IGNOU BEGC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : BEGC 107 Solved Assignment 2022 , BEGC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23, BEGC 107 Assignment 2022-23 , BEGC 107 Assignment, IGNOU BEGC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.
IGNOU BEGC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23
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Important Note – IGNOU BEGC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.
Submission Date :
- 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
- 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).
Write short notes :
(i) Digital Texts
Ans. Digital text is delivered on a computer or another device to meet the needs of students with sensory, physical, or learning and reading disabilities. Digital text is malleable and, depending on the technology and/or the software that is used, various features that control how the content is presented to the user can be manipulated such as size, fonts, colors, and contrast to accommodate the needs of the learner. Supported reading software with text-to-speech can provide audio and visual components either separately or simultaneously as well as other scaffolded supports like highlighting, dictionaries, and thesauruses.
When digital text is delivered via accessible technologies, it can be of benefit to students with many different types of needs. Those with reading and learning disabilities often benefit from the use of supported reading software. Students with physical disabilities are able to access the content using various assistive technologies. Students who are visually impaired or blind may need the digital text content delivered via the computer as enlarged text on the screen or as refreshable braille.
New technologies combined with digital text make audio-supported reading (ASR) possible. This method is a technology-based approach for accessing and working with text that enables users with visual impairments to listen to voiced text while looking at screen-displayed print or using a refreshable braille device. With sufficient practice, both braille readers and magnified print readers can greatly increase the rate at which they can obtain information from text using ASR. This method also holds great promise for other students with reading and learning disabilities.
(ii) Young Adult Fiction
Ans. Young adult fiction (YA) is a category of fiction written for readers from 12 to 18 years of age. While the genre is targeted at adolescents, approximately half of YA readers are adults.
The subject matter and genres of YA correlate with the age and experience of the protagonist. The genres available in YA are expansive and include most of those found in adult fiction. Common themes related to YA include friendship, first love, relationships, and identity. Stories that focus on the specific challenges of youth are sometimes referred to as problem novels or coming-of-age novels.
Young adult fiction was developed to soften the transition between children’s novels and adult literature.
Young adult fiction is generally described as books written for readers from 12 to 18 years of age. It’s meant to be the next level of reading material after middle-grade fiction and softens the transition to adult fiction. It offers readers stories that are, in general, more emotionally and thematically advanced.
YA isn’t really a genre, but a category of fiction based on readers’ ages. It represents a certain demographic’s level of reading, worldview, and maturity, and exists in many genres such as fantasy, mystery, and science fiction.
It captures the common concepts and emotions that teens usually struggle with, including friendship, finding their identity, and forming romantic relationships.
Most young adult stories focus on adolescents who are beginning their transition into adulthood. They discover hidden aspects of themselves, work through personal problems, and learn to take responsibility for their actions. As such, YA stories are also called coming-of-age stories.
Young adult and adult literature can sometimes be hard to separate, since they often share similar themes, structures, and audiences. But there are key differences that justify their separation into two distinct categories. Below are just a few of their differences.
- Age of the Protagonist
The biggest difference between YA and adult literature is the age of the protagonist. YA protagonists tend to be 12-18 years of age while adult fiction protagonists usually start at 18–30 years old.
This isn’t an absolute rule, though. Many YA novels feature main characters who are over 20 years of age. Conversely, there are also many adult fiction books that have protagonists who can be considered teens.
Many YA books also cross over into adult literature. So while they start as YA, as the characters grow up, elements of the story also change to fit more adult themes.
(iii) Hard Boiled Novels
Ans. Hard-boiled fiction, a tough, unsentimental style of American crime writing that brought a new tone of earthy realism or naturalism to the field of detective fiction. Hard-boiled fiction used graphic sex and violence, vivid but often sordid urban backgrounds, and fast-paced, slangy dialogue. Credit for the invention of the genre belongs to Dashiell Hammett (1894–1961), a former Pinkerton detective and contributor to the pulp magazines, whose first truly hard-boiled story, “Fly Paper,” appeared in Black Mask magazine in 1929. Combining his own experiences with the realistic influence of writers such as Ernest Hemingway and John Dos Passos, Hammett created a definitely American type of detective fiction that was separate and distinct from the English mystery story usually set in a country house populated by cooks, butlers, and relatives, a pattern that had been slavishly followed by American writers for generations. The first of Hammett’s detective novels was Red Harvest (1929). His masterpiece is generally believed to be The Maltese Falcon (1930), which introduced Sam Spade, his most famous sleuth. His most successful story, The Thin Man (1934), was the last of an extraordinary quintet of novels.
Hammett’s innovations were incorporated in the hard-boiled melodramas of James M. Cain (1892–1977), particularly in such early works as The Postman Always Rings Twice (1934) and Double Indemnity (1936). Another successor was Raymond Chandler (1888–1959), whose novels, such as The Big Sleep (1939), Farewell, My Lovely (1940), and The Little Sister (1949), deal with corruption and racketeering in Southern California. Other important writers of the hard-boiled school are George Harmon Coxe (1901–84), author of such thrillers as Murder with Pictures (1935) and Eye Witness (1950), and W.R. Burnett (1899–1982), who wrote Little Caesar (1929) and The Asphalt Jungle (1949). Hard-boiled fiction ultimately degenerated into the extreme sensationalism and undisguised sadism of what Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine called the “guts-gore-and-gals-school,” as found in the works of Mickey Spillane, writer of such phenomenal best-sellers as I, the Jury (1947).
(iv) Digna Pattern
Ans. The search for a new form of Dalit Aesthetic is as old as the Dalit Movement. Dalit Art carves out a new regime of Representation. Where for a large part of history, Dalit Art has also been as neglected as Dalits themselves. Wall Art has been itself traditionally connected with the Tribal community. Digna Art which belongs to a specific community of Gond Artists asserts its independence from any art form associated with the dominant culture.
Digna Art is a tribal art practiced by a segment of the Gond community. This art form has a distinctly identifiable iconography. Traditionally, people painted these paintings on the walls and floors of their homes.
Pardhan Gonds, clan belonging to the larger Gond Tribal community in central India serve as Traditional keepers of their Heritage and Lineage-remembering family genealogies, and transmitting Legends, sacred myths and oral histories through songs.
In the early 1980s, artist Jagdish Swaminathan, the founder of Bharat Bhavan sent scouts to rural Madhya Pradesh where they spotted the talent of Jangarh Singh Shyam in remote Patangarh. Swaminathan encouraged Jangarh to use his own realm of imagination and create art on a professional scale. There onwards the art came into its being. Since then many Digna artists have followed his footsteps. The art was traditionally made with mud on the walls or the floors of homes. The fish-scale motif was central to its form. Symbolism is widely used where nothing is perceived literally. A Digna is auspicious and conveys Purity.
IGNOU BEGC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23
Write short notes on the following.
a. Shakespearean Tragedy
Ans. When we think about Shakespearean tragedy, the plays we usually have in mind are Titus Andronicus, Romeo and Juliet, Julius Caesar, Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus.
That core list of nine can be expanded to twelve, however, if we include the history plays Richard III and Richard II, both of which were also billed as tragedies in Shakespeare’s day, and Timon of Athens, whose claim to inclusion is more questionable, but which is listed as one of the tragedies on the contents page (the ‘Catalogue’) of the 1623 First Folio. So, for that matter, is Cymbeline, though no one could make a credible case for its belonging there, when it plainly belongs with the late romances – Pericles, The Winter’s Tale and The Tempest – with which it’s long been grouped. Troilus and Cressida, on the other hand, despite being advertised in an earlier edition as a first-rate comedy, is also entitled a tragedy in the First Folio, but not listed at all in the Catalogue and placed ambiguously – as befits its unclassifiable nature – between the histories and the tragedies.
The more one ponders the question of what qualifies as a Shakespearean tragedy, the more complicated it can become. So modern studies of Shakespeare’s tragedies tend to focus on the plays whose right to the title is undisputed, and treat each one separately as a self-contained tragedy, leaving the question of what unites them unaddressed or unresolved. There’s a lot to be said for approaching each tragedy first and foremost as a unique work of dramatic art in its own right. And the temptation to boil them all down to the same generic formula should obviously be resisted. But it would be equally misguided to rule out the possibility of identifying what the tragedies have in common without dissolving the differences between them. For that would mean denying the strong sense most people have, when watching or reading these plays, that there’s something distinctively Shakespearean about their tragic vision that sets them apart from other kinds of tragedy.
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IGNOU BEGC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23
b. The Metaphysical Poets
Ans. The term Metaphysical poets was coined by the critic Samuel Johnson to describe a loose group of 17th-century English poets whose work was characterised by the inventive use of conceits, and by a greater emphasis on the spoken rather than lyrical quality of their verse. These poets were not formally affiliated and few were highly regarded until 20th century attention established their importance.
Given the lack of coherence as a movement, and the diversity of style among poets, it has been suggested that calling them Baroque poets after their era might be more useful. Once the Metaphysical style was established, however, it was occasionally adopted by other and especially younger poets to fit appropriate circumstances.
In the chapter on Abraham Cowley in his Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets (1779–81), Samuel Johnson refers to the beginning of the 17th century in which there “appeared a race of writers that may be termed the metaphysical poets”. This does not necessarily imply that he intended “metaphysical” to be used in its true sense, in that he was probably referring to a witticism of John Dryden, who said of John Donne:
He affects the metaphysics, not only in his satires, but in his amorous verses, where nature only should reign; and perplexes the minds of the fair sex with nice speculations of philosophy, when he should engage their hearts, and entertain them with the softnesses of love. In this…Mr. Cowley has copied him to a fault.
Probably the only writer before Dryden to speak of the new style of poetry was Drummond of Hawthornden, who in an undated letter from the 1630s made the charge that “some men of late, transformers of everything, consulted upon her reformation, and endeavoured to abstract her to metaphysical ideas and scholastical quiddities, denuding her of her own habits, and those ornaments with which she hath amused the world some thousand years”
1. Discuss the character of Bosola in ‘The Duchess of Malfi’.
Ans. Bosola possesses a cunning nature and he is ironical in speech and malicious in behaviour. His actions are cruel. It seems that the spring of love and compassion have dried up in the desert of humanity. In the talk with the Duchess, he uses derogatory language and makes ugly gestures.
Bosola is certainly a complex character painted in The Duchess of Malfi by John Webster. His full name is Daniel de Bosola. He is essentially a good man but he does not realise his own goodness. In the play, he acts the role of a villain. He appears to be a villain and pitiless murderer. He wanted to become a man of rank and power. But circumstances did not permit him to realize his ambition. He is a profound scholar. He had once burnt the midnight oil to achieve his aspirations. Instead of a scholar, Bosola feel in love with cardinal and become his tool.
Bosola plays a triple role in the play ‘The Duchess of Malfi’. He is a malcontent mediator, a tool villain and an avenger. He is also satirist. There is ample evidence of his intelligent in the play. He met Cardinal and committed murder at his instance.
Bosola becomes the tool villain of Ferdinand. Now he appears to be a perfect villain. He works as the spy of Ferdinand. Nothing can be more dishonorable than the work of spy. He knows it well. He sends secret information to Ferdinand and betrays the secret of Duchess. He does not hesitate to kill Cairo and the little kids of Duchess. By mistake, he kills Antonio too. Thus he works as a villain in the play.
But this is not real character of Bosola. Ferdinand offers him gold when he employs him. Bosola refuses to take it. Because he knows that Ferdinand is bribing him to do something villainous. So he refuses to take it. Yet he takes bribe. He also takes dishonorable job offered by Ferdinand. But he is not really bad man. Circumstances compel him to become. He has suffered much from poverty. So he cannot refuse a tempting offer.
In the Duchess of Malfi, Bosola plays a role of spy and murderer. But at the end of play, he plays a role of noble and avenger. So his role is significant. He keeps a link between Ferdinand and Duchess. He sends massage from Malfi to Rome. He arrests duchess and brings her to Ferdinand. He is tortured duchess disguised as an old tomb-maker and later makes her killed by strangling. After the death of the Duchess he suffers from hellish torments and gives her dead body to a woman for proper burial. He also killed Ferdinand and Cardinal while taking revenge on the two brothers. So he becomes the symbol of the victory of Duchess.
IGNOU BEGC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23
2. Write a critical appreciation on ‘On His Blindness’.
Ans. What made him so sad was that the gist of poetry which had been given to him could not be used to advantage when he was suffering from blindness.
Here Milton bows down in humble submission to the will of God. The tone of patience and humility has perfectly mingled with that of great dignity. The poem is a human document, a revelation of the struggle in Milton’s own soul. It starts with a note of regret. Then there is a mood of doubt and questioning which however melts in the final attitude of complete resignation. The beauty and exaltation of moral feeling raise the poem to a great height. The poem is full of allusions to the bible.
The extreme simplicity of the language is its peculiar attractive. Two lines are wholly, several others are nearly, monosyllabic. It is a sonnet of Petrarchan type. But there is no division between the octave and the sestet-which is the characteristic of Italian or Petrarchan sonnet. There is a break in the middle of the eighth line.
The poet’s subsequent submission charms the readers. The monologue is simply fascinating. The league used is both easy and catchy. The metre, note and cadence is perfect.
The sonnet “On His Blindness” is perhaps one of the best and most popular of Milton’s sonnets. It is indeed a pearl in the ocean of English literature. It is a great sonnet of lofty tone and noble theme. It was written in 1655. Milton had started losing his eyesight from the year 1645. After some years he lost his eyesight completely. He was about 44 years at that time, when we remember that his great words “Paradise Lost” and “Samson Agonists” has not yet been written.
Strength of mind, power of will and determination, patience; all these traits stood him in good stead when blindness slowly came over his.
By unanimous consent ‘On His Blindness’ is Milton’s best sonnet in which English poetic art attains a sublime height. Actually, it is not a mere poem. It is the inner voice of a man who has resigned himself entirely to the will of God and depends only on His mercy and justice.
John Milton (1608-1674)
On His Blindness is written in the first person, therefore, it is easy to assume that the speaker is the poet himself. The poet loses his sight at an early and productive age, so he feels vulnerable to accomplish his mission of his life. He meditates that his god gifted talent that is poetic talent will remain useless and if it remain useless, God shall be angry at him. He compares his inability to use his talent to the physical, mental and spiritual death. He raises a question if the God still expects some work from him after seizing his eyesight. The poet suspects his own capability that if God is still expecting some service from him, can he be able to accomplish it. Suddenly he realizes his own foolishness to suspect God. God does not require the service of man nor does He take back the gift, one bestowed by Him on man. He is almighty and supreme. It is therefore a folly on his part to think that God requires his services.
Actually they serve him the most who patiently and without a grumble surrender themselves to His will and endure all spiritual, mental and physical sufferings which God may inflict on them. A little calm and careful thinking leads the poet to believe that the question of disservice to God does not arise at all. Of course he is Omnipotent, all powerful and Lord of lords and King of kings. He has countless divine servants, angels, etc., to carry out His commands on land, water and air in the twinkling of an eye. Finally the poet concludes that even if he is blind and unable to do any service to Him, he should only remain loyal to Him. It must be remembered that even silent attendance is also a kind of service to Him.
This sonnet bears Italian structure. It proves clearly that Milton’s faith in God is unshakeable. It is a sonnet which touches the poet personally. The sonnet tells us that Milton became blind when he had run only half the race of his life. He was only 44 when he became totally blind. He was broken down with grief, disappointment and despair. His only hope was his faith in the mercy, kindness and justice of God. The poem gives us a glimpse of Milton’s philosophy of life. The sonnet is replete with abundant pathos. It reflects the personal grief and despair of a poet of Milton’s eminence. The poet was known to possess a noble and lofty character and his conduct was akin to his nature and temperament. He therefore does not lose heart or weep like an ordinary man. He endures suffering with fortitude and bears the loss of his eyesight in a courageous and manly way. Incidentally, this sonnet solves an age-old question. The problem is, does God require the service of man? Milton employs patience to solve this riddle. The answer is that those who resign themselves unquestioningly to the will and wishes of God are his best servants. This idea is repeated with ample emphasis twice in this sonnet.
3. Discuss Paradise Lost as an Epic.
Ans. John Milton is one of the greatest poets of England. His Paradise Lost is one of the greatest epics in English language. Here the poet has maintained the classical tradition of epic writing. In fact, an epic is a long narrative poem that contains great action, great hero and great style. In Milton’s Paradise Lost one can find all these three things.
According to Aristotle there are some important characteristics of an epic. Among them fable, theme, characters, machinery, episodes, integrity, sentiment and grand style are significant. Addison has also described three qualifications of an epic. These are – the fable, the entirety of action and the greatness of action. When we analyze and evaluate the Paradise Lost, we find all these characteristics in it.
The fable is one of the most important elements of an epic. It is considered to be the backbone of an epic. The most important duty of an epic poet is to select a moral to illustrate and establish. In the Paradise Lost Milton has chosen his theme to establish a moral. This moral is ‘To justify the ways of God to men.’ Thus the Paradise Lost fulfils the first and the most important condition of an epic.
So far as the action is concerned, it has three qualifications. It should be one action; it should be an entire action; and it should be a great action. In the Paradise Lost we find all these qualifications. This epic follows the strict unity of the classical epic. It contains perfect unity of action. The central action of this epic is the Fall of Man. Everything revolves round this action. The plucking of the fruit by Eve is the apex of the whole architecture of this epic. The war between God and Satan is only the prelude to the main action. Hence the fall of Satan does not constitute a separate action. In short, the whole action of the Paradise Lost is single, compact and great.
The theme of an epic must be grand, elevated and marvelous. It should be sublime and comprehensive. It must have a universal appeal. The theme of the Paradise Lost has all these essential elements. In theme it deals with the Fall of Man. The aim is to justify the ways of god to men. It is a sublime aim. It covers the rebellion of Satan in Heaven, the celestial warfare and the expulsion of rebels.
The hero of an epic poem must be great. He should be a figure of great national or even cosmic importance. He must have dignity and sublimity. The hero of the Paradise Lost is Adam. He has all the qualities of an epic hero. He represents the entire human race. Thus no hero can be greater than the First Man created by God in his own image. Milton’s Paradise Lost Maintains the tradition of classical epic and it deals with a large variety of characters. They all are universal characters.
Milton’s Paradise Lost follows nearly all the important conventions of the classical epic. The poet begins this epic by invoking the ‘Muse’, the goddess. The poet has employed supernatural machinery to serve his purpose. Everything is done under the immediate and visible direction of heaven.
The style of the Paradise Lost has all the grandeur and greatness that the epic demands. Here we find a unique harmony between sublimity of thought and sublimity of style. Milton has used all the methods to elevate his language. His metaphors are bold, just and seldom out of place. His blank verse is fantastic. Here everything is conceived in a mighty way. As a poetic artist he is never careless and superfluous. A striking feature of Milton’s style is the use of Homeric similes. He uses classical mythology for its symbolical meaning and suggestiveness in his similes.
Thus Milton’s Paradise Lost is a great epic. It occupies central position among the epics of the western world. It is remarkable for the loftiness of its theme and for the grandeur of its style.
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IGNOU Instructions for the BEGC 107 British Poetry and Drama – 17 th & 18 th Century
IGNOU BEGC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.
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BEGC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:
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IGNOU BEGC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. IGNOU BEGC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. IGNOU BEGC 107 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920
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