You are currently viewing IGNOU BHIC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BHIC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BHIC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-23 , BHIC 104 SOCIAL FORMATIONS AND CULTURAL PATTERNS OF THE MEDIEVAL WORLD Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free : BHIC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 , IGNOU BHIC 104 Assignment 2022-23, BHIC 104 Assignment 2022-23 , BHIC 104 Assignment , BHIC 104 SOCIAL FORMATIONS AND CULTURAL PATTERNS OF THE MEDIEVAL WORLD Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free IGNOU Assignments 2022-23 – BACHELOR OF ARTS Assignment 2022-23 Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for BACHELOR OF ARTS Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. Study of Political Science is very important for every person because it is interrelated with the society and the molar values in today culture and society. IGNOU solved assignment 2022-23 ignou dece solved assignment 2022-23, ignou ma sociology assignment 2022-23 meg 10 solved assignment 2022-23 ts 6 solved assignment 2022-23 , meg solved assignment 2022-23 .

IGNOU BHIC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-23

We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BHIC 104 SOCIAL FORMATIONS AND CULTURAL PATTERNS OF THE MEDIEVAL WORLD Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920

Important Note – IGNOU BHIC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Download Question Paper

Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2033 (if enrolled in the July 2033 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2033 (if enrolled in the January 2033 session).

Answer the following in about 500 words each in Section A. Each question carry 20 marks.

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each in Section B. Each question carry 10 marks.

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each in Section C. Each question carry 6 marks.

SECTION A


1. Analyse the factors that led to the rise of slavery in Rome. What led to a crisis in the slave economy?

Rome ruled a vast empire for over 1,000 years. They controlled much of Europe located around the Mediteranean including Spain, Italy, as well as Turkey, Egypt and other North African territories. However, their large empire would eventually be their downfall. Like many empires, the decline happened gradually due to many economic, social, and political problems.

Many of the problems that led to Rome’s decline were due to government and economic corruption. Rome’s economy was based on slave labor. By relying on slave labor, there was a large gap between the rich and the poor. The rich grew wealthy from their slaves while the poor could not find enough work. As Rome’s conquests began to end, so did their import of slaves, and they faced a drastic decline in labor disrupting agriculture production. This created more stress on the already weakened economy.

Many people wanted to be in control and the emperor was often overthrown by a new incoming power. Bribery, graft, and corruption in the Senate further weakened Rome as it suffered through a series of bad emperors. Rich people bought votes and gave favors to friends and the emperor’s position was given to those who paid the most. For a long time there was no stability. Rome was eventually divided into two, the Western and Eastern empires. The two empires drifted apart, and the Eastern empire grew while the Western empire declined into economic crisis.

The growth of Rome made it very difficult to govern and protect. Rome was under constant attack from Barbarian invasions. Germanic tribes including the Goths, Visigoths, and the Huns moved in from Europe to attack the weak Roman Empire. This constant warfare required heavy military spending which took money away from where it was needed. The Roman army became overstretched and needed more soldiers that they did not have. Without adequate protection or money to supply it, the city of Rome finally fell to Germanic Tribes in 476 AD.

The transition from the primitive community to the slave-owning system took place for the first time in history in the countries of the ancient East. The slave-owning mode of production predominated in Mesopotamia (Sumer, Babylonia, Assyria and others), Egypt, India and China by the fourth millennium B.C. in some cases, and not later than the second millennium B.C. in others. In the first millennium B.C. the slave-owning mode of production was dominant in Transcaucasia (Urartu); from the eighth or seventh centuries B.C. to the fifth or sixth centuries A.D. a powerful slave-owning State existed in Khorezm. The culture achieved in the slave-owning countries of the ancient East greatly influenced the development of the peoples of European countries.

In Greece the slave-owning mode of production reached its height in the fifth to fourth centuries B.C. Subsequently slavery developed in the States of Asia Minor, Macedonia (from the fourth to the first centuries B.C.). The slave-owning system reached the highest stage of its development in Rome in the period from the second century B.C. to the second century A.D.

At first slavery bore a patriarchal or domestic character. There were comparatively few slaves. Slave labour was not yet the basis of production but played a subsidiary part in the economy. The aim of the economy remained the satisfaction of the demands of the large patriarchal family which had hardly any recourse to exchange. The master’s power over his slaves was already unlimited but the sphere of application of slave labour was limited.

The further growth of productive forces, and the development of the social division of labour and of exchange, formed the basis of society’s transition to the slave-owning system.

The advance from stone to metal implements of labour led to a considerable extension of the limits of human labour. The invention of the blacksmith’s bellows enabled man to make iron implements of labour of a durability not seen before. It became possible with the help of the iron axe to clear the land of forests and undergrowth for ploughing. The wooden plough with iron share made it possible to work comparatively large plots of land. Primitive Hunting economy gave place to agriculture and cattle-breeding. Handicrafts appeared.

In agriculture, which remained the main branch of production, methods of tillage and cattle-breeding improved. New branches of agriculture arose; vine and flax growing, the growing of oil crops, and so on. The rich families’ herds increased. More and more working hands were needed to look after the cattle.

Weaving, metal-working, the art of pottery and other crafts gradually improved. Formerly a craft had been a subsidiary occupation of the husbandman or herdsman. Now for many people it became an independent occupation. The separation of handicraft from agriculture took place. This was the second large-scale social division of labour.

With the division of production into two large basic branches, agriculture and handicraft, there arises production directly for exchange though still in an undeveloped form. The growth in productivity of labour led to an increase in the amount of the surplus product which, with private property in the means of production, afforded the opportunity for the accumulation of wealth in the hands of a minority of society, and on this basis for the subordination of the working majority to the exploiting minority, for the conversion of labourers into slaves.


2. Write a note on the rise of sufi movements and sufi tariqa in the Islamic world.

Sufism, mystical Islamic belief and practice in which Muslims seek to find the truth of divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience of God. It consists of a variety of mystical paths that are designed to ascertain the nature of humanity and of God and to facilitate the experience of the presence of divine love and wisdom in the world.

Islamic mysticism is called taṣawwuf (literally, “to dress in wool”) in Arabic, but it has been called Sufism in Western languages since the early 19th century. An abstract word, Sufism derives from the Arabic term for a mystic, ṣūfī, which is in turn derived from ṣūf, “wool,” plausibly a reference to the woollen garment of early Islamic ascetics. The Sufis are also generally known as “the poor,” fuqarāʾ, plural of the Arabic faqīr, in Persian darvīsh, whence the English words fakir and dervish.

Though the roots of Islamic mysticism formerly were supposed to have stemmed from various non-Islamic sources in ancient Europe and even India, it now seems established that the movement grew out of early Islamic asceticism that developed as a counterweight to the increasing worldliness of the expanding Muslim community; only later were foreign elements that were compatible with mystical theology and practices adopted and made to conform to Islam.

By educating the masses and deepening the spiritual concerns of the Muslims, Sufism has played an important role in the formation of Muslim society. Opposed to the dry casuistry of the lawyer-divines, the mystics nevertheless scrupulously observed the commands of the divine law. The Sufis have been further responsible for a large-scale missionary activity all over the world, which still continues. Sufis have elaborated the image of the Prophet Muhammad—the founder of Islam—and have thus largely influenced Muslim piety by their Muhammad-mysticism. Sufi vocabulary is important in Persian and other literatures related to it, such as Turkish, Urdu, Sindhi, Pashto, and Punjabi. Through the poetry of these literatures, mystical ideas spread widely among the Muslims. In some countries Sufi leaders were also active politically.

History

Islamic mysticism had several stages of growth, including (1) the appearance of early asceticism, (2) the development of a classical mysticism of divine love, and (3) the rise and proliferation of fraternal orders of mystics. Despite these general stages, however, the history of Islamic mysticism is largely a history of individual mystic experience.

The first stage of Sufism appeared in pious circles as a reaction against the worldliness of the early Umayyad period (661–749). From their practice of constantly meditating on the words in the Qurʾān (the Islamic holy book) about Doomsday, the ascetics became known as “those who always weep” and those who considered this world “a hut of sorrows.” They were distinguished by their scrupulous fulfillment of the injunctions of the Qurʾān and tradition, by many acts of piety, and especially by a predilection for night prayers.

Classical mysticism

The introduction of the element of love, which changed asceticism into mysticism, is ascribed to Rābiʿah al-ʿAdawīyah (died 801), a woman from Basra who first formulated the Sufi ideal of a love of Allah (God) that was disinterested, without hope for paradise and without fear of hell. In the decades after Rābiʿah, mystical trends grew everywhere in the Islamic world, partly through an exchange of ideas with Christian hermits. A number of mystics in the early generations had concentrated their efforts upon tawakkul, absolute trust in God, which became a central concept of Sufism. An Iraqi school of mysticism became noted for its strict self-control and psychological insight. The Iraqi school was initiated by al-Muḥāsibī (died 857)—who believed that purging the soul in preparation for companionship with God was the only value of asceticism. Its teachings of classical sobriety and wisdom were perfected by Junayd of Baghdad (died 910), to whom all later chains of the transmission of doctrine and legitimacy go back. In an Egyptian school of Sufism, the Nubian Dhū al-Nūn (died 859) reputedly introduced the technical term maʿ rifah (“interior knowledge”), as contrasted to learnedness; in his hymnical prayers he joined all nature in the praise of God—an idea based on the Qurʾān and later elaborated in Persian and Turkish poetry. In the Iranian school, Abū Yazīd al-Bisṭāmī (died 874) is usually considered to have been representative of the important doctrine of annihilation of the self, fanāʾ; the strange symbolism of his sayings prefigures part of the terminology of later mystical poets. At the same time the concept of divine love became more central, especially among the Iraqi Sufis. Its main representatives are Nūrī, who offered his life for his brethren, and Sumnūn “the Lover.”

The first of the theosophical speculations based on mystical insights about human nature and the essence of the Prophet Muhammad were produced by such Sufis as Sahl al-Tustarī (died c. 896). Some Hellenistic ideas were later adopted by al-Ḥakīm al-Tirmidhī (died 898). Sahl was the master of al-Ḥusayn ibn Manṣūr al-Ḥallāj, who has become famous for his phrase anā al-ḥaqq, “I am the Creative Truth” (often rendered “I am God”), which was later interpreted in a pantheistic sense but is, in fact, only a condensation of his theory of huwa huwa (“He he”): God loved himself in his essence, and created Adam “in his image.” Ḥallāj was executed in 922 in Baghdad as a result of his teachings; he is, for later mystics and poets, the “martyr of Love” par excellence, the enthusiast killed by the theologians. His few poems are of exquisite beauty; his prose, which contains an outspoken Muhammad-mysticism—i.e., mysticism centred on the Prophet—is as beautiful as it is difficult.


SECTION B 


3. List the main features of the first phase of feudalism.
4. Write a note on the trading communities of the medieval world.
5. Discuss briefly the growth of Inca polity in Latin America. 


SECTION C


6. Process of Hellenization and the influence of Greek philosophers on the Roman world
7. Popular revolts in the Abbasid Caliphate
8. Christianization of Europe
9. Growth of mines and metallurgy in medieval Europe
10. Ummayad economy 


IGNOU BHIC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-23 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BHIC 104 SOCIAL FORMATIONS AND CULTURAL PATTERNS OF THE MEDIEVAL WORLD Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920

IGNOU Handwritten Hardcopy , WhatsApp – 8130208920


Get BHIC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Now  here from this website.

IGNOU BHIC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-23 get here all ignou solved assignment 2022-23 , ignou guess paper , ignou help books and ignou exam related material. We help students to get their assignment done with our handwritten services, BHIC 104 SOCIAL FORMATIONS AND CULTURAL PATTERNS OF THE MEDIEVAL WORLD Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free you can access our all material and services through WhatsApp also , 8130208920

GET SOLVED PDF – Click Here


IGNOU Instructions for the BHIC 104 SOCIAL FORMATIONS AND CULTURAL PATTERNS OF THE MEDIEVAL WORLD Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BHIC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

IGNOU BHIC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BHIC 104 Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BHIC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BHIC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Download Free Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

IGNOU Assignment Front Page

The top of the first page of your response sheet should look like this: Get IGNOU Assignment Front page through. And Attach on front page of your assignment. Students need to compulsory attach the front page in at the beginning of their handwritten assignment.

ENROLMENT NO: …………………………………………………….

NAME: ……………………………………………………………………

ADDRESS: ………………………………………………………………

COURSE TITLE: ………………………………………………………

ASSIGNMENT NO: …………………………………………………

STUDY CENTRE: …………………………………………….……..

DATE: ……………………………………………………………………



BHIC 104 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BHIC 104 Solved Assignment 2022-23 – We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. BHIC 104 SOCIAL FORMATIONS AND CULTURAL PATTERNS OF THE MEDIEVAL WORLD Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. BHIC 104 SOCIAL FORMATIONS AND CULTURAL PATTERNS OF THE MEDIEVAL WORLD Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download Free Download PDF We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done –8130208920

Related Material Also –

BUY PDF & Handwritten

  • Solved PDF Cost – @50 rs per Paper / Subject
  • Handwritten Hardcopy – @350 rs per paper/ subject

WhatsApp – 8130208920

Leave a Reply