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IGNOU BHIC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BHIC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : BHIC 108 Solved Assignment 2022 , BHIC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23, BHIC 108 Assignment 2022-23 , BHIC 108 Assignment, IGNOU BHIC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

IGNOU BHIC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU BHIC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).

Assignment – I

1. Write a note on the intellectual currents in seventeenth-century Europe.

Ans. The 17th century lasted from January 1, 1601 (MDCI), to December 31, 1700 (MDCC). It falls into the early modern period of Europe and in that continent (whose impact on the world was increasing) was characterized by the Baroque cultural movement, the latter part of the Spanish Golden Age, the Dutch Golden Age, the French Grand Siècle dominated by Louis XIV, the Scientific Revolution, the world’s first public company and megacorporation known as the Dutch East India Company, and according to some historians, the General Crisis.

From the mid-17th century, European politics were increasingly dominated by the Kingdom of France of Louis XIV, where royal power was solidified domestically in the civil war of the Fronde. The semi-feudal territorial French nobility was weakened and subjugated to the power of an absolute monarchy through the reinvention of the Palace of Versailles from a hunting lodge to a gilded prison, in which a greatly expanded royal court could be more easily kept under surveillance. With domestic peace assured, Louis XIV caused the borders of France to be expanded. It was during this century that the English monarch became a symbolic figurehead and Parliament was the dominant force in government – a contrast to most of Europe, in particular France.

By the end of the century, Europeans were aware of logarithms, electricity, the telescope and microscope, calculus, universal gravitation, Newton’s Laws of Motion, air pressure, and calculating machines due to the work of the first scientists of the Scientific Revolution, including Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, René Descartes, Pierre Fermat, Blaise Pascal, Robert Boyle, Christiaan Huygens, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. It was also a period of development of culture in general (especially theater, music, visual arts and philosophy).

It was during this period that the European colonization of the Americas began in earnest, including the exploitation of the silver deposits, which resulted in bouts of inflation as wealth was drawn into Europe. Also during this period, there would be a more intense European presence in Southeast Asia and East Asia (such as the colonization of Taiwan). These foreign elements would contribute to a revolution in Ayutthaya. While the Mataram Sultanate and the Aceh Sultanate would be the major powers of the region, especially during the first half of the century.

In the Islamic world, the gunpowder empires – the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal – grew in strength. Especially in the Indian subcontinent, Mughal architecture, culture, and art reached its zenith, while the empire itself, during the reign of Emperor Aurangzeb, is believed to have had the world’s largest economy, bigger than the entirety of Western Europe and worth 25% of global GDP, and its wealthiest province, the Bengal Subah, signaled the period of proto-industrialization. The southern half of India would see the decline of the Deccan Sultanates and extinction of the Vijayanagara Empire. The Dutch would colonize Ceylon and endure hostilities with Kandy.

IGNOU BHIC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23

In Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate at the beginning of the century, beginning the Edo period; the isolationist Sakoku policy began in the 1630s and lasted until the 19th century. In China, the collapsing Ming dynasty was challenged by a series of conquests led by the Manchu warlord Nurhaci, which were consolidated by his son Hong Taiji and finally consummated by his grandson, the Shunzhi Emperor, founder of the Qing dynasty.

The greatest military conflicts of the century were the Thirty Years’ War, Dutch–Portuguese War, the Great Turkish War, the Nine Years’ War, Mughal–Safavid Wars, and the Qing annexation of the Ming.

The early seventeenth century in Europe has often been regarded as a period during which a single general crisis afflicted the entire continent to some degree, affecting the economy, demography and the political stability of most countries. The idea of a “General Crisis” or just a “Crisis” of the seventeenth century was formulated by Eric J.Hobsbawm. He used it in an effort to explain the commercial collapse and retrenchment of productive capacity in both the agricultural and industrial sectors of the European economy from the 1620s through the 1640s. Certainly there were problems, with revolts breaking out in France, England, the Spanish Empire and elsewhere, and many areas suffering terrible economic difficulties which were in marked contrast to the steady growth of the economy of the sixteenth century, but to classify all of these under the one heading of a general crisis may be more difficult to justify. The extent to which the problems affected the whole of Europe evenly call into question the validity of terming it a general crisis, while questions could be asked about how novel the situation of the early 1600s was: whether it was a crisis at all or simply a continuation of normality. Disagreement has grown around this theory developed in the 1950’s that postulated the 17th century as a century of crisis, one in which the feudal system, whether economically, politically, or culturally speaking, was replaced by a modern one involving (from different views) capitalism, absolutism, and the Industrial Revolution. Advocates of the idea speak of a decisive period that runs for a number of decades—as long as 1630 to 1680 or even 1620 to 1690, even though the 1640s and 1650s usually figure as the most intense “moment”—is enough, in some accounts, to disqualify the word.

The last quarter of the century saw the establishment of responsible parliamentary government in most areas. By 1700 the old north-south trade axis had swung almost 90~ and ran east-west from England-Holland to Saxony, Bohemia and Silesia. Population growth at the end of the century had been slowed not only by war and famine but also by plague, so that shortly after the turn of the century (1713) the population had dropped to about 102 million. Still, Europe remained in a favored position when compared to other civilization, particularly in regard to food. Europeans consumed great quantities of meat. Water-mills supplied the chief energy and were owned and supplied by the lord of the manor, while the peasants contributed their labor. The mill, which ground grain, was thus the essential tool of the manorial economy. Otherwise the 17th century civilization was one of wood and charcoal. Buildings, machines, wine-presses, plows and pumps were all made of wood, with a very minimum of metallic parts. Fortunately Europe was well-endowed with forests. Iron, although available, was still in short supply. Wigs and then powdered wigs came into fashion in this century despite initial objection by the church.

IGNOU BHIC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23

The mid-seventeenth century saw more cases of simultaneous state breakdown around the globe than any previous or subsequent age. War and rising taxes provoked a set of popular reactions. The case of France – no longer fully feudal but likewise not fully bourgeois – is especially arresting. The King’s alliances with Protestant powers against the Austro-Spanish Hapsburgs caused discontent among Catholics, including members of the royal family. The exactions of tax farmers weighed heavily on the people. Public debt was not yet perfected – the English did that for us from 1699 on – so hard-pressed monarchs had to find new revenues however possible.In the 1640s, Ming China, the most populous state in the world, collapsed; the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the largest state in Europe, disintegrated; much of the Spanish monarchy, the first global empire in history,seceded; and the entire Stuart monarchy rebelled—Scotland, Ireland, social and political dimensions Institute of Lifelong Learning, University of Delhi England, and its American colonies. In addition, just in the year 1648, a tide of urban rebellions began in Russia (the largest state in the world), and the Fronde Revolt paralyzed France (the most populous state in Europe); meanwhile, in Istanbul (Europe’s largest city), irate subjects strangled Sultan Ibrahim, and in London, King Charles I went on trial for war crimes (the first head of state to do so). In the 1650s, Sweden and Denmark came close to revolution; Scotland and Ireland disappeared as autonomous states; the Dutch Republic radically changed its form of government; and the Mughal Empire, then the richest state in the world, experienced two years of civil war following the arrest, deposition, and imprisonment of its ruler.

Beyond Europe, over the same period, the Chinese and Mughal empires fought wars continuously, while the Ottoman Empire enjoyed only seven years of peace. The global “Conflict Catalogue” compiled by Peter Brecke, another political scientist, shows that, on average, wars around the world lasted longer in the seventeenth century than at any time since 1400 (when his survey begins). War had become the norm for resolving both domestic and international problems. These underlying factors have been seen as coming to a head with the political crises of the 1640s which shocked the world and were seen at the time as being the expression of a single great crisis. Jeremiah Whittaker in a sermon in 1643 said, “These days are days of shaking, and this shaking is universal.” The clustering of the revolts across Europe and their coincidence with underlying problems suggest both that the revolts are likely to be linked and that they are the result of Europe-wide trends. However, the timing of the revolts could just be coincidence: “…it is open to question whether our persistent search for ‘underlying social causes’ has not led us down blind alleys…Political disagreement may, after all, be no more and no less than political disagreement – a dispute about the control and the exercise of power.” It is also questionable whether the early seventeenth century can be called a time of crisis simply because of the volume and seriousness of revolts. “…If, in England, dysfunction began to appear in 1529 when was there a period of equilibrium, which one would have to assume to have been at least reasonably long to contrast with the hundred years of dysfunction? The fifteenth century, the age of the great defeat in France and the Wars of the Roses? the fourteenth century, with the Black Death, its popular rebellions and the deposition of two kings? In between the disasters there were some relatively short periods of calm and equilibrium. But why should they have any greater claim to be the norm than the rather longer periods of unrest and confusion?” It is also hard to find any common threads which run through all of the major revolts in Europe, and any attempt to generalise is bound to lead to the inclusion of exceptions to the rule. In the very broadest terms, the growth of absolutism coming into conflict with local powers can be seen as the rule for many of the rebellions, but their courses and the issues which were fought over of course vary from country to country. In England, the king’s encroachment on vested interest in the areas of religion, finance and foreign policy caused open constitutional debate in Parliament where the tensions between the centralising king and the conservative local powers developed into war. Likewise, the Fronde in France was a reaction to royal centralisation fought over issues like the sale of offices, the introduction of the intendants, and the increases of the taille. Castile’s economic weaknesses at a time of war caused it to shift its burdens onto the shoulders of its subject provinces, a move which Portugal, Catalonia and Naples were unwilling to accept. In the Netherlands, conflict arose over the Prince of Orange’s right to control the army, while Poland was driven into chaos as a result of attempts to suppress the autonomy of the Cossacks. An exception can be found in the case of Sweden, which saw a genuine peasant’s revolt, but overall, this broad model can be seen to work across Europe. It is, however, “…not even theoretically possible to construct a comprehensive theory or model for the revolutions of the seventeenth century.” From the 1580s, Europe moved into an era of greater international hostility, with wars occurring more frequently and becoming increasingly costly to fight. As each country’s military capacity increased, others had to follow in order to compete, and a form of arms race developed in which the size of armies rose dramatically.

IGNOU BHIC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23

2. Discuss the conflict between different social and political groups during the English Revolution.


IGNOU BHIC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment – II

3. What do you understand by mercantilism? Discuss the development of mercantilist ideas in Europe.

4. Analyse the nature of colonization in America.

5.Explain the process of enclosure movement in England.

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IGNOU BHIC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment – III

6. The ‘Industrious’ Revolution

7. European Trade and the Americas

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8. Main Ideas of Enlightenment

9.  Protestant Reformation

IGNOU BHIC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23

10. Origins of the Seventeenth-century Crisis


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IGNOU Instructions for the BHIC 108 RISE OF THE MODERN WEST II  

IGNOU BHIC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

BHIC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BHIC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BHIC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BHIC 108 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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BHIC 108 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

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