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IGNOU MEG 03 FREE Solved Assignment 2021-22 PDF

IGNOU MEG 03 FREE Solved Assignment 2021-22 PDF  : MEG 03 Solved Assignment 2022 , MEG 03 Solved Assignment 2021-22, MEG 03 Assignment 2021-22, MEG 03 Assignment, IGNOU Assignments 2021-22- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2021-22. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

1. “Fielding is one of the most pro-woman writers in English.” Do you agree with this view? Justify your answer with illustrations from the
text of Tom Jones. 

Ans. Henry Fielding, (born April 22, 1707, Sharpham Park, Somerset, Eng.—died Oct. 8, 1754, Lisbon), novelist and playwright, who, with Samuel Richardson, is considered a founder of the English novel. Among his major novels are Joseph Andrews (1742) and Tom Jones (1749).

Fielding was born of a family that by tradition traced its descent to a branch of the Habsburgs. The 1st earl of Denbigh, William Fielding, was a direct ancestor, while Henry’s father, Col. Edmund Fielding, had served under John Churchill, duke of Marlborough, an early 18th-century general, “with much bravery and reputation.” His mother was a daughter of Sir Henry Gould, a judge of the Queen’s Bench, from whom she inherited property at East Stour, in Dorset, where the family moved when Fielding was three years old. His mother died just before his 11th birthday. His father having married again, Fielding was sent to Eton College, where he laid the foundations of his love of literature and his considerable knowledge of the classics. There he befriended George Lyttelton, who was later to be a statesman and an important patron to him.

Leaving school at 17, a strikingly handsome youth, he settled down to the life of a young gentleman of leisure; but four years later, after an abortive elopement with an heiress and the production of a play at the Drury Lane Theatre in London, he resumed his classical studies at the University of Leiden in Holland. After 18 months he had to return home because his father was no longer able to pay him an allowance. “Having,” as he said, “no choice but to be a hackney-writer or a hackney-coachman,” he chose the former and set up as playwright. In all, he wrote some 25 plays. Although his dramatic works have not held the stage, their wit cannot be denied. He was essentially a satirist; for instance, The Author’s Farce (1730) displays the absurdities of writers and publishers, while Rape upon Rape (1730) satirizes the injustices of the law and lawyers. His target was often the political corruption of the times. In 1737 he produced at the Little Theatre in the Hay (later the Haymarket Theatre), London, his Historical Register, For the Year 1736, in which the prime minister, Sir Robert Walpole, was represented practically undisguised and mercilessly ridiculed. It was not the first time Walpole had suffered from Fielding’s pen, and his answer was to push through Parliament the Licensing Act, by which all new plays had to be approved and licensed by the lord chamberlain before production.

The passing of this act marked the end of Fielding’s career as a playwright. The 30-year-old writer had a wife and two children to support but no source of income. He had married Charlotte Cradock in 1734, this time after a successful elopement, the culmination of a four-year courtship. How much he adored her can be seen from the two characters based on her, Sophia Western in Tom Jones and Amelia in the novel of that name: one the likeness of her as a beautiful, high-spirited, generous-minded girl, the other of her as a faithful, much-troubled, hard-working wife and mother. To restore his fortunes, Fielding began to read for the bar, completing in less than three years a course normally taking six or seven. Even while studying, however, he was editing, and very largely writing, a thrice-weekly newspaper, the Champion; or, British Mercury, which ran from November 1739 to June 1741. This, like some of his later journalism, was strongly anti-Jacobite.

2. Discuss how Pride and Prejudice engages with the theme of love and marriage. 

Ans. Jane Austen is famous for talking about love relationships. Her novels start with love and ends with marriage. She gives every novel a happy ending. “Love and Marriage” is a common theme of her novels including family life and class besides other themes of “Pride and Prejudice”. She depicts good and bad marriages in this novel. In fact, each type of marriage has been presented by her. Ironically, she sheds light on pros and cons of all types of marriages as she uses irony in Pride and Prejudice. Novel is about a society in which women are dependent on men. They are bound to household activities. Every girl of her era including Jane Austen spent her life in serving her family. “Pride and Prejudice” is a clear representation of her own society with an additional theme of “love and marriage”.

Jane Austen shows theme of love and marriage in “Pride and Prejudice” through five types of marriages. However, we cannot say that every marriage is based on love. Most of the couples are compelled to live with each other whereas remaining earn their respect in the eyes of their beloveds for marriage. Nevertheless, theme of “love and relationship” in “Pride and Prejudice” is based on following five couples:

  • Mr and Mrs. Bennet
  • Mr. Collins and Charlotte Lucas
  • Wickham and Lydia
  • Bingley and Jane
  • Darcy and Elizabeth

Every love relationship and marriage depicted in “Pride and Prejudice” is distinct. First marriage is old, second is based on compulsion, third is based on disrespectful love affair, fourth is settled and fifth is based on pure love. Let’s discuss them in detail to know more about primary theme of “love and marriage” in “Pride and Prejudice”.

Mr. and Mrs. Bennet:

Jane Austen talks more about human psyche though not directly. She teaches us how to behave in a particular situation. Hence, her novels also share the theme of mannerism. Mrs. Bennet is a lady who is portrayed by the writer as absurd and ridiculous. She lacks manners. She is a humorless and a mean kind of woman. Mr. Bennet on the other hand has a good sense of humor. His nature is entirely opposite to her in every manner. It seems that he married her for beauty expecting that she would become a good wife with the passage of time. However, in more than twenty-three years of marriage they never enjoy a single day of marital bliss. We find a marriage but no love in their story.

Jane Austen compares them in start of the novel. Here are some differences in their relationship that Jane Austen shows in “Pride and Prejudice”.

  • Mr. Bennet has good humor whereas Mr. Bennet has weak understanding
  • She is liberal whereas he is illiberal
  • He is intellectual whereas she is stupid
  • He is broad minded whereas she is narrow minded

Mr. Bennet after his marriage soon realizes that he has committed a mistake. It is, therefore, he tries to veil his disillusionment through books. He enjoys cracking jokes on her wife. Jane Austen is of the view that no man wants this type of enjoyment through marriage. Cracking jokes and teasing life partner is alien to love relationship. In her eyes, respect is necessary for love. Nonetheless, this is the worst kind of love and marriage that she has shown in “Pride and Prejudice”.

Mr. Collins and Charlotte Lucas:

Their story is very concise and short. Mr. Collins shares some of the natural attributes of Mrs. Bennet. He visits Bennet family and ridiculously purposes Elizabeth. Mrs. Bennet wants her daughter to accept this marriage so that they can save their property but Elizabeth flatly rejects his proposal. Thereafter, he proposes Charlotte Lucas and she accepts him as her husband. This marriage is also not based on love. Charlotte accepts proposal because she is coming of age. She has no other choice. Hence, this marriage is based on oppression of not finding any other suitable husband in future. Charlotte is a good and intellectual lady. She understands human behavior better than Elizabeth. Mr. Collins is not a suitable husband for him. She deserves better but she is victim of circumstances. Jane Austen though this couple shows a strange type of love relationship and marriage in “Pride and Prejudice”.

Wickham and Lydia:

It is one of the most important premature love relationship and marriage in “Pride and Prejudice”. Lydia is a teenage girl who meets Wickham and falls in love with him. He is not serious about her. Lydia shares attributes of her mother to the extent of intellectuality. She elopes with Wickham without realizing that it would bring shame to her family. Wickham on the other hand does not want to marry her. He just flirts with her. Mr. Darcy in Pride and Prejudice forcibly arranges their marriage. This type of marriage is disrespectful. Jane Austen in clear words rejects it. Regardless of that theme of love and relationship is presented in “Pride and Prejudice” through this couple too.

3. Heathcliff, in Emily Bronte’s novel Wuthering Heights is often referred to in derogatory terms by the other characters, as being ‘the evil beast’, ‘uncivilised’, ‘without refinement’ and so on. Do you agree with such a judgement of Heathcliff? 

Ans. Mr. Lockwood describes to the reader the contrast between Heathcliff’s background as an orphaned gypsy and his current status as a gentleman. He derives his self-important opinions from stereotypes: the mysterious gypsy who lives like a gentleman. Mr. Lockwood predicts Heathcliff will maintain his reserve and abstain from showing his feelings. The reader recognizes the dramatic irony in this appraisal, given Heathcliff’s tumultuous emotions and vengeful actions.

Mr. Lockwood and Nelly converse about Heathcliff after Mr. Lockwood shares his first impressions of Heathcliff. Nelly warned him to avoid Heathcliff. Mr. Lockwood questions what has made Heathcliff a hard person, revealing his curiosity and insight into human behavior. Nelly’s introduction that Heathcliff’s history is “a cuckoo’s” foreshadows the harrowing and tragic story she will tell.

Mr. Lockwood and Nelly converse about Heathcliff after Mr. Lockwood shares his first impressions of Heathcliff. Nelly warned him to avoid Heathcliff. Mr. Lockwood questions what has made Heathcliff a hard person, revealing his curiosity and insight into human behavior. Nelly’s introduction that Heathcliff’s history is “a cuckoo’s” foreshadows the harrowing and tragic story she will tell.

Nelly gives a description of Heathcliff upon his return and visit to Thrushcross Grange. She analyzes his transformation in appearance and demeanor and makes contrasts with Edgar Linton, setting the two men in competition once again. While Nelly describes Heathcliff as strong, intelligent, and subdued, she also explains how his aggressiveness seems hidden, waiting to come out. This description reveals Heathcliff as changed but not rid of his darkness or anger.

Catherine speaks to Isabella Linton about Heathcliff’s real character after Isabella declares an interest in Heathcliff. Even though Catherine has a passionate love for Heathcliff, she clearly warns Isabella of Heathcliff’s dark and harsh character. While some of this description may simply come from a jealous nature, Catherine’s perceptions prove true to Heathcliff’s intentions and character.

Heathcliff responds to news of Catherine’s death. As Nelly witnesses his reaction, the readers see his passionate and desperate love for Catherine. However, his wish that her soul would not rest shows the selfish side of his love: He prays that she would haunt him so he would not lose her. These declarations reveal Heathcliff’s dark and selfish motives within his desperate adoration of Catherine.

Nelly describes Heathcliff’s cold and calculated reaction to Hindley Earnshaw’s death. Given Heathcliff’s history of mistreatment at Hindley’s hands, Heathcliff’s anger has deep roots. Hindley’s death completes Heathcliff’s machinations to own Wuthering Heights, which seems to energize Heathcliff. He chillingly announces his plan to raise Hareton in the same environment that “twisted” him. The menace in his jocularity displays him as a cold and vengeful character.

Edgar Linton explains to young Catherine why he has tried to protect her from Heathcliff. Edgar describes Heathcliff’s evil character, malice towards him in particular, and inclination to hurt those he hates. Like the devil that Edgar compares Heathcliff to, each generation discovers his truly hateful soul. Edgar’s fears move him to action in protecting young Catherine from Heathcliff. Despite Edgar’s best efforts, Heathcliff has found a way to cross paths with young Catherine.

Here, Nelly Dean describes how Heathcliff enters Thrushcross Grange after Edgar Linton’s death. She explains how Heathcliff enters as a master, in contrast to his social status when he first came to Thrushcross Grange. Despite Heathcliff’s calmer expression and an appearance of illness, Nelly recognizes he carries himself the same way as he did eighteen years before—like someone who deserves his place as master.

‘It is not my fault that I cannot eat or rest . . . I’ll do both, as soon as I possibly can. But you might as well bid a man struggling in the water rest within arms’ length of the shore! I must reach it first, and then I’ll rest . . . I’ve done no injustice, and I repent nothing. I’m too happy; and yet I’m not happy enough. My soul’s bliss kills my body, but does not satisfy itself.’

In these final words before his death, Heathcliff talks to Nelly about his current physical and mental state. He explains that he cannot rest because he struggles to feel fully satisfied despite succeeding in his revenge. He also verifies that he does not believe he did anything wrong and does not apologize even though he realizes that his heart’s desires have destroyed him.

4. Comment on the symbolism of the title Heart of Darkness. 

Ans. Heart of Darkness, the title of Conrad’s novel, bears two meaning .One is literal and the other symbolical. Literally the title refers to the dark continent of Africa ,especially the territory known as the Congo. Symbolicallly,it means the dark region or the sub-conscious state of human mind which is even more difficult to explore than the exploration of dark country like the Congo.

Darkness is suggested by many descriptions of the wild scenery of the thick ,almost impenetrable jungle from where the natives peer at the intruders from behind the trees in a stealthy, and suspicious manner, and even attack them on all a sudden . Marlow refers to the great stillness that prevails in the impenetrable forests where the air is warm, thick, heavy and sluggish. The barbarism of the natives and the evil designs of Mr.Kurtz give us an impression of darkness. On one occasion, the natives of Congo see Marlow’s steamer sailing up the river and drew near the riverbank to launch an attack upon the intruders. In the encounter the helmsman of the steamer is killed with a spear hurled at him by a native.  This attack of the natives is made out of ignorance and on direction from Mr. Kurtz who has become a part of the darkness of the Congo.

Marlow’s Exploration

The phrase “Heart of Darkness” bears another meaning . Marlow’s exploration of the dark country is accompanied by an exploration of the depths of his own mind or soul. The human mind may also be regarded as a kind of dark continent . The exploration of this dark continent is perhaps even more difficult than the exploration of a dark country like the Congo. The novel certainly describes a physical journey but at the same time, it is a psychological and mystical journey.  In many passages of Marlow’s narration,  he gives us glimpses of his own mind.  In this connection we may refer to his feelings of isolation in the steamer, his reaction to the suffering of the black men chained with one another and each wearing an iron collar around his neck , the ill-treatment of the cannibal crew by the white owner of the ship,  his reflections on manager of the central station, Brickmaker,  and finally  Mr. Kurtz . When marlow meets Mr. Kurtz he begins to admire him despite his demonic character . He remains loyal to him even when he returns to Europe and tells a lie to Kurtz’s fiancee that his last word was her own name . This loyalty to Mr. Kurtz expresses his own response to primitivism and barbarism. This means , if Marlow had stayed for sometime longer in the Congo region , he too, would have followed the same path of evil as Mr. Kurtz had done.

Thus Heart of Darkness is an exploration not only of a dark continent but also in the sub-conscious state of the mind , which is also a dark region.  Therefore the title of the novel is appropriate as it refers to the both kinds of exploration.

Joseph Conrad’s most read novella Heart of Darkness has double meaning in its title. One dictionary meaning is that the title refers to the interior of the Africa called Congo. Another hidden meaning is, the title stands for the darkness or the primitiveness that every person possesses in his or her mind and heart.

The etymological meaning of the phrase Heart of Darkness is the innermost region of the territory which is yet to be explored, where people led the nomadic and primitive way of living. The setting time of the novel Heart of Darkness dates back to those periods when the continent of Africa was not fully explored. So the continent was called the heart of darkness. The major and significant events of the novel take place in the Dark Continent, though the first and the end of the story takes place outside the continent. The central character, Kurtz, comes under the influence of the savages and becomes one of them in the same dark place called Congo. The savages and Kurtz, in fact, belong to the heart of darkness.

The description of the scenery by Marlow adds something vital meaning to the title of the novel. The wild scene, thick and impenetrable jungle, the pictures of the natives hiding in the dense jungle, the silence and the dangerous stillness of the river Congo, the thick fog, all these features are suggestive to the title  Heart of Darkness. The outer physical setting intensifies the horror and the fear among the readers. The reading about the description of the natives and their way of appearing in the novel bring the terrific effect in the mind of the reader.

On one occasion, Marlow is attacked by the natives in his steamer. In that attack the helmsman is killed. The natives attack the steamer of Marlow not knowing why he is there, but in the ignorance. The ignorance and backwardness of the savages, the purposeless attack creates the feeling like being in the midst of the heart of darkness. The attack to the steamer is planned by Kurtz, who has become one savage living with the natives. He becomes more barbaric than the inhabitants. The essence of savagery, brutality and cruelty sums up in the existence of Kurtz. Kurtz’s mission was to civilize the natives, to educate them, to improve their way of living and the important one is to bring the light into their lives and into that dark territory. But he ends in converting himself into the savages, and the most striking thing is that he has set himself like a god in that Dark Continent. He starts following their unspeakable rites. He does any brutal raids for the sake of collection of ivory. According to Marlow, Kurtz has become a devil being failure to control his moral restraint. He lets his inner self, the primitive self, dance freely in the lap of darkness and becomes the representatives of the darkness. His superstition and evil has become the embodiment of darkness. Psychologically, Kurtz is the symbol of everyman’s darkness which is veiled under the curtain of civilization. Kurtz is the heart of darkness.

5. Write a critical essay on the narrative technique adopted by Muriel Spark in The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie.

Ans. The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie by Muriel Spark renders the tale of a group of six young girls who are very close to their teacher Miss Brodie. The techniques like flashback, reminiscing, stream of consciousness and narrative-within-narrative help readers scrutinize the personality and character of Miss Brodie who has such an inexplicable hold over her students. Her ability to hypnotize is what the readers are trying to understand throughout.

There is no storyline as such as it is the portrayal of the subjects that Muriel Spark is more concerned about. Therefore, the interaction between these characters in the small world of Marcia Blaine School becomes more important than the plot. Miss Brodie is specially attached to the six young girls out of all her students and the way she grooms them has lifelong effects on their life. Readers will definitely note how the education Miss Brodie imparts in different from the orthodox system of education. This is the reason she is always found suspicious in a conventional setup like that of Marcia Blaine School. She describes her distressing love-life to the Brodie set, her susceptibility to art and music, her disobedience of social norms and is quite confident that none of the girls will betray her by exposing her style of teaching.

One of the Brodie girls named Sandy, however, finds how they were betrayed by Miss Brodie throughout. After finding that her teacher was in love with Mr. Lloyd and not Mr. Lowther as she would claim, she feels betrayed and decides not to conform to Miss Brodie’s future plans. It is from here that Brodie’s ill fate takes over as Sandy finally realizes that Miss Brodie was practicing the power of God over these girls and was directing their lives throughout. She even apprehends that Brodie was responsible for the death of Emily Joyce, another of her students, as she sent her to fight for General Franco in Spanish Civil War.

In the so called revolutionary methods of Miss Brodie that the girls were awed with, Sandy found distressing flaws. As a result, she betrays Brodie by apprising Miss Mackey about her fascination for fascism, something completely unacceptable in an era where Mussolini and Hitler were seen as evil forces of society. Miss Brodie was forced to retire and till the end of her life she is always engaged in finding her betrayer. It is Miss Brodie’s negative impulses and the abuse of power that brings her fall.

 

 

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