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IGNOU BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022 , BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23, BHIC 112 Assignment 2022-23 , BHIC 112 Assignment, IGNOU BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

IGNOU BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).

Assignment – I

1. Analyse the causes for the rise of Marathas.

Ans. The rise of the Marathas in the seventeen century is an important and fascinating event in the history of India.

This rise is primarily due to Shivaji and the circumstances that shaped his character and that of his followers. Shivaji welded the Marathas into a superb mobile fighting force. The Marathas fought for the defence of their religion and territory against Mughal rulers.

  1. Inspirational influence of religious and social leaders:

Several prominent leaders in the religious and social fields of Maharashtra inspired the people to unite by preaching faith and Bhakti in one God and by condemning the caste system which had divided the society. The most famous of these reformers were: Tuka Ram, Ram Das, Vaman Pandit and Eknath. Guru Ram Das exercised a tremendous influence by underlying the philosophy of ‘Karma’ (action) in his famous book ‘Das Bodh.

  1. Love for the motherland:

Swami Ram Das’s message to the Marathas was, “Mother and mother country are dearer than heaven itself. Gods and cows, Brahmans and the faith, these are to be protected. Therefore, God has raised you up; when faith is dead, death is better than life: why live when religion has vanished? Gather ye, therefore, the Marathas together; make the dharma live again! For otherwise our forefathers will laugh at us from heaven.”

  1. Character of the Marathas:

Elphinstone has observed in this regard. “They (Marathas) are all active, laboriousy hardy and preserving. If they have none of the pride and dignity of the Rajput’s, they have none of their indolence or want of worldly wisdom too. And all these traits were due to the peculiar physical features of their country.” Shivaji made the best use of these characteristics of the Marathas.

  1. Ready-made and easily defensible rock forts:

The broken ranges of the hills provided natural forts and the people were inspired to regard these forts as their mother-the seats of their protection.

  1. Influence of language and literature:

Eknath taught the Marathas to take pride in their mother tongue which helped in bringing about a sense of commonness and unity among the Marathas. As remarked by J.N. Sarkar, “A remarkable community of language, creed and life was attained in Maharashtra in the 17th century even before political unity was conferred by Shivaji”.

  1. The geographical conditions:

The location of Maharashtra and its physical features helped in the rise of Maratha power. The large part of Maratha land is a plateau where the Marathas had to struggle hard for their existence. This made the Marathas courageous and hard working.

  1. Economic equality:

The Marathas did not suffer much from economic inequality, as there were not many people to be accepted as rich. There was no class of economic exploiters. This gave the Marathas a spirit of self-respect and unity.

  1. Guerilla warfare:

The mountainous areas made it possible for the Marathas to adopt guerilla warfare very successfully. The scattered areas in the villages provided provision for soldiers. The invaders were prone to sudden attacks from forts located on the tops of hills. Means of communications for the large armies to move freely were not easily available. This obstructed the deployment of large armies by the outside rulers.

  1. Training in the art of administration:

Even prior to the rise of Shivaji, the Marathas had acquired experience and training in the art of administration. There were a number of Marathas employed in various departments and especially in the revenue department of the Muslim rulers of the Deccan. The Maratha Jagirdars were playing an important role in the political affairs of the states of Bijapur, Ahmednagar, Berar and Golkunda etc. Several departments were virtually controlled by Maratha statesmen and warriors.

  1. Unstable political condition of the South:

The Muslim kingdoms in the South were in the process of disintegration. The political situation was quite favourable for the rise of the Marathas.

  1. Charismatic personality of Shivaji:

J.N. Sarkar has described the influence of Shivaji in the rise of the Marathas in these words, “Before his rise, the Maratha race was scattered like atoms through many Deccan kingdoms. He welded them into a mighty nation and he achieved this in the teeth of the opposition of four mighty powers like Mughal empire, Bijapur, Portuguese India and the Abyssinians of Janjira. No other Hindu has shown such capacity in modern times. He was not only the maker of the Maratha nation, but also the greatest constructive genius of medieval India and the memory of a true hero as king like Shivaji remains imperishable historical legacy for the human race.”

IGNOU BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23

2.  Discuss the growth of Vaishnava Bhakti in India during the 16th-17th centuries.  

Ans. The Bhakti movement was a significant religious movement in medieval Hinduism that sought to bring religious reforms to all strata of society by adopting the method of devotion to achieve salvation. Originating in Tamilakam during 6th century CE, it gained prominence through the poems and teachings of the Vaishnava Alvars and Shaiva Nayanars before spreading northwards. It swept over east and north India from the 15th century onwards, reaching its zenith between the 15th and 17th century CE.

The Bhakti movement regionally developed around different gods and goddesses, and some sub-sects were Vaishnavism (Vishnu), Shaivism (Shiva), Shaktism (Shakti goddesses), and Smartism. Bhakti movement preached using the local languages so that the message reached the masses. The movement was inspired by many poet-saints, who championed a wide range of philosophical positions ranging from theistic dualism of Dvaita to absolute monism of Advaita Vedanta.

The movement has traditionally been considered an influential social reformation in Hinduism in that it provided an individual-focused alternative path to spirituality regardless of one’s birth or gender. Contemporary scholars question whether the Bhakti movement ever was a reform or rebellion of any kind. They suggest the Bhakti movement was a revival, reworking, and recontextualization of ancient Vedic traditions. Bhakti refers to passionate devotion (to a deity).

Scriptures of the Bhakti movement include the Bhagavad GitaBhagavata Purana and Padma Purana.

The Sanskrit word bhakti is derived from the root bhaji, which means “divide, share, partake, participate, to belong to”. The word also means “attachment, devotion to, fondness for, homage, faith or love, worship, piety to something as a spiritual, religious principle or means of salvation”.

The meaning of the term Bhakti is analogous to but different from Kama. The Kama connotes emotional connection, sometimes with sensual devotion and erotic love. Bhakti, in contrast, is spiritual, a love and devotion to religious concepts or principles, that engages both emotion and intellection. Karen Pechelis states that the word Bhakti should not be understood as uncritical emotion, but as committed engagement. Bhakti movement in Hinduism refers to ideas and engagement that emerged in the medieval era on love and devotion to religious concepts built around one or more gods and goddesses. Bhakti movement preached against the caste system using the local languages so that the message reached the masses. One who practices bhakti is called a bhakta.

The Sanskrit word bhakti is derived from the root bhaji, which means “divide, share, partake, participate, to belong to”. The word also means “attachment, devotion to, fondness for, homage, faith or love, worship, piety to something as a spiritual, religious principle or means of salvation”.

The meaning of the term Bhakti is analogous to but different from Kama. The Kama connotes emotional connection, sometimes with sensual devotion and erotic love. Bhakti, in contrast, is spiritual, a love and devotion to religious concepts or principles, that engages both emotion and intellection. Karen Pechelis states that the word Bhakti should not be understood as uncritical emotion, but as committed engagement. Bhakti movement in Hinduism refers to ideas and engagement that emerged in the medieval era on love and devotion to religious concepts built around one or more gods and goddesses. Bhakti movement preached against the caste system using the local languages so that the message reached the masses. One who practices bhakti is called a bhakta.


IGNOU BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment – II

3. Examine the centrality of Indian subcontinent in the Indian Ocean trading Network during the 16th-17th Centuries.

Ans. Indian Ocean Trade has been a key factor in East–West exchanges throughout history. Long-distance trade in dhows and proas made it a dynamic zone of interaction between peoples, cultures, and civilizations stretching from Southeast Asia to East and South East Africa and East Mediterranean in the West in prehistoric and early historic periods. Cities and states on the Indian Ocean rim focused on both the sea and the land.

There was an extensive maritime trade network operating between the Harappan and Mesopotamian civilizations as early as the middle Harappan Phase (2600-1900 BCE), with much commerce being handled by “middlemen merchants from Dilmun” (modern Bahrain and Failaka located in the Persian Gulf). Such long-distance sea trade became feasible with the development of plank-built watercraft, equipped with a single central mast supporting a sail of woven rushes or cloth

Several coastal settlements like Sotkagen-dor (astride Dasht River, north of Jiwani), Sokhta Koh (astride Shadi River, north of Pasni), and Balakot (near Sonmiani) in Pakistan along with Lothal in western India, testify to their role as Harappan trading outposts. Shallow harbours located at the estuaries of rivers opening into the sea allowed brisk maritime trade with Mesopotamian cities.

Indo Mediterranean trade network

Recent archaeological study has highlighted the growing corpus of evidence supporting direct maritime contacts between bronze age egypt and India via red sea. Scholars such a as Gergory Possehl have also proposed maritime activities between Indus Valley Civilization and East Africa. The maritime activity in the eastern Indian ocean trade network had extended to include Japan as early as early Yayoi period (3rd century BCE) as evidenced by the discovery of Indo-Pacific beads.

Austronesian maritime trade network

Austronesian proto-historic and historic maritime trade network in the Indian Ocean

The first true maritime trade network in the Indian Ocean was by the Austronesian peoples of Island Southeast Asia, who built the first ocean-going ships. They established trade routes with Southern India and Sri Lanka as early as 1500 BC, ushering an exchange of material culture (like catamarans, outrigger boats, lashed-lug and sewn-plank boats, and paan) and cultigens (like coconuts, sandalwood, bananas, and sugarcane); as well as connecting the material cultures of India and China. Indonesians, in particular were trading in spices (mainly cinnamon and cassia) with East Africa using catamaran and outrigger boats and sailing with the help of the Westerlies in the Indian Ocean. This trade network expanded to reach as far as Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, resulting in the Austronesian colonization of Madagascar by the first half of the first millennium AD. It continued up to historic times, later becoming the Maritime Silk Road.

IGNOU BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23

4. Write a note on the main characteristics Deccan Paintings. 

Ans. Deccan painting or Deccani painting is the form of Indian miniature painting produced in the Deccan region of Central India, in the various Muslim capitals of the Deccan sultanates that emerged from the break-up of the Bahmani Sultanate by 1520. These were Bijapur, Golkonda, Ahmadnagar, Bidar, and Berar. The main period was between the late 16th century and the mid-17th, with something of a revival in the mid-18th century, by then centred on Hyderabad.

The high quality of early miniatures suggests that there was already a local tradition, probably at least partly of murals, in which artists had trained. Compared to the early Mughal painting evolving at the same time to the north, Deccan painting exceeds in “the brilliance of their colour, the sophistication and artistry of their composition, and a general air of decadent luxury”. Deccani painting was less interested in realism than the Mughals, instead pursuing “a more inward journey, with mystic and fantastic overtones”.

Other differences include painting faces, not very expertly modelled, in three-quarter view, rather than mostly in profile in the Mughal style, and “tall women with small heads” wearing saris. There are many royal portraits, and although they lack the precise likenesses of their Mughal equivalents, they often convey a vivid impression of their rather bulky subjects. Buildings are depicted as “totally flat screen-like panels”. The paintings are relatively rare, and few are signed or dated, or indeed inscribed at all; very few names are known compared to the generally well-documented Mughal imperial workshops.

The Muslim rulers of the Deccan, many of them Shia, had their own links with the Persianate world, rather than having to rely on those of the imperial Mughal court. In the same way, contacts through the large textile trade, and nearby Goa, led to some identifiable borrowings from European images, which perhaps had a more general stylistic influence as well. There also appear to have been Hindu artists who moved north to the Deccan after the sultans combined to heavily defeat the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, and sack the capital, Hampi.

IGNOU BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23

5. Discuss briefly the Mughal-Sikh relations in the seventeenth Century. 

Ans. Mughal Empire, attributed to be a Muslim rule, and Sikhism grew side by side in the South Asia; while Zahir-ud-Din Muhammad Babar was founding the Mughal Empire, Guru Nanak was expounding a new religious philosophy, Sikhism. Broadly speaking, both religions, Islam and Sikhism, believed in unity, equality, tolerance and love for mankind. These similarities provided a very strong basis of alliance between the two religions. This note of ‘religious tolerance’ of Sikhism was welcomed by the common people, saints and many sage souls among Sikhs and Muslims alike. The Mughal Emperors had by and large showed great generosity to Sikh Gurus except few ones. However, despite these similarities and benevolence of Mughal Emperors, political expediencies and economic imperatives largely kept both the communities estranged and alienated. The relations between Muslims and Sikhs after the death of Akbar underwent many phases and shades. An in-depth study of the background of Mughal-Sikh relations reveals that some political and interest groups including orthodox Muslims and Hindu elites considered friendship between Sikhs and Muslims, a great threat to their positions. These interest groups deliberately created circumstances that eventually developed into unfortunate conflicts between the two communities. Hence the religion was not the main factor that governed the Sikh Muslim relations rather the political, economic and practical exigencies of the time shaped the events that occurred between the two communities. Many historians have written about the Sikh-Muslim relations and analyzed the factors, nature and development of their estrangement but they built their arguments mostly on the religious differences. The study argues that the basis of Sikh Muslim divide was socio-economic and political factors.

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IGNOU BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment – III

6. Noorjahan 

Ans. Nur Jahan, born Mehr-un-Nissa (lit. ’Sun Among Women’; c. 1577 – 18 December 1645) was the chief wife and empress consort of the Mughal emperor Jahangir. She was the twentieth and last wife of Jahangir.

Nur Jahan was born Mehr-un-Nissa, the daughter of a Grand Vizier (Minister) who served under Akbar. Nur Jahan was a powerful and influential woman in the court. More decisive and proactive than her husband, she is considered by some historians to have been the real power behind the throne for more than fifteen years. Nur Jahan was granted certain honors and privileges which were never enjoyed by any Mughal Empress before or after like having coinage struck in her name.

Jahangir’s addiction to alcohol and drugs made it easier for Nur Jahan to exert her influence over him and exercise power. She was granted the privilege to issue farmāns (sovereign mandates). The only other Mughal empress to command such devotion from her husband was Mumtaz Mahal, for whom Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal as a mausoleum. However, Mumtaz took no interest in affairs of state and Nur Jahan is therefore unique in the annals of the Mughal Empire for the political influence she wielded.

IGNOU BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23

7. The Great Divergence Debate 

Ans. The Great Divergence or European miracle is the socioeconomic shift in which the Western world (i.e. Western Europe and the parts of the New World where its people became the dominant populations) overcame pre-modern growth constraints and emerged during the 19th century as the most powerful and wealthy world civilization, eclipsing Ottoman Turkey, Mughal India, Qing China, Tokugawa Japan, and Joseon Korea.

Scholars have proposed a wide variety of theories to explain why the Great Divergence happened, including geography, culture, institutions, colonialism, resources and just pure chance. There is disagreement over the nomenclature of the “great” divergence, as a clear point of beginning of a divergence is traditionally held to be the 16th or even the 15th century, with the commercial revolution and the origins of mercantilism and capitalism during the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery, the rise of the European colonial empires, proto-globalization, the Scientific Revolution, or the Age of Enlightenment. Yet the largest jump in the divergence happened in the late 18th and 19th centuries with the Industrial Revolution and Technological Revolution. For this reason, the “California school” considers only this to be the great divergence.

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8. Textile production

Ans. Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is largely based on the conversion of fibre into yarn, then yarn into fabric. These are then rdyed or printed, fabricated into cloth which is then converted into useful goods such as clothing, household items, upholstery and various industrial products. Overall, many things can be made with cotton, not just clothing.

Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most widely used and common natural fiber making up 90% of all-natural fibers used in the textile industry. People often use cotton clothing and accessories because of comfort, not limited to different weathers. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of a wide range of products.

IGNOU BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23

9.  Mughal public works (Sarais & Bridges) 

Ans. The Mughal Empire was an early-modern empire that controlled much of South Asia between the 16th and 19th centuries. For some two hundred years, the empire stretched from the outer fringes of the Indus river basin in the west, northern Afghanistan in the northwest, and Kashmir in the north, to the highlands of present-day Assam and Bangladesh in the east, and the uplands of the Deccan Plateau in South India.

The Mughal empire is conventionally said to have been founded in 1526 by Babrur, a warrior chieftain from what is today Uzbekistan, who employed aid from the neighboring Safavid and Ottoman empires, to defeat the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodhi, in the First Battle of Panipat, and to sweep down the plains of Upper India. The Mughal imperial structure, however, is sometimes dated to 1600, to the rule of Babur’s grandson, Akbar. This imperial structure lasted until 1720, until shortly after the death of the last major emperor, Aurangzeb, during whose reign the empire also achieved its maximum geographical extent. Reduced subsequently to the region in and around Old Delhi by 1760, the empire was formally dissolved by the British Raj after the Indian Rebellion of 1857.

IGNOU BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23

10. Shaikh Amhad Sirhindi

Ans. Ahmad al-Fārūqī al-Sirhindī (1564-1624) was an Indian Islamic scholar, Hanafi jurist, and member of the Naqshbandī Sufi order. He has been described by some followers as a Mujaddid, meaning a “reviver”, for his work in rejuvenating Islam and opposing the newly made religion of Din-i Ilahi and other problematic opinions of Mughal emperor Akbar. r While early South Asian scholarship credited him for contributing to conservative trends in Indian Islam, more recent works, notably by ter Haar, Friedman, and Buehler, have pointed to Sirhindi’s significant contributions to Sufi epistemology and practices.

Most of the Naqshbandī suborders today, such as the Mujaddidī, Fultalī, Saifī, Tāhirī, Qasimiya and Haqqānī sub-orders, trace their spiritual lineage through Sirhindi.

Sirhindi’s shrine, known as Rauza Sharif, is located in Sirhind, Punjab, India.


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IGNOU Instructions for the BHIC 112 HISTORY OF INDIA-VII (c. 1605-1750)  

IGNOU BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
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  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
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BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BHIC 112 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
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BHIC 112 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

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