You are currently viewing IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022 , BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23, BHIC 105 Assignment 2022-23 , BHIC 105 Assignment, IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23

We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23 We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920

Important Note – IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).

Assignment – I

2)Describe the polity and achievements of the Pala dynasty in the early medieval period.

Ans. The Pala Empire (r. 750-1161 CE) was an imperial power during the post-classical period in the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal. It is named after its ruling dynasty, whose rulers bore names ending with the suffix Pala (“protector” in Prakrit). The empire was founded with the election of Gopala as the emperor of Gauda in 750 CE. The Pala stronghold was located in Bengal and eastern Bihar, which included the major cities of Gauda, Vikrampura, Pataliputra, Monghyr, Somapura, Ramvati (Varendra), Tamralipta and Jaggadala.

The Palas were astute diplomats and military conquerors. Their army was noted for its vast war elephant corps. Their navy performed both mercantile and defensive roles in the Bay of Bengal. They built grand temples and monasteries, including the Somapura Mahavihara and Odantapuri, and patronised the great universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila. The empire enjoyed relations with the Srivijaya Empire, the Tibetan Empire and the Arab Abbasid Caliphate. Abbasid coinage found in Pala archaeological sites, as well as records of Arab historians, point to flourishing mercantile and intellectual contacts. The House of Wisdom in Baghdad absorbed the mathematical and astronomical achievements of Indian civilisation during this period.

At its height in the early ninth century, the Pala Empire was the dominant power in the northern Indian subcontinent, with its territory stretching across the Gangetic plain to include parts of modern-day eastern Pakistan, northern and northeastern India, Nepal and Bangladesh. The empire reached its peak under Emperors Dharmapala and Devapala. The Palas also exerted a strong cultural influence under Atisa in Tibet, as well as in Southeast Asia. Pala control of North India was ultimately ephemeral, as they struggled with the Gurjara-Pratiharas and the Rashtrakutas for the control of Kannauj and were defeated. After a short lived decline, Emperor Mahipala I defended imperial bastions in Bengal and Bihar against South Indian Chola invasions. Emperor Ramapala was the last strong Pala ruler, who gained control of Kamarupa and Kalinga. The empire was considerably weakened by the 11th century, with many areas engulfed in rebellion.

The resurgent Hindu Sena dynasty dethroned the Pala Empire in the 12th century, ending the reign of the last major Buddhist imperial power in the Indian subcontinent. The Pala period is considered one of the golden eras of Bengali history. The Palas brought stability and prosperity to Bengal after centuries of civil war between warring divisions. They advanced the achievements of previous Bengali civilisations and created outstanding works of arts and architecture. The proto-Bengali language developed under Pala rule as they laid the basis for the Bengali language, including its first literary work, the Charyapada. The Pala legacy is still reflected in Tibetan Buddhism.

According to the Khalimpur copper plate inscription, the first Pala king Gopala was the son of a warrior named Vapyata. The Ramacharitam attests that Varendra (North Bengal) was the fatherland (Janakabhu) of the Palas. The ethnic origins of the dynasty are unknown, although later records claim that Gopala was a Kshatriya or descended from the legendary Solar dynasty. The Ballala-Carita states that the Palas were Kshatriyas, a claim reiterated by Taranatha in his History of Buddhism in India as well as Ghanaram Chakrabarty in his Dharmamangala (both written in the 16th century CE). The Ramacharitam also attests the fifteenth Pala emperor, Ramapala, as a Kshatriya. According to Nitish Sengupta, such claims of belonging to the legendary Solar dynasty seems to be unreliable and appear to be an attempt to cover up the humble origins of the dynasty. The Pala dynasty has also been branded as Śudra in some sources such as Manjushri-Mulakalpa; this might be because of their Buddhist leanings. According to Dr. K. N. Sahay, “we can claim Palas also as Kayasthas”.

André Wink mentions that the founder, Gopala was elected, and “definitely not of royal blood but probably of a line of brahmans which transformed itself into kshatriyas”. According to Wink, the Palas patronized Buddhism right from the beginning, which is evident from their copper plates. Wink also mentions that Abul Fazl “describes these kings as Kayastha”

3) Write an essay on the development of language and literature in the period from 750 to 1200 CE.

Ans. The Early Medieval period marks the spread of Sanskrit throughout the subcontinent along with the emergence of a number of regional vernaculars. Sanskrit was indeed the language of the court and elites and its currency was confined to a handful of learned people. This was the preferred language for writing matters related to Brahmanical philosophy, religion, especially the Vedanta and the Mimamsa texts (digests), and the normative texts and their commentaries. Significantly enough, Buddhist and Jaina centres of learning extensively used Sanskrit. The famous Jain polymath, Hemachandra, composed Sanskrit texts like Dvayasrayakavya and Parisishtaparvan. Sanskrit was the principal medium, at least in north India, for composing life stories (charitas) of prominent political personalities. The first text of this genre was Banabhatta’s Harshacharita; the tradition continued unabated in Sandhyakaranandin’s Ramacharitam and Bilhana’s Vikramankadevacharitam. The Ramacharitam is a complex composition as each verse therein offers two meanings: one about Ramachandra of Ayodhya and the other regarding the life and achievements of Ramapala of the Pala dynasty, the actual hero of this composition. Sanskrit was also the chief vehicle of writing north Indian inscriptions and the literary standard of the royal eulogy in epigraphic texts usually followed that in the literary texts. The significant point here is the simultaneous use of both Sanskrit and a regional language in inscriptions. This is especially noticeable in landgrant charters where the royal eulogy and dynastic accounts were composed in Sanskrit, while the actual grant portion, the operative part of the record was written in a local vernacular This may hint at the possibilities of bilingualism; the migrant Brahamanas could well have been bilinguals. That Prakrit could also be the vehicle of writing the kavya style life-stories of rulers is borne out by Vakpatiraja’s Gaudavaho that narrated the event of the killing of the Gauda king by the Kashmirian king. The best example of the itihasa-purana tradition of chronicling the past belongs to this period in the form of Kalhana’s Rajatarangini, which attempts at narrating the connected account of the past of Kashmir. It is particularly noted for its remarkable accuracy of recording events in Kashmir for the post-AD 700 period. Sanskrit was also the principal vehicle for writing technical treatises. Considerable emphasis was given on the mastery of grammar. The study of grammar and etymology can be considered rational enquiries, which were pursued by both orthodox and heterodox schools. Most of the Buddhist monasteries were also noted for the study of grammar. Interestingly enough, in the large brahmana settlement in Srihatta there was provision for the maintenance of the teacher of Chandravyakarana, i.e., the study of the treatise on grammar written by the Buddhist grammarian Chandragomin. If the earliest of the lexicon was the Namalinganusana by Amarasimha in the fifth-sixth century, it became a regular intellectual practice. Two famous instances of lexicons of this period is Halayaudhasarman’s Abhidhanachintamani and Hemachandra’s Desinamamala .The latter text explains and gives Sanskrit synonyms of a selection of western Indian vernacular vocabulary. Another notable feature of the literary activities is the availability of a number of technical treatises. If there were specific treatises on agriculture and plants, Krishiparasara and Vrikshayurveda respectively, there were also major texts on medicine. The best illustrations of this are the Ashtangahridayasangraha by Vagbhata (seventh/eighth century) and the treatise by Chakrapanidatta in the eleventh century, both drawing upon and elaborating on the medical treatise by Charaka. It is likely that such technical treatises reflected the cooperation and transactions between Sanskritists and professional specialists in their respective fields. To this genre also belonged the famous treatises on aesthetics and prosody, namely the Dhvayaloka of Anandavardhana and Abhinavagupta’s Dhvanyaloka-lochana. Abhinavagupta was also the author of the celebrated treatise on dramaturgy, Abhinavabharati. The tradition continued, as will be evident from Sagaranundin’s Natakalakshanaratnakosa (13th century). In addition to voluminous literary output in creative Sanskrit literature, Tamil, Telugu and Kanarese language gained considerable prominence for literary expressions.


IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment – II

4) Write a note on the Bhakti traditions of South India. 

Ans. The Bhakti movement was a significant religious movement in medieval Hinduism that sought to bring religious reforms to all strata of society by adopting the method of devotion to achieve salvation. Originating in Tamilakam during 6th century CE, it gained prominence through the poems and teachings of the Vaishnava Alvars and Shaiva Nayanars before spreading northwards. It swept over east and north India from the 15th century onwards, reaching its zenith between the 15th and 17th century CE.

The Bhakti movement regionally developed around different gods and goddesses, and some sub-sects were Vaishnavism (Vishnu), Shaivism (Shiva), Shaktism (Shakti goddesses), and Smartism. Bhakti movement preached using the local languages so that the message reached the masses. The movement was inspired by many poet-saints, who championed a wide range of philosophical positions ranging from theistic dualism of Dvaita to absolute monism of Advaita Vedanta.

The movement has traditionally been considered an influential social reformation in Hinduism in that it provided an individual-focused alternative path to spirituality regardless of one’s birth or gender. Contemporary scholars question whether the Bhakti movement ever was a reform or rebellion of any kind. They suggest the Bhakti movement was a revival, reworking, and recontextualization of ancient Vedic traditions. Bhakti refers to passionate devotion (to a deity).

Scriptures of the Bhakti movement include the Bhagavad Gita, Bhagavata Purana and Padma Purana.

The Sanskrit word bhakti is derived from the root bhaji, which means “divide, share, partake, participate, to belong to”. The word also means “attachment, devotion to, fondness for, homage, faith or love, worship, piety to something as a spiritual, religious principle or means of salvation”.

The meaning of the term Bhakti is analogous to but different from Kama. The Kama connotes emotional connection, sometimes with sensual devotion and erotic love. Bhakti, in contrast, is spiritual, a love and devotion to religious concepts or principles, that engages both emotion and intellection. Karen Pechelis states that the word Bhakti should not be understood as uncritical emotion, but as committed engagement. Bhakti movement in Hinduism refers to ideas and engagement that emerged in the medieval era on love and devotion to religious concepts built around one or more gods and goddesses. Bhakti movement preached against the caste system using the local languages so that the message reached the masses. One who practices bhakti is called a bhakta.

This verse is notable for the use of the word Bhakti, and has been widely cited as among the earliest mentions of “the love of God”. Scholars have debated whether this phrase is authentic or later insertion into the Upanishad, and whether the terms “Bhakti” and “God” meant the same in this ancient text as they do in the medieval and modern era Bhakti traditions found in India. Max Muller states that the word Bhakti appears only in one last verse of the epilogue, could have been a later insertion and may not be theistic as the word was later used in much Sandilya Sutras. Grierson, as well as Carus, note that the first epilogue verse 6.21 is also notable for its use of the word Deva Prasada (देवप्रसाद, grace or gift of God), but add that Deva in the epilogue of the Shvetashvatara Upanishad refers to “pantheistic Brahman” and the closing credit to sage Shvetashvatara in verse 6.21 can mean “gift or grace of his Soul”.

Doris Srinivasan states that the Upanishad is a treatise on theism, but it creatively embeds a variety of divine images, an inclusive language that allows “three Vedic definitions for a personal deity”. The Upanishad includes verses wherein God can be identified with the Supreme (Brahman-Atman, Self, Soul) in Vedanta monistic theosophy, verses that support the dualistic view of Samkhya doctrines, as well as the synthetic novelty of triple Brahman where a triune exists as the divine soul (Isvara, theistic God), individual soul (self) and nature (Prakrti, matter). Tsuchida writes that the Upanishad syncretically combines monistic ideas in Upanishad and self-development ideas in Yoga with personification of Shiva-Rudra deity. Hiriyanna interprets the text to be introducing “personal theism” in the form of Shiva Bhakti, with a shift to monotheism but in the henotheistic context where the individual is encouraged to discover his own definition and sense of God.

5) Describe the role of merchant associations in the growth of crafts, trade and urbanisation. 

Ans. Post-Mauryan Age – Crafts

  • The age of the Sakas, the Satavahanas and the Kushanas (200 BCE – 200 CE) and the first Tamil states was the most flourishing period in the history of commerce and crafts in ancient India.
  • The Digha-Nikaya, which belongs to the pre-Mauryan times, mentions almost 24 occupations whereas the Mahavastu, a text belonging to this period, catalogues 3 dozen different types of workers living in Rajgir town.
  • The Milinda Panho (the questions of Milinda) mentions about 75 occupations, out of which 60 are connected with various kinds of crafts.
  • Craftsmen are largely associated with towns in literary texts, but some excavations show that they lived in villages as well.
  • The field of mining and metallurgy made great advancements and specializations, as many as eight crafts were associated with the working of gold, lead, silver, tin, brass, copper, iron, jewels and precious stones.
  • The technological progress in iron manufacturing is clear from the excavations of specialized iron artefacts from the Nalgonda and Karimnagar districts of Telangana.
  • Iron and steel products from India like cutlery were exported to Abyssinian ports and were regarded higly in western Asia.
  • The inscriptions of this period mention goldsmith, weavers, dyers, jewellers, workers in metal and ivory, sculptors, smiths, fishermen and perfumers, suggesting that these crafts were thriving.
  • Mathura and Vanga (Eastern Bengal) were famous for varieties of silk and cotton textiles, with the former being known for a special kind of cloth known as Shataka.
  • The excavations of dyeing vat at Uraiyur (Tamil Nadu) and at Arikamedu suggest that dyeing was a flourishing art in these areas in this age.
  • Ujjain was an important bead making centre. The ivory products, glass objects and beads of precious and semi-precious stones were articles of luxury.
  • Coin minting was a major craft and coins were made of gold, copper, silver, lead, potin and bronze. The craftsmen even made fake coins.
  • Gorgeous pieces of terracotta have been found in almost all Satavahana and Kushana sites, especially Yelleshwaram in the Nalgonda district. It is generally accepted that terracotta was chiefly utilised by people of the upper classes in towns. There are innumerable inscriptions that talk about donations given by prosperous artisans to the monasteries.

     Post-Mauryan Age – Crafts

  • The age of the Sakas, the Satavahanas and the Kushanas (200 BCE – 200 CE) and the first Tamil states was the most flourishing period in the history of commerce and crafts in ancient India.
  • The Digha-Nikaya, which belongs to the pre-Mauryan times, mentions almost 24 occupations whereas the Mahavastu, a text belonging to this period, catalogues 3 dozen different types of workers living in Rajgir town.
  • The Milinda Panho (the questions of Milinda) mentions about 75 occupations, out of which 60 are connected with various kinds of crafts.
  • Craftsmen are largely associated with towns in literary texts, but some excavations show that they lived in villages as well.
  • The field of mining and metallurgy made great advancements and specializations, as many as eight crafts were associated with the working of gold, lead, silver, tin, brass, copper, iron, jewels and precious stones.
  • The technological progress in iron manufacturing is clear from the excavations of specialized iron artefacts from the Nalgonda and Karimnagar districts of Telangana.
  • Iron and steel products from India like cutlery were exported to Abyssinian ports and were regarded higly in western Asia.
  • The inscriptions of this period mention goldsmith, weavers, dyers, jewellers, workers in metal and ivory, sculptors, smiths, fishermen and perfumers, suggesting that these crafts were thriving.
  • Mathura and Vanga (Eastern Bengal) were famous for varieties of silk and cotton textiles, with the former being known for a special kind of cloth known as Shataka.
  • The excavations of dyeing vat at Uraiyur (Tamil Nadu) and at Arikamedu suggest that dyeing was a flourishing art in these areas in this age.
  • Ujjain was an important bead making centre. The ivory products, glass objects and beads of precious and semi-precious stones were articles of luxury.
  • Coin minting was a major craft and coins were made of gold, copper, silver, lead, potin and bronze. The craftsmen even made fake coins.
  • Gorgeous pieces of terracotta have been found in almost all Satavahana and Kushana sites, especially Yelleshwaram in the Nalgonda district. It is generally accepted that terracotta was chiefly utilised by people of the upper classes in towns. There are innumerable inscriptions that talk about donations given by prosperous artisans to the monasteries.

6) Discuss the social transformation and new social order in the early medieval period.

Ans. Increasing pride of birth, characteristic of feudal society, and the accompanying self-sufficient village economy, which prevented both spatial and occupational mobility, gave rise to thousands of castes in India.

The changes in economy were also a result of emergence of certain new castes and decline of certain old ones. For example, the constant transfer of land of land revenues made by princes to priests, temples and officials led to the rise and growth of the scribe or the Kayastha caste which undermined the monopoly of Brahmans as writers and scribes.

Similarly, the decline of trade and commerce led to the decline in the position of the Vaishyas. The process of proliferation and multiplication of castes was yet another marked feature of the social life of the period.

Many new communities, which are known to us by the generic term Rajputs, were also recognized as Kshatriyas during the period. The foreign elements, which could not be put in any three higher classes, were naturally designated as the Shudras.

The guilds of artisans gradually hardened into castes due to lack of mobility in post-Guptas times. The maximum affected people were the Shudra and the mixed castes.

Position of Brahmins

The Brahmins stood at the top of the social hierarchy during and post Gupta period. They had regained their power and were responsible for reinterpreting the regulatory canons of life as laid down by the earlier texts.

However, Brahmins had numerous subsections now divided on the basis of many criteria such as knowledge of Vedas etc.

Getting birth in a Brahamin family was a privilege. Brahmins had freedom from death-sentence, exemption form taxes, precedence on the road, lesser punishment for certain offences in comparison with other castes. Many writers have documented the exemption of the Brahmans from capital punishment. The most severe punishment for a Brahmin was banishment. When a Brahman killed a man, the former had only to fast, pray and give alms. On the other hand, if somebody killed a Brahmin, he was ought to be greatest sinner and performed the worst crime. No punishment or remorse could wipe off the Brahman-hatya, the greatest crime of those periods!

Position of Vaishya

Vaishyas in the early medieval India were almost degraded to the Shudra community. In fact, Alberuni also did not find any difference between the Vaishyas and Shudra.  One difference was that the Shudra had freedom to sell all kinds of goods, but the Vaishya were forbidden to carry on transactions in some specified articles like salt, wine, meat, curds, swords, arrows, water, idols etc.

Position of Shudras

Shudras were the most numerous sections in the community and their number increased from age to age. Some of the Shudras were regarded as mixed castes, born of anulom and pratiloma marriages. There were eight Shudra castes called “Ashtashudras” viz. Vyadha, Bhada, Kola, Koncha, Haddi, Doma, Jala, Bagatita, Vyalagrahi and Chandala. However, there was another Shudra caste also whose position was lower even these eight castes. These people were called the Antyajas. These Antyajas were beyond and below the four orders and four Varnas of the Indian society.

Position of Marriage & Women

The knowledge about the traditions prevalent in the institution of marriage in that era comes from two works viz. Smritichandrika and Smrityarthasara. The former says that the inter-caste marriage is forbidden in Kaliyuga. Savarna marriages are necessary for the performance of religious rites, while Asavarna marriages are of an inferior type as being dictated by desire.

The later says that the marriage of Brahmins with Shudra women forbidden not the same in other castes. The polygamy was prevalent in the royal class and has been well documented in Vaijayanti.

The women’s position is far degraded from that in early eras. The husband and other male relations, to begin with must so arrange things that the wife never becomes independent. The wife must also be  guarded not only against physical but also against mental  unchastity for the sake of her offspring. wife’s  right to maintenance in case of her supersession , they provide for her residence in her husband’s house as well as her maintenance even in the event of her committing  adultery. When the wife is guilty of slight adultery,  she must be maintained, though  deprived  of conjugal rights, till her performance of a penance.

Get IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Now  here from this website.

IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment – III

7) Rethinking Feudalism

Ans. Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships that were derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although it is derived from the Latin word feodum or feudum (fief), which was used during the Medieval period, the term feudalism and the system which it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people who lived during the Middle Ages. The classic definition, by François Louis Ganshof (1944), describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations which existed among the warrior nobility and revolved around the three key concepts of lords, vassals, and fiefs.

A broader definition of feudalism, as described by Marc Bloch (1939), includes not only the obligations of the warrior nobility but the obligations of all three estates of the realm: the nobility, the clergy, and the peasantry, all of whom were bound by a system of manorialism; this is sometimes referred to as a “feudal society”. Since the publication of Elizabeth A. R. Brown’s “The Tyranny of a Construct” (1974) and Susan Reynolds’s Fiefs and Vassals (1994), there has been ongoing inconclusive discussion among medieval historians as to whether feudalism is a useful construct for understanding medieval society.

8) Literature and Drama 

Ans. In literature, a drama is the portrayal of fictional or non-fictional events through the performance of written dialog (either prose or poetry). Dramas can be performed on stage, on film, or the radio. Dramas are typically called plays, and their creators are known as “playwrights” or “dramatists.

To make their plays dramatic, playwrights strive to progressively build the audience’s feelings of tension and anticipation as the story develops. Dramatic tension builds as the audience keeps wondering “What happens next?” and anticipating the outcomes of those events. In a mystery, for example, dramatic tension builds throughout the plot until an exciting or unanticipated climax is revealed.

Dramatic tension is all about keeping the audience guessing. In the ancient Greek tragedy Oedipus the King, will Oedipus ever figure out that by killing his father and sleeping with his mother he had caused the plague that destroyed his city, and what will he do about it if he does? In Shakespeare’s Hamlet, will Prince Hamlet ever avenge his father’s death and get rid of his pesky ghost and visions of floating daggers by murdering the play’s antagonist Claudius?

Dramas depend heavily on spoken dialogue to keep the audience informed about the characters’ feelings, personalities, motivations, and plans. Since the audience sees characters in a drama living out their experiences without any explanatory comments from the author, playwrights often create dramatic tension by having their characters deliver soliloquies and asides.

FOR MPY Guide Book  – BUY NOW

9) Spread in Indian Tradition

Ans. In ancient times, traders from India went to distant lands in search of new opportunities in business. They went to Rome in the west and China in the east. As early as the first century BC, they travelled to countries like Indonesia and Cambodia in search of gold. They travelled especially to the islands of Java, Sumatra and Malaya. This is the reason why these countries were called Suvarnadvipa (suvarna means gold and dvipa means island). These traders travelled from many flourishing cities like Kashi, Mathura, Ujjain, Prayag and Pataliputra and from port cities on the east coast like Mamallapuram, Tamralipti, Puri, and Kaveripattanam. The kingdom of Kalinga had trade relations with Sri Lanka during the time of Emperor Ashoka. Wherever the traders went, they established cultural links with those places. In this way, the traders served as cultural ambassadors and established trade relations with the outside world. Like the east coast, many cultural establishments have also been found on and near the west coast. Karle, Bhaja, Kanheri, Ajanta and Ellora are counted among the well known places. Most of these centres are Buddhist monastic establishments. The universities were the most important centres of cultural interaction. They attracted large numbers of students and scholars. The scholars coming from abroad often visited the library of Nalanda University which was said to be a seven storey building. Students and teachers from such universities carried Indian culture abroad along with its knowledge and religion. The Chinese pilgrim Huien-tsang has given ample information about the universities he visited in India. For example, Huien-tsang describes his stay at two very important universities— one in the east, Nalanda and the other in the west, Valabhi.

IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23

10) Cultural impact of Arab invasions 

Ans. The Arabs adopted a policy of tolerance, allowing Hindus to practise their faith. The Arabs adopted the rich rituals of the Brahmins and gained knowledge in Astrology, Medicine, and Arthashastra. Many Sanskrit words were incorporated into Arab dictionaries.

Economic and Cultural Effects

  • The Arabs adopted a policy of tolerance, allowing Hindus to practise their faith.
  • The Arabs adopted the rich rituals of the Brahmins and gained knowledge in Astrology, Medicine, and Arthashastra.
  • Many Sanskrit words were incorporated into Arab dictionaries.
  • The small areas were transformed into cities.
  • The Arabs planned towns and businesses based on the crops grown in that area. This improved the Sind Region’s economic situation.
  • Horses and camels were brought from other areas for trade, and they eventually became a means of transporting goods from Sind to other countries.

Settlement of Arabs

  • Many Arab soldiers married Sindhi women and settled in Sind. The region’s population grew as a result.
  • The Arabs began to regard Sind as their own land and attempted to develop it in all aspects.
  • Good city planning and construction had a significant impact on Indian culture, which was reflected later on.
  • They believed in the development of new languages, which gave birth to the Sindhi language (a mixture of Arab and Sanskrit language).
  • Sindhi poetry is still popular today. It has given birth to a plethora of famous poets. The great Quran has been translated into Arabian.

11) Chachnama.

Ans. Chach Nama, also known as the Fateh nama Sindh , and as Tareekh al-Hind wa a’s-Sind, is one of the main historical sources for the history of Sindh in the seventh to eighth centuries CE, written in Persian.

The text, which purports to be a Persian translation by `Ali Kufi (13th-century) of an undated, original Arabic text, has long been considered to be the story of the early 8th-century conquests by the Umayyad general Muhammad bin Qasim. The text is significant because it has been a source of colonial understanding of the origins of Islam and the Islamic conquests in the Indian subcontinent. It influenced the debate on the partition of British India and its narrative has been included in the state-sanctioned history textbooks of Pakistan. However, according to Manan Ahmed Asif, the text is in reality original, “not a work of translation”.The Chach Nama is a romantic work influenced by the 13th-century history, not a historical text of the 8th-century, states Asif. Some Islamic scholars and modern historians question the credibility of some of the Chach Nama’s reports.


IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23  get here all ignou solved assignment 2022-23 , ignou guess paper , ignou help books and ignou exam related material. We help students to get their assignment done with our handwritten services, IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23 you can access our all material and services through WhatsApp also , 8130208920

GET SOLVED PDF – Click Here


 

IGNOU Instructions for the BHIC 105 HISTORY OF INDIA-3  

IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

IGNOU Assignment Front Page

The top of the first page of your response sheet should look like this: Get IGNOU Assignment Front page through. And Attach on front page of your assignment. Students need to compulsory attach the front page in at the beginning of their handwritten assignment.

ENROLMENT NO: …………………………………………………….

NAME: ……………………………………………………………………

ADDRESS: ………………………………………………………………

COURSE TITLE: ………………………………………………………

ASSIGNMENT NO: …………………………………………………

STUDY CENTRE: …………………………………………….……..

DATE: ……………………………………………………………………



BHIC 105 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. IGNOU BHIC 105 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920

Related Material Also –



PDF & Handwritten

WhatsApp – 8130208920

 

Leave a Reply