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IGNOU MEG 02 FREE Solved Assignment 2021-22 PDF  : MEG 02 Solved Assignment 2022 , MEG 02 Solved Assignment 2021-22, MEG 02 Assignment 2021-22, MEG 02 Assignment, IGNOU Assignments 2021-22- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2021-22. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

1. Discuss Waiting for Godot from the perspective of the theatre of the Absurd. 

Ans. Martin Esslin, the critic responsible for coining the term “Theatre of the Absurd,” defines absurdity as “that which has no purpose, goal, or objective”. The movement emerged in France after the horrors of World War II as a rebellion against the basic beliefs and values in traditional culture and literature. Almost all of the playwrights of The Theatre of the Absurd share the existentialist philosophy of absurdity and nothingness. This theater, however, “has renounced arguing about the absurdity of the human condition; it merely presents it in being — that is, in terms of concrete stage images of the absurdity of existence.” These writers flout all standards by which drama has been judged for many centuries. In their plays there is no particular attention spent developing a recognizable plot, no detailed characterization, and no readily definable theme. This bizarre rejection of any recognizable pattern or development gave birth to the term Literature of the Absurd.

Against the backdrop of conventional theatre, Waiting for Godot represents irony in extremes. Unlike conventional forms in which everything on the stage exists for a larger purpose, the world of Godot is a world without meaning: bare in both matter and form. With its extreme paucity of action, Godot confronts the theatre-goer with an experience of failed expectations: nothing happens, Godot never comes. In this sense, Godot presents a brilliant simulacrum of real life in which desire is continually frustrated by the boring facts of the everyday.

The haunting image of despairing bumpkins hobnobbing around a stage barren except for the lone, skeleton-like tree, creates a situation of powerful metaphorical significance. The characters are so featureless, so context-less, that it is nearly impossible to view them as representations of empirical entities; rather, they appear almost as symbolic abstractions. In his seminal essay on the subject, Esslin argues that the Theatre of the Absurd shares a kinship with the mystery plays of medieval Europe for this very reason— because these plays often portray characters and situations too vague and generalized to signify any particular thing. Rather, the complete impotence of Vladimir and Estragon is suggestive of the failure of human thought, in the macrocosm of human existence at large, as well as in the individual mind.

Without any plot development or sense of contingency, the play is comprised of discrete activities—walking, talking, falling down—that fail to resolve into a coherent drama.  Vladimir and Estragon exist perpetually in the moment. Although they have some knowledge of things outside their immediate experience—they can recite songs and reference the Bible—this is all timeless, abstract data. When it comes to relating events to their present situation they are at a loss. References to past experiences like climbing the Eiffel Tower and picking grapes along the Rhone seem impossibly distant from the subtracted world in which they appear; it seems more likely that these memories are not even their own, or from another life. Thus, only dimly aware of their relation to yesterday and tomorrow, Vladimir and Estragon inhabit a world of inscrutable repetitiveness; and they pass the time like everyone else: walking, talking, and falling down.

Waiting for Godot” is an absurd play for not only its plot is loose but its characters are also just mechanical puppets with their incoherent colloquy. And above than all, its theme is unexplained. It is devoid of characterization and motivation. So far as its dialogue technique is concerned, it is purely absurd as there is no witty repartee and pointed dialogue. What a reader or spectator hears is simply the incoherent babbling which does not have any clear and meaningful ideas. Nothing special happens in the play, nor do we observe any significant change in setting. The situation almost remains unchanged and an enigmatic vein runs throughout the play. “Nothing happens, nobody comes … nobody goes, it’s awful!”

Godot remains a mystery and curiosity still holds a sway. The wait continues; the human contacts remain unsolved; the problem of existence remains meaningless, futile and purposeless. All this makes it an absurd play.

2. Discuss the typical Shakespearean comic elements in the play in A Midsummer Night’s
Dream. 

Ans. In telling the story of several sets of lovers who must overcome obstacles and misunderstandings before they are finally united in marriage, A Midsummer Night’s Dream is an example of Shakespearean comedy. The play’s central couples, Hermia and Lysander and Helena and Demetrius, begin the play facing two classic obstacles of Shakespearean comedy: parental disapproval and misdirected love. Hermia’s father forbids her to marry Lysander, insisting that she marry Demetrius instead. According to Athenian law, Hermia faces death or exile if she disobeys her father. Meanwhile, Helena loves Demetrius, but his love is currently directed at Hermia. These initial obstacles become confused and compounded when the couples enter the forest. The fairy Puck’s mistaken enchantments result first in Lysander loving Helena, and then in both men loving Helena, a reversal of the play’s opening. But by the next morning, the confusion has been resolved. Lysander’s enchantment has been removed while Demetrius’s enchantment remains, and the couples are for the first time happily balanced. The couples’ final barrier is overcome when Theseus overrules Hermia’s father’s wishes, and the play ends as all Shakespearean comedies do: with a wedding.

Like other Shakespearian comedies, Midsummer focuses on the characters’ situations rather than their emotions. For example, in the play’s first scene, rather than dwelling in despair because they are forbidden to be together, Hermia and Lysander focus on a solution and make a secret plan to escape. Later, the fairy king Oberon witnesses Helena pledging her devotion to Demetrius and immediately decides to intervene when Demetrius harshly rejects her. Both the lovers’ decision to go into the forest and the fairies’ decision to intercede in the lovers’ lives create situations that confuse and trouble the lovers. However, as audience members we are never seriously worried that the outcome will be anything but happy because the play’s fantastical situations and overwrought language distance us from the lovers’ pain. Secure in our knowledge that the magical mistakes will eventually be repaired and that order will be restored, we can enjoy watching the drama unfold.

In the characteristics of Shakespearean comedy in A Midsummer Night’s Dream, a cutting edge sense, lampoon is a kind of fabrication that alludes to any talk or work generally planned to be clever or intriguing by actuating screaming, particularly in theater, television, film, stand- up parody, books and books or some other vehicle of recreation. The starting points of the term are set up in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian maturity rule government, the popular assessment of choosers was affected by the political parody performed by the ridiculous pens at the theaters. The grabby kind of Greek parody can be portrayed as a sensational exhibition which sets two gatherings or social orders in opposition to one another in a diverting agon or struggle. Northrop Frye delineated these two rival sides as a” General public of Youth” and a” General public of the Old.” An updated view portrays the introductory agon of parody as a battle between a relatively weak youth and the artistic shows that posture snags to his prospects. In this battle, the youthful is comprehended to be obliged by his absence of social power, and is left with minimum decision still to take response in tricks which induce emotional contradiction which incites roaring.

Parody and political parody use lampoon to depict people or social associations as ludicrous or degenerate, in this manner disaffecting their crowd from the object of their diversion. Spoof subverts mainstream classes and structures, studying those structures without unnaturally censuring them.

Different types of Comedy incorporate crackbrain parody, which gets its amusingness to a great extent from strange, amazing( and doubtful) circumstances or characters, and dark lampoon, which is described by a type of diversion that incorporates darker corridor of mortal conduct or mortal instinct. Likewise dirty cleverness, sexual diversion, and race humor make parody by abusing social shows or taboos in ridiculous mores. A parody of habits regularly takes as its subject a specific piece of society( typically privileged society) and utilizations diversion to caricature or mock the conduct and tricks of its individualities. Discuss the typical Shakespearean comic elements in the play in A Midsummer Night’s Dream

The characteristics of Shakespearean comedy in A Midsummer Night’s Dream unconcerned comedy is a well given kind that portrays prospering sentiment in amusing terms and limelights on the sins of the individualities who are falling in loveShakespeare’s slapsticks all offer a lot of rates. This exercise will take a gander at’ A Midsummer Night’s Dream’ and the factors of high and low parody, humoristic, and what we may call’ Shakespearean’satire.Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream is one of his generally well known and suffering uproarious plays. also as with utmost Elizabethan slapsticks, this play is a debonair frolic through multitudinous feathers of flightiness, all check joyfully in the last scene. also introductory to this time, lampoon is fixated on marriage and connections, and a glad completion implies joining the seeking couples.

Discuss the typical Shakespearean comic elements in the play in A Midsummer Night’s Dream

The characteristics of Shakespearean comedy in A Midsummer Night’s Dream, In relating to the account of a many arrangements of dears who must beat impediments and crimes before they’re at last joined in marriage, A Midsummer Night’s Dream is a case of Shakespearean lampoon. The play’s focal couples, Hermia and Lysander and Helena and Demetrius, start the play defying two great obstructions of Shakespearean lampoon maternal expostulation and misled love. Hermia’s pater

precludes her to wed Lysander, demanding that she wed Demetrius. As per Athenian law, Hermia faces demise or castaway on the off chance that she ignores her pater Discuss the typical Shakespearean comic elements in the play in A Midsummer Night’s Dream

3. What do you think is the dominant quality of Hamlet’s character? Discuss with suitable
examples. 

Ans. Hamlet

The Prince of Denmark, the title character, and the promoter. About thirty times old at the launch of the play, Hamlet is the son of Queen Gertrude and the late King Hamlet, and the whore son of the present king, Claudius. Hamlet is melancholy, bitter, and pessimistic, full of abomination for his uncle’s designing and nausea for his mama ’s fornication. A reflective and thoughtful youthful man who has studied at the University of Witten-berg, Hamlet is frequently indecisive and reluctant, but at other times prone to rash and impulsive acts. the dominant quality of Hamlet’s character

The promoter of the tragedy, Hamlet is a cherished Napoleon and a thoughtful, melancholy youthful man. distrait by his father’s death, Hamlet is only made more depressed by his uncle Claudius ’ race to the throne and his posterior marriage to his mama . When the ghost of the king, Hamlet’s father, tells him that he was boggled by his family Claudius and that Hamlet must retaliate him, Hamlet becomes nearly suicidal and hung up with vengeance. He’s sluggishly driven frenetic by his incapability to act on this instruction.

The dominant quality of Hamlet’s character

veritably intelligent, Hamlet decides to fake madness in order to wisecrack his uncle and those pious to him while he uncovers whether Claudius is shamefaced for his father’s death — although frequently his internal health is authentically in question. upset about his own guilt, Hamlet also becomes spiteful, despising his uncle, venting wrath-fulness at his mama , frustrated with his treacherous musketeers, and alienating Ophelia( whom he formerly courted). His wrath-fulness borders on ruthlessness, and he’s responsible for multitudinous deaths throughout the play, but he noway loses his reflective and melancholy traits.

Claudius

The King of Denmark, Hamlet’s uncle, and the play’s antagonist. The villain of the play, Claudius is a calculating, ambitious politician, driven by his sexual favors and his lust for power, but he sometimes shows signs of guilt and mortal feeling — his love for Gertrude, for case, seems sincere.

Claudius, the play’s antagonist, is the king of Denmark and Hamlet’s uncle. According to the ghost of Hamlet’s father, Claudius is his killer. When we’re first introduced to Claudius, he scolds Hamlet for still being so pouty about his father’s death and forbids him to return to his university studies in Witten-berg.

The dominant quality of Hamlet’s character

Claudius is a conniving strategist who poisoned his own family in cold blood. He remains calculating and unloving throughout the play, driven by his ambition and lust. When he realizes that Hamlet isn’t frenetic as he firstly believed, and in fact poses a trouble to his crown, Claudius snappily begins to compass Hamlet’s death. This plan eventually leads to Claudius’s death at Hamlet’s hands at the end of the play. the dominant quality of Hamlet’s character

still, Claudius also has an honorable side. When Hamlet has a traveling troop put on a play for the court that emulates the murder of a king, Claudius reveals his sense of guilt. He also decides to have Ophelia buried with form, rather than as a self-murder. His love for Gertrude also seems sincere.

Gertrude

The Queen of Denmark, Hamlet’s mama , lately married to Claudius. Gertrude loves Hamlet deeply, but she’s a shallow, weak woman who seeks affection and status more urgently than moral rectitude or verity.

Gertrude is the queen of Denmark and Hamlet’s mama . She was firstly married to Hamlet’s father, the dead king, but has now married the new king Claudius, her former family- in- law. Gertrude’s son Hamlet regards her with dubitation the dominant quality of Hamlet’s character

wondering whether she had a hand in his father’s murder. Gertrude is rather weak and unfit to match head in an argument, but her love for her son remains strong. She also enjoys the physical aspects of her marriage to Claudius — a point that disturbs Hamlet. After the brand fight between Hamlet and Laertes, Gertrude drinks the poisoned tableware meant for Hamlet and dies.

Polonius

The Lord Chamberlain of Claudius’s court, a pretentious, conniving old man. Polonius is the father of Laertes and Ophelia.

Polonius is the main counsel to the king, also known as the Lord Chamberlain. pretentious and arrogant, Polonius is also the tyrannous father of Ophelia and Laertes. As Laertes sets off for France to continue his studies, Polonius gives him paradoxical advice, including the notorious citation,” to thine own tone be true ” — an ironic line from a man who can not keep his advice harmonious. When Hamlet goes to his mama ’s bedchamber, trying to defy her about his father’s murder, he kills Polonius, who’s hiding behind a shade and whom Hamlet miscalculations for the king. the dominant quality of Hamlet’s character

Ophelia

Polonius’s son, a beautiful youthful woman with whom Hamlet has been in love. Ophelia is a sweet and innocent youthful girl, who obeys her father and her family, Laertes. Dependent on men to tell her how to bear, she gives in to Polonius’s schemes to asset on Hamlet. Indeed in her lapse into madness and death, she remains maidenly, singing songs about flowers and eventually drowning in the swash amid the flower libraries she had gathered.

 Laertes

Polonius’s son and Ophelia’s family, a youthful man who spends important of the play in France. Passionate and quick to action, Laertes is easily a antipode for the reflective Hamlet.

Fortinbras

The youthful Prince of Norway, whose father the king( also named Fortinbras) was killed by Hamlet’s father( also named Hamlet). Now Fortinbras wishes to attack Denmark to retaliate his father’s honor, making him another antipode for Prince Hamlet.

The Ghost

The specter of Hamlet’s lately deceased father. The ghost, who claims to have been boggled by Claudius, calls upon Hamlet to retaliate him. still, it isn’t entirely certain whether the ghost is what it appears to be, or whether it’s commodity differently. Hamlet speculates that the ghost might be a devil transferred to deceive him and tempt him into murder, and the question of what the ghost is or where it comes from is noway definitively resolved. the dominant quality of Hamlet’s character

4. Can The Alchemist be understood as a satire? Give suitable examples. 

Ans. The Alchemist be understood as a satire: The setting for which Jonson obviously composed his play mirrors this recently strong acknowledgment of theater as a reality of city life. In 1597, the Lord Chamberlain’s Men had been denied authorization to utilize the auditorium in Blackfriars as a winter playhouse on account of complaints from the area’s compelling occupants. The Alchemist be understood as a satire Some time somewhere in the range of 1608 and 1610, the organization, presently the King’s Men, reassumed control of the playhouse, this time without protests. Their deferred debut on this phase inside the city dividers, alongside illustrious support, denotes the ascendance of this organization in the London play-world (Gurr, 171). The Alchemist be understood as a satire The Alchemist was among the principal plays picked for execution at the theater.

The Alchemist As A Satire

Jonson’s play mirrors this new certainty. In it, he applies his traditional origination of show to a setting in contemporary London just because, with empowering results. The Alchemist be understood as a satire The traditional components, most strikingly the connection among Lovewit and Face, are completely modernized; in like manner, the portrayal of Jacobean London is provided request and guidance by the old style comprehension of parody as a way to uncover bad habit and stupidity to deride. Can The Alchemist be understood as a satire

First acted in 1610, Jonson’s parody of human realism was set in then contemporary London.

The Alchemist be understood as a satire There are in this manner a large number characters and subjects which the first crowd would have perceived (most likely with some uneasiness, as awesome parody is able to deliver.) Audiences would have been totally acquainted with:

  1. The Plague. Endeavors at control of this intermittent scourge implied that venues in London were oftentimes shut during times of high contamination, and the play’s first execution is recorded as occurring in Oxford in September 1610, when the London theaters had been shut since July. The Alchemist be understood as a satire Everybody would have perceived the setting of The Alchemist: a city hit by plague limitations in regards to groups and open social events, and from which everybody who could stand to move away did. Can The Alchemist be understood as a satire That left poor people, and those whose organizations would have been ransacked had they left them. The Alchemist be understood as a satire Lovewit is a man of his word who has gone to the nation, however his workers choose to stay around, gambling contamination so as to underwrite.
  2. Social Mobility. This new Jacobean age had gotten extremely mindful of the probability of profiting, and the social ramifications of effective exchange and undertaking empowering the intersection of social partitions which not some time before had been viewed as insurmountable. The Alchemist be understood as a satire The ‘gulls’ – the tricks who accept that they can make easy money by enchantment – are likewise taking a chance with their lives, and are depicted over the social range: from the Knight to the bombing tobacconist. Can The Alchemist be understood as a satire The Alchemist be understood as a satire The Alchemist as a satire No one is safe to eagerness and securing, however the Spaniard (mimicked by Surly) was a famous post-Reformation detest figure, as were Puritans (spoken to here by the Anabaptists, an extraordinary Protestant group who rehearsed a kind of proto-socialism) and who were famously hostile to theater. Inside the setting of the parody, the exacting ‘creation’ of cash is the vital point, thus
  3. Speculative chemistry. With its old roots in Hellenistic Egypt, verifiably speculative chemistry was the logical/philosophical quest for a Universal Panacea (to annihilate malady), Elixir of Life, (to find the mystery of interminability) and the legendary ‘Savant’s Stone’, which should have the ability to transform base metals into gold. The Alchemist be understood as a satire The Alchemist as a satire, It is this last concerns the ‘chemists’ of Jonson’s play. Speculative chemistry was seen undecidedly by the mid seventeenth Century – differently as devilry, as only maniac, and a conviction among some that there may be something in it. All frames of mind are spoken to in the play. (Think about the manner in which we respect crystal gazing now, still…) Certainly, the Elizabethan age had seen a noteworthy ascent in rascals, and these would have been exceptionally recognizable to the complex London crowd in 1610. The Alchemist be understood as a satire In any case, speculative chemistry had started to converge with real early substance look into with the rise of real exploratory researchers, for example, the philospher-physicist Paracelsus  who spearheaded the utilization of minerals in medication. Somewhat like a comparative converging of ‘soothsaying’ and ‘cosmology’ in a similar age, the limits among science and enchantment were definitely obscured. Can The Alchemist be understood as a satire.
  4. Speculative chemistry.  With its old roots in Hellenistic Egypt, verifiably speculative chemistry was the logical/philosophical quest for a Universal Panacea (to annihilate malady), Elixir of Life, (to find the mystery of interminability) and the legendary ‘Savant’s Stone’, which should have the ability to transform base metals into gold. The Alchemist as a satire, It is this last concerns the ‘chemists’ of Jonson’s play. The Alchemist be understood as a satire Speculative chemistry was seen undecidedly by the mid seventeenth Century – differently as devilry, as only maniac, and a conviction among some that there may be something in it. All frames of mind are spoken to in the play. (Think about the manner in which we respect crystal gazing now, still…) Certainly, the Elizabethan age had seen a noteworthy ascent in rascals, and these would have been exceptionally recognizable to the complex London crowd in 1610. Can The Alchemist be understood as a satire In any case, speculative chemistry had started to converge with real early substance look into with the rise of real exploratory researchers, for example, the philospher-physicist Paracelsus  who spearheaded the utilization of minerals in medication. Somewhat like a comparative converging of ‘soothsaying’ and ‘cosmology’ in a similar age, the limits among science and enchantment were definitely obscured.

5. Discuss the play Pygmalion as a romance? Elaborate.

Ans. Pygmalion, George Bernard Shaw’s sublime comedy of cross-class mobility, was first performed in a German translation at the Hofburg Theatre, Vienna, on 16 October 1913. A production in English followed soon afterwards at His Majesty’s Theatre, London, opening on 11 April 1914 and running for 118 performances. The play has been popular with audiences ever since for the inventiveness of its comedy and the force of what it has to say about class, education, social mobility and feminism. Class, in particular, lies at the heart of Shaw’s play. To what extent can people reposition themselves in society by changing the way they talk and act? Can a Cockney flower girl pass herself off as a duchess with the help of elocution lessons, or will the force of her personality and upbringing always find a way to break through? Pygmalion explores these issues and gloriously celebrates individual character and personality, while exposing and satirising the artificial constructs of the British class system.

The plot of Pygmalion concerns a bet made by Henry Higgins, a professor of phonetics, that in six months he can train a bedraggled Cockney flower girl, Eliza Doolittle, to pass as a duchess. As Higgins puts it to his friend, Colonel Pickering, ‘I shall make a duchess of this draggletailed guttersnipe’, a statement that is revealing both of Higgins’s unshakable self-confidence and of his dismissive attitudes towards the lower classes . Shaw’s inspiration for the arrogant but brilliant Higgins came from the great British phonetician Henry Sweet and from music teacher George John Vandeleur Lee, a figure from Shaw’s youth who had held a powerful influence over his mother, Bessie. To achieve his objective Higgins proposes to teach Eliza to speak with an impeccable upper-class accent and to master the art of polite small talk. What he doesn’t account for is the indomitable will, charm and vibrant personality of his pupil. Higgins leads his student towards a new life only to realise that having allowed her a glimpse of a finer world she becomes disaffected with her old life, and the lack of opportunities it offered.

Shaw envisaged the character of Eliza as ‘an East End dona [woman] in an apron and three orange and red ostrich feathers’. He found inspiration in the actress Beatrice Stella Campbell (better known under her stage name of ‘Mrs Patrick Campbell’). In 1895 Shaw had seen Mrs Campbell in a play called Fedora by the French dramatist Victorien Sardou. Shaw, in his review, was distinctly unimpressed by Mrs Campbell’s performance. More tellingly, however, he also found fault with her diction:

In order to secure refinement of tone, she articulates with the tip of her tongue against her front teeth as much as possible [like] the snobbish Irishman who uses it as a cheap recipe for speaking genteel English.

Shaw, having arrived in London in 1876 as a 20-year-old Irishman self-conscious of his Dublin accent, knew precisely what he was talking about. Shaw had long been fascinated by phonetics, and the necessity of speaking in a certain way to be accepted within genteel, elevated and cultured circles.

Two years after seeing Mrs Campbell in Fedora Shaw saw her again, playing Ophelia in Hamlet. This time, Shaw was impressed and noted with approval that Mrs Campbell portrayed the character as being genuinely and terrifyingly mad. When he saw the play a second time, three months later, things had changed. Mrs Campbell had become bored of the role. Something about the way Mrs Campbell now sang and decked herself with flowers during the mad scene reminded Shaw of the woman who sold flowers at Charing Cross station. Soon after this performance Shaw and Mrs Campbell were introduced. A passionate although never consummated affair followed and, almost 20 years after first seeing her, Shaw wrote Pygmalion with Mrs Campbell in mind for the role of Eliza.

 

 

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