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IGNOU BSOC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Submission Date :
- 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).
Assignment – I
Ans. Many wealthy families lacked Prestige and power, for example, because they were Jewish. Weber introduced three independent factors that form his theory of stratification hierarchy: class, status, and power. He treated these as separate but related sources of power, each with different effects on social action.
Three Sources of
Power Class is a person’s economic position in a
society, based on birth and individual achievement. Weber differs from Marx in that he did not see this as the supreme factor in stratification. Weber noted that managers of corporations or industries control firms they do not own; Marx would have placed such a person in the
proletariat. Status refers to a person’s prestige, social honor, or popularity in a society. Weber noted that political was not rooted solely in capital value, but also in one’s individual. Poets or saints, for example, can possess immense influence on society, often with little economic worth. refers to a person’s ability to get their way despite the resistance of others. For example, individuals in state jobs, such as an employee of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or a member of the United States Congress, may hold little property or but they still hold immense.
After Karl Marx, Weber work regarding stratification was related to class classification. He divided society by majorly three facts viz. power, class, and status. These three terms were also called three components of stratification in which people belonging to same class enjoys the same lifestyle and are provided with the same amount of opportunities for growth. For example, people belonging to the same group of industrialist share same market value in the society.
Max Weber was although having a different point of view from Marx. He insisted that the political and social division was mainly based on the account of production rate of deserving people, whereas Marx has seen class division as capitalism and iron cage view. Weber particularly stated that control was in hand of those people who can earn the maximum profit and production. The people who could not afford much in production were put up in the situation of survival of the best. Weber supported Marx ideas on some crucial situation but he exercised his ideation in an analytical way. He stated that men in the society will always thrive for power and thus it becomes the reason for social stratification. But on the other hand, he did not support the ill-treatment of poor peasants.
Marx presented the society in capitalist view as the managers, administrators; landlords took the upper position in the society whereas peasants and tenants were lower class people. But Weber presented the categorization of society in four ways:-
The propertied upper class– They were the upper-class people who had an immense amount of property which was their way of collecting revenues from tenants. For example, the landlords collected revenue from the tenants when they gave a portion of their land to them.
The propertyless white-collar workers- They were the skilled labors who sat behind the tables to earn a proper salary. Mostly middle-class people were seen doing the white collar jobs. Comparing with the present situation, workers working in MNC’s or power plants can be termed as white collar seeking employees.
The petty bourgeoisie– They were belonging to lower class people. Marx was in the favor of highlighting their declining position in the society.
The manual working class– They can be called as the lower class medium also popularly known as blue collar jobs at that time. They had to do work manually and were paid less than the necessity.
Often class and status were taken as one form of stratification but Weber was seen as differentiating major factors of social stratification as the class, status, and power.
Class– Conflict theories have explained how the stratification was gobbling up the chances of weak sections of society into becoming better. Thus the class where Weber explained the economic condition has stratified society into four types discussed above.
Status– In this section, Weber explained that maybe the community does not share same economic level, but due to prestige and position in the society, they belong to the same status.
Power– In the context of power, it was dealing with political powers. For example, in the time of revolutions, Churches were holding an immense position in the society. They had the power of decision making.
Ans. On the basis of some empirical findings, sociologists present three bases of stratification wealth, power and prestige i.e. class, power and status.
Stratification is a system of social ranking, involving relations of superiority and inferiority. These relations between the units of rank are governed by a set of norms. Analytically, stratification is conceived of as an evaluative ranking of social units. Concretely, it refers to the empirical distribution of advantages and benefits in society. It can be seen as a process, which is regulated by some principles. These principles determine the bases of the distribution of social advantages in society.
The bases or dimensions of social stratification refer to the different levels of differentiation which are made to allocate people in a given society. Natural inequlities take the form of social inequalities when the members of society assign some meaning of them. Age, sex, and colour are natural bases of inequalitities. But now it becomes the bases of social stratification because society has attached some meanings to them. On the basis of some empirical findings, sociologists present three bases of stratification wealth, power and prestige i.e. class, power and status.
These can be listed as follows:
- Class: It refers to differentiation at the level of wealth. In this sense it can be termed as economic differentiation. Wealth is generated in societies only when technologies advancement takes place and there is a change in the mode of production. Examples are: change from hunting and food garnering economy to settled agriculture, change from agriculture based economy to one based predominantly upon manufacturing and industry. Such changes, not only brought about the institution of social stratification, but in course of time also altered the principles of organization of social stratification. Economic advancement led to generation of more wealth in society, more accumulation of markers of wealth is it in the form of food grains or cattle, or metals and minerals (silver, gold precious stones etc.) or money. At this stage, the groups which had greater control over the economic resources and wealth or which possessed more wealth were ranked higher in society than groups which controlled less of it, or groups which had little or negligible access to wealth (for example, landless workers or industrial workers). The social stratification based on class is its prime example.
- Power: It refers to differential access to power in society. It includes political, social and other types of power. It is always possible that a group with higher status in society or that which enjoys greater wealth, also exercises more power in society. Nevertheless, one could make a distinction between say, principle of privileges where as the latter tends to be based on the group’s ability to use coercive means for other group’s conformity with actions, values and beliefs determined by it. The concept of power as Max Weber has discussed in his treatment of social stratification rests on the fact that it endows the persons or groups which have power to impose their will on other groups by legitimate use of coercive method. In this sense, state offers us a good example of an institution which has maximum power. It has sovereign authority to impose its will on citizens of the society. When legitimacy of exercise of power, is widely accepted by groups, in other words, when it is institutionalized in society, power becomes authority. Authority as a concept could be defined as legitimate power. Power as a principle also enters into the notion of social stratification when its functions or its social ramifications begin to be influenced by the political processes in society, and when state begins to take more active or direct role in influencing the principles of social stratification. A relevant example of this could be found in the policy of positive discrimination or reservation of jobs, political offices and entry into educational institutions in our country by the state in favour of castes and tribes now declared as ‘scheduled’ or as ‘other backward classes’. Max Weber, in his treatment of power as an element in the formation of social stratification has rightly emphasised the significance of politics, political parties and their role in optimizing their access to power.
Assignment – II
3. Explain class as a form of stratification.
Ans. Class stratification is a form of social stratification in which a society is separated into parties whose members have different access to resources and power. An economic, natural, cultural, religious, interests and ideal rift usually exists between different classes.
In the early stages of class stratification, the majority of members in a given society have similar access to wealth and power, with only a few members displaying noticeably more or less wealth than the rest.
As time goes on, the largest share of wealth and status can begin to concentrate around a small number of the population. When wealth continues to concentrate, pockets of society with significantly less wealth may develop, until a sharp imbalance between rich and poor is created. As members of a society spread out from one another economically, classes are created.
When a physical gap is added, a cultural rift between the classes comes into existence, an example being the perception of the well-mannered, “cultured” behavior of the rich, versus the “uncivilized” behavior of the poor. With the cultural divide, chances for classes to intermingle become less and less likely, and mythos becomes more and more common between them (i.e. “the wrong side of the railroad tracks”). The lower class loses more of its influence and wealth as the upper class gains more influence and wealth, further dividing the classes from one another.
Social class is usually regarded as being conceived of as sets of positions rather than as individuals who happen to fill them at any particular time. Class structure is the “empty spaces” that persons occupy without altering the shape of the class structure.
Erik Olin Wright produced class schemata, in attempts to retain a Marxist approach to class analysis. In Wright’s first schema he states that in capitalism simple production exists alongside the capitalist mode of production. In this schema the bourgeoisie, the self-employed working who engage in simple production are one class. In the model there are two distinctive classes, the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. The bourgeoisie owns the means of production, and the proletariat are the exploited workers. Both of these classes can be broken down into six classes that make up Wright’s first schema. The supervisors and managers are in a contradictory class because they dominate over the proletariat and yet they are still dominated by the bourgeoisie. The small employers are both petty bourgeois and bourgeois; and the semi-autonomous employees while they do not own the means of production, they benefit from having more autonomy over their work than the normal proletariat. These classes are based upon exploitation and domination. Exploitation exists between those who own the means of production and those who do not. Domination is measured according to the amount of autonomy that can be exercised by the workers and to which extent they are supervised.
Wright’s second schema involve a 12-class schema and is based upon exploitation. In the second schemata exploitation has three dimensions: ownership of the means of production, ownership of organization assets that permit control and coordination of technical processes of production, and ownership of skills or credentials.
4. Discuss the political perspective on ethnicity.
Ans. Ethnic democracy is a political system that combines a structured ethnic dominance with democratic, political and civil rights for all. Both the dominant ethnic group and the minority ethnic groups have citizenship and are able to fully participate in the political process. Ethnic democracy differs from ethnocracy in that elements of it are more purely democratic. It provides the non-core groups with more political participation, influence and improvement of status than ethnocracy supposedly does. Nor is an ethnic democracy a Herrenvolk democracy which is by definition a democracy officially limited to the core ethnic nation only.
The term “ethnic democracy” was introduced by Professor Juan José Linz of Yale University in 1975, and subsequently by University of Haifa sociologist Professor Sammy Smooha in a book published in 1989, as a universalised model of the Israel case. The model was used widely in subsequent decades; in 1993 for a comparison of several countries, in 1997 for a comparison of Israel and Northern Ireland, applied to Estonia and Latvia in 1996 and Slovakia in 2000.
Smooha defines eight features that are the core elements of his model of an ethnic democracy:
Ethnic nationalism installs a single core ethnic nation in the state.
- The state separates membership in the single core ethnic nation from citizenship.
- The state is owned and ruled by the core ethnic nation.
- The state mobilises the core ethnic nation.
- Non-core groups are accorded incomplete individual and collective rights.
- The state allows non-core groups to conduct parliamentary and extra-parliamentary struggle for change.
- The state perceives non-core groups as a threat.
- The state imposes some control on non-core groups.
Smooha also defines ten conditions that can lead to the establishment of an ethnic democracy:
- The core ethnic nation constitutes a solid numerical majority.
- The non-core population constitutes a significant minority.
- The core ethnic nation has a commitment to democracy.
- The core ethnic nation is an indigenous group.
- The non-core groups are immigrant.
- The non-core group is divided into more than one ethnic group.
- The core ethnic nation has a sizeable, supportive Diaspora.
- The homelands of the non-core groups are involved.
- There is international involvement.
- Transition from a non-democratic ethnic state has taken place.
There is a spectrum of opinion among authors as to the classification of Latvia and Estonia, spanning from Liberal or Civic Democracy through Ethnic democracy to Ethnocracy. Will Kymlicka regards Estonia as a civic democracy, stressing the peculiar status of Russian-speakers, stemming from being at once partly transients, partly immigrants and partly natives. British researcher Neil Melvin concludes that Estonia is moving towards a genuinely pluralist democratic society through its liberalization of citizenship and actively drawing of leaders of the Russian settler communities into the political process. James Hughes, in the United Nations Development Programme’s Development and Transition, contends Latvia and Estonia are cases of ‘ethnic democracy’ where the state has been captured by the titular ethnic group and then used to promote ‘nationalising’ policies and alleged discrimination against Russophone minorities. (Development and Transition has also published papers disputing Hughes’ contentions.) Israeli researchers Oren Yiftachel and As’ad Ghanem consider Estonia as an ethnocracy. Israeli sociologist Sammy Smooha, of the University of Haifa, disagrees with Yiftachel, contending that the ethnocratic model developed by Yiftachel does not fit the case of Latvia and Estonia; it is not a settler society as its core ethnic group is indigenous, nor did it expand territorially or have a diaspora intervening in its internal affairs as in the case of Israel for which Yiftachel originally developed his model.
Ans. The term sex refers to the biologically determined characteristics of males and females. The term gender refers to socially constructed characteristics assigned to the sexes. In every culture, norms, behaviors, and social expectations are associated with what it means to be male or female. Gender socialization is the process of teaching individuals how to behave under the social expectations of their gender, known as gender roles.
Gender socialization involves the teaching of gender stereotypes. Gender stereotypes are certain behaviors and attitudes that are considered characteristic of boys or girls. An example of gender stereotyping is that girls are passive and boys are aggressive. Most children begin to learn gender stereotypes by the time they
Agents of Gender Socialization
Most gender socialization comes from the child’s closest contacts in early childhood, mainly parents and school. It can also come from more distant sources such as the media.
Parents provide children with their first experiences regarding gender expectations. Fathers act as gender role models for sons, and mothers model gender roles for daughters. Parents expect boys and girls to have gender– related differences in abilities as well as personality traits. Parents reinforce these gender-specific expectations in many ways.
One way that parents reinforce the gender expectations of their children is through play. An example of this is the kind of toys they provide. For example, dolls and kitchen sets are typically provided for girls and sports equipment and toy cars for boys. Boys’ play is expected to be more active, and girls’ play is more passive. For example, girls are typically expected to play tea parties, and boys are expected to play war.
Another way parents reinforce gender expectations is through the assignment of chores. Girls are typically given household chores such as laundry or dishes. Boys are given more physically active chores such as mowing the lawn or taking out the trash. Dressing children in gender-specific clothes or decorating their bedrooms in gender– specific themes is another way parents teach gender norms.
Traditionally, parents have held certain expectations for their children’s futures based on gender. For example, boys were expected to become providers for their future families while girls were expected to become mothers and homemakers. However, family dynamics have changed dramatically in the past half-century. The two-parent home with father as breadwinner and mother as a housewife is no longer the standard. Some parents still have traditional expectations, while others hold a more equal and unrestricted expectation for sons and daughters.
Assignment – III
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Ans. Racism is the belief that groups of humans possess different behavioral traits corresponding to inherited attributes and can be divided based on the superiority of one race over another. It may also mean prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against other people because they are of a different race or ethnicity. Modern variants of racism are often based in social perceptions of biological differences between peoples. These views can take the form of social actions, practices or beliefs, or political systems in which different races are ranked as inherently superior or inferior to each other, based on presumed shared inheritable traits, abilities, or qualities. There have been attempts to legitimize racist beliefs through scientific means, such as scientific racism, which have been overwhelmingly shown to be unfounded. In terms of political systems (e.g. apartheid) that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices or laws, racist ideology may include associated social aspects such as nativism, xenophobia, otherness, segregation, hierarchical ranking, and supremacism.
While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in popular usage and older social science literature. “Ethnicity” is often used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to “race”, the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group (e.g. shared ancestry or shared behavior). Racism and racial discrimination are often used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to the United Nations’s Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms “racial” and “ethnic” discrimination. It further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable, socially unjust, and dangerous. The convention also declared that there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice.
7. Intergenerational mobility
Ans. Intergenerational mobility is defined as the extent to which some key characteristics and outcomes of individuals differ from those of their parents. Different strands of analysis have focused on different types of indicators.
Intergenerational mobility is defined as the social changes that can occur between generations in a family. Intergenerational means ”between generations.” There are many changes that can be a part of intergenerational mobility in a family. Mobility can occur in politics, economics, social status, or career. While many forms of intergenerational mobility are positive, there are some changes introduced through intergenerational mobility that can be perceived as negative. Aspects of intergenerational mobility in one family can include:
- Field of employment
- Financial status
- Social status
- Religious faith
- Political identity
- Ethnic identity
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which has almost 40 member countries, analyzes the economic welfare and trajectory of nations by examining the intergenerational social and economic mobility of smaller groups such as families. The ease of economic mobility of individuals across generations demonstrates the effectiveness of public policies in aiding families to better their circumstances. According to the OECD, the more families experience intergenerational mobility, the more mobility is possible for their respective countries.
Intergenerational mobility, especially social and economic forms of intergenerational mobility, has decreased significantly in the United States since 1940. In fact, many western countries such as France and the United Kingdom have had significantly fewer opportunities for intergenerational economic mobility in recent years compared to the early twentieth century. There are many factors contributing to this decline in intergenerational mobility, including inflation, local and national events, changes in job availability, and the rising costs of higher education.
8. Features of caste
Ans 1. Hereditary:
Caste status of an individual is determined strictly by his heredity, i.e. the caste into which one is born. No amount of personal accomplishments or efforts can alter his caste status.
It endogamous character strictly prohibits inter-caste marriages. Accordingly a person born in low caste can never hope to marry someone in higher caste. Each individual is supposed to marry within his caste and sub-caste. Marrying outside caste makes an individual or ‘without a caste which is the lowest category even below Shudra’.
Caste system has a system of superiority and subordination. According to Hindu Caste hierarchy. Brahmin occupies the highest followed by kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra.
4. Fixed Occupations:
Members of any caste are obligated to adopt the professions of their caste. Having developed from Varna system the occupation in caste system is definite; son of blacksmith persues the occupation of his lather, son of carpenter becomes carpenter and so on. (With development of industries people belong to many castes have lost their occupation and have taken agriculture or some other occupation).
5. Restricted Food Habits:
Higher castes try maintaining their traditional purity by different food habits. Thus Brahmins will only take ‘Satwil’ or ‘Pure’ food. Kshtriya and Vaishya will take ‘Royal’ food. A Shudra takes ‘Tamsi’ food. Each individual caste has its own laws which govern the food habits. There is no restriction against fruit, milk, butter, dry fruit etc. but food can be accepted only from the members of ounces own or higher caste.
In Indian caste system Shudra and out castes are considered to be untouchables. In certain times of day even seeing a shudra is considered to be pollution. Even if shadow of a low caste falls on a Brahmin, latter is said to have been polluted.
7. Absence of Vertical Mobility:
In a caste system, there is no mobility movement of its members, up or down, the social status ladder. A person’s status at birth is his life time status.
8. Reinforcement by Religious Beliefs:
Religious beliefs have played a significant role in making caste system unavoidable. Religion has described Brahmin as sacred and also an element of reverence and awe is attached to him. In absence of religious support such rigid caste system was not possible.
Ans. Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethnonationalism, is a form of nationalism wherein the nation and nationality are defined in terms of ethnicity, with emphasis on an ethnocentric (and in some cases an ethnocratic) approach to various political issues related to national affirmation of a particular ethnic group.
The central theme of ethnic nationalists is that “nations are defined by a shared heritage, which usually includes a common language, a common faith, and a common ethnic ancestry”. Those of other ethnicities may be classified as second-class citizens.
The Ottoman Empire and United States are examples of polyethnic states where the nation is defined by its geographical territory. The theorist Anthony D. Smith uses the term “ethnic nationalism” in this sense. Diaspora studies scholars broaden this concept of “nation” to diasporic communities. The term ethnonation or ethnonationalism is sometimes used to describe a conceptual collective of dispersed ethnics.
The study of ethnonationalism emerged in the early 20th century in the interwar period between WWI and WWII, with the “redrawing of the political map of Europe in part along ethnic and national lines according to a proclaimed “right of peoples” to self-determination and the rise of fascist ethnocentric ideologies (including Nazism).
During the Cold War, the independence movement initiated in former European colonies in Asia and Africa reinvigorated research into ethnic, tribal and national identities and the “political difficulties” stemming from their interactions with territorial statehood, while the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1980s and 1990s and the “resurgence of ethnic and national claims and conflicts in its aftermath” only further spurred ethnonationalism scholarship in the late 20th century.
Increased international migration as a function of contemporary globalization has also given rise to “ethno-national” movements, including reactionary “nativist” groups focused on exclusionary identity politics. In the developed world, such trends have often taken on an explicitly xenophobic and racist character, as seen in the example of “white nationalism” in the United States.
IGNOU BSOC 110 Solved Assignment 2022-23
10. Estate system
Ans. The Estate System deals with the levels and types of ownership that are possible with regard to real property. It is based on the real property ownership system that existed during feudal times, and it has not developed much in spite of the obsolescence of some of its aspects.
Ownership of property can be divided in terms of
- occupancy or
If property is divided in terms of space, such as where two people each own half of the land, it is not really owned by both parties at all. One half of the property is owned by each. For example:
Property divided in terms of occupancy occurs when two people have the right to occupy a single parcel of property. In such a case, both parties own the property, but the property is not really divided among them, because both parties have the right to possess all of it. For example:
Ownership of real property can also be divided in terms of time. That is, a person can have the right to own the parcel for a certain period of time. After this time is over, the right to possess the property will shift to another person. For example:
In this example, Jim has the right to possess the property for the next fifty years, but then the right to the property will shift to Joan, who will then retain it in perpetuity (forever) unless she gives that right to a different person. As we will discuss later, Jim has a “term of years” in the property (he has a right to possess it for a certain number of years), while Joan has a “remainder” interest in the property.
It is this last category that the estate system deals with. That is, the estate system deals with property that is divided in time between different owners.
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