sensibly connected to each other, bringing about a natural entire at the finish of the cycle. In particular, with regards to moral structure, the Greek rhetorician contended that the grievous legend ought to take care of business whose end isn’t the result of his bad habit or debasement, yet rather the consequence of his misstep or shortcoming. In this regard, Horace might be viewed a structuralist just as any other person. Longinus was uninterested with the proper parts of verse, and sublimity was only the reverberation of an immense soul in his eyes. Structuralism it helpful in grasping the appeal and intent of a literary text.
The structuralism of Renaissance writing might have its starting points in the association of a general public that was Structuralism it helpful in grasping the appeal and intent of a literary text. exceptionally class cognizant, as proven, for instance, by the three sided sensational verse that sensationalized the English progressive society, a general public where misfortune was held for the privileged societies, parody for the working classes, and joke for the lower classes. What’s more propriety, which was greatly needed recorded as a hard copy at that point, implied that every sort ought to be appropriate for the class of society that it reflected.
Structuralism it helpful in grasping the appeal and intent of a literary text. The Romantic artist pundits were insulted by the Neo-traditional idyllic “rules” and “propriety,” accepting that they would artificialize the verse and make it unnatural. Structuralism it helpful in grasping the appeal and intent of a literary text. On the off chance that, then again, one perceives the four noticeable parts that were working in a graceful creation of the Romantic time frame, one should recognize the presence of structuralist inclinations in the writing of that time-frame too.
5. Postmodernism lays special emphasis on identity and difference. Discuss.
Ans. Postmodernism lays special emphasis on identity and difference. An intriguing part of the word ‘postmodernism’ is that from one viewpoint it alludes to whatever came after innovation as an inescapable result of it, yet on the other it alludes to the sheer presence of innovation as a negative and strange classification. Masterminds and scholarly figures of impact Lying in the nineteen eighty and nineties was too language mindful, and words were used to demonstrate more than they were planned to indicate much of the time. Consider the term ‘postmodernism,’ which alludes to more than “after” or “later,” more than only the “following stage” of a formerly existent pattern wherein the term ‘post’ is utilized. As per what we have realized, the expression “current” turned out to be generally famous in the mid 20th century, notwithstanding the way that it was the subject of extended and exceptional conversations in the eighteenth century. With regards to things and occasions, postmodernism likes to zero in on the outer picture rather than making surmisings or proposing deeper implications that are associated with the inside of the articles or occasions. It was likewise a deprecatory term at that point, with associations with the conduct style of a recently arising bourgeoisie. Customary goals and set up norms were related with the privileged, while “present day” addressed something else: a genuinely new thing, rootless, inconsistent, whimsical and flighty. Present day was given an engaging color of current, real, and present by the mid 20th century, which resonated in the domain of fact. The term subsequently incorporated the entire existentialist development, which was committed to the genuine and cement, just as its archetypes.
Postmodernism lays special emphasis on identity and difference. When managing postmodernism, one of the most troublesome activities is separate it from innovation. Contemporary innovation was characterized as both an expansive propensity that covered the course of life over numerous many years and a point of view that saw unique thoughts of conduct showed specifically conditions. Innovation was a way of thinking. From around the nineteen seventies forward, social scholastic establishments in the western common world started to be mindful when it went to the term’modernism,’ Postmodernism lays special emphasis on identity and difference. since the term addressed a hypothesis, regardless of how nuanced and dubious, that permitted the translation to get access into a peculiarities. Postmodernism lays special emphasis on identity and difference.
Assuming it is viewed as a regulation, it might either be acknowledged, contested, or dismissed. The conversation helped make ready for an elective worldview that is more legitimate, predictable and Postmodernism lays special emphasis on identity and difference. reality-focused than the one that existed before to this contention. Postmodernism lays special emphasis on identity and difference. Innovation as a ‘ism,’ deciphered in structuralist-poststructuralist terms, produced an obvious scrutinize of the Cold War, seriousness, and innovation focused methodologies, and turned out to be progressively troublesome or awkward for a framework that flourished with the negative quest for commercialization and raunchy exploitative.
Postmodernism lays special emphasis on identity and difference. Postmodernism lays special emphasis on identity and difference. In ‘postmodernism,’ the sharp utilization of the prefix ‘post’ empowered a recently stamped thinker to dismiss or nullify all that had happened already and announce that we had shown up at a state of ‘post-progress, post-history, and ‘post-reason,’ i.e., a domain where consistency, connectedness, general truth or certainties had all lost their legitimacy. Postmodernism scrutinized the ideas of existence, just as the thoughts of a past, present, and future, just as the possibility that different societies had interesting examples of conduct to be noticed and perceived.
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