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IGNOU BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022 , BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23, BANC 103 Assignment 2022-23 , BANC 103 Assignment, IGNOU BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

IGNOU BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).

Assignment – I

1. Discuss the behavioural and cognitive theories of personality.

Ans. Behavioral personality theory, also known as behaviorism, is the study of human behavior as it correlates to one’s environment. Proponents of this school of thought believe that all behaviors are learned and that changes in behavior are related to the people, situations, and places in which they occur. Behaviorists believe that people learn behaviors based on systems of reward and punishment and that a person’s behavioral development is due to external forces. This reward system is called conditioning, and it defines human behavior as a response to one’s environment and not a product of the unconscious or unobservable mind.

John Watson developed behavioral personality theory in 1913. He believed that one could predict and even control human behavior based on the behavior patterns observed in his patients and society. He believed that the mind was a tabula rasa, or a “blank slate.” Watson believed that the environment was the only force shaping personality and behavior. He is best remembered for his “little Albert” experiment, in which he conditioned a child to fear a mouse and various other objects. This process would later be known as conditioning and would be more fully explored through the work of B.F. Skinner.

Skinner’s Personality Theory

B.F. Skinner was a noted behaviorist, famous for the Skinner personality theory and his work with the Skinner box. While Watson was the founder of behaviorism, Skinner’s personality theory focused on conditioning, which is the process of training a person or animal to act in a specific way in the presence of specific stimuli. Through repetition and various environmental elements, Skinner was able to define two types of conditioning: operant and classical.

Classical conditioning is based on learning behaviors through paired associations—famously, Pavlov and his salivating dogs. This behavior analysis suggested that two stimuli could be used to create new behaviors. For example, Pavlov rang a bell every time he fed his dogs. Eventually, after enough repetition, the bell alone made the dogs salivate, as they associated the sound of the bell with their food. While Watson felt this experiment, and classical conditioning alone, reflected all there was to know about human behavior, Skinner wasn’t convinced. He theorized a different type of association, known as operant conditioning.

Operant conditioning focuses on the consequences of a response in connection to the probability of a behavior being repeated. Operant conditioning suggests that if a behavior is rewarded, that behavior is more likely to be repeated. If a behavior is punished, the behavior will likely diminish, or cease. Skinner did not think classical conditioning accurately explained the nuances of choice and response, so he created the Skinner box, into which he placed animals and attempted to control their behavior. From sounds to food, the rewards or punishments varied, but in the box, choice and behavior stem from consequence alone.

Skinner wasn’t wrong, as his theory produced children who worked hard for rewards and avoided punishments at all costs. He felt this form of conditioning better explained human behavior, focusing as it did on positive and negative associations.

Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory

Albert Bandura was a Stanford University psychologist. While studying adolescent aggression, he became fascinated with the concept of learning and its connections to modeling and imitation. Through his research, he came to believe that observational learning was the key to success, which helped him develop his social learning theory, now known as the social cognitive theory. This theory states that learning occurs within social, or group interactions and that reciprocation, reinforcement, and influence all play a vital role in learning. SCT also considers a person’s experiences, which shape who they are and how they learn. Bandura felt that this information and a person’s past environments could accurately determine why people behave the way they do and how they might behave in the future.

The theory is broken down into five constructs:

  1. Reciprocal determinism
  2. Behavioral capability
  3. Observational learning
  4. Reinforcement
  5. Expectations
  6. Self-efficacy

SCT attempts to explain how people regulate behavior through self-control and reinforcement, which are maintained over time.

Mischel’s Person-Situation Debate

In the early iterations of behaviorism, there was a concept called the trait approach, which suggested that people have specific personality traits that don’t vary over time or in different situations. However, in 1968, psychologist Walter Mischel posited that this theory had no consistency and that a situational approach made more sense, as a person’s behavior could and would change from situation to situation. This perspective sparked the person-situation debate. Situationists argued that personality doesn’t exist and that the environment or situation is the only thing that determines behavior.

Rotter and the Locus of Control

Psychologist Julian Rotter took the concept a step further by asking about external forces. He wanted to know about a person’s pattern of behavior as it related to their locus of control. The locus of control is the orientation of a person’s control over their actions and life. How much of their control is given to external forces, such as fate, God, and others, and how much is given to their own free will and strength? He broke down the theory into two parts: people with an internal locus of control and people with an external locus of control.

Internal locus of control: People believe they are the masters of their own destinies and believe their outcomes are determined by their own actions and decisions.

External locus of control: People believe there are forces greater than themselves or their wills, such as divine beings, fate/destiny, and powerful people/forces at work.

Rotter believed that people with an internal locus of control took more responsibility for their actions. Research has shown that people with a strong internal locus of control are less obedient and don’t conform to societal pressures. Research also showed that people with an external locus of control were more likely to give up, based on the ideology of luck.

IGNOU BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23

2. Explain the psychometric and cognitive approaches to intelligence.

Ans. This is a fundamentally different question from the one that drives the psychometric approach: the psychometric approach is focused on whether people answer items correctly, while the cognitive approach is focused on how people answer the items, and why some people are better than others at answering items of various types (Anderson, 2015). Precursors to the Cognitive Approach to Intelligence Although cognitive psychology as a field came into being in the mid-1900s (Anderson, 2015), some of the earliest research on human intelligence had a distinctly cognitive flavor. While some early psychologists (e.g., Thorndike, 1898) took a strong “nurture” view of intelligence as the sum total of acquired knowledge,1 others (e.g., Galton, 1883) sought to explain differences in intelligence by way of basic mental processes. Galton suggested that mental ability should be 1 This idea is still common today, reflected in computer-inspired computational models of cognition such as Anderson’s ACT-R model (Anderson, 1996). Comp. by: Iyanar Stage: Proof Chapter No.: 5 Title Name: Sternberg Date:30/3/19 Time:21:18:40 Page Number: 105 related to measures that he believed reflected these basic processes, such as reaction time and sensory discrimination tasks. Establishing an empirical relationship between intelligence and basic processes proved difficult, however. In 1901, Clark Wissler, a student with James McKeen Cattell, reported a failed attempt to find a link between mental speed, as measured by five trials of a reaction time task, and academic achievement among students at Columbia University. Following Wissler’s disappointing result, intelligence research in general shifted away from trying to identify such primitive causes of between-person differences in intelligence. Instead, psychologists focused on measuring these differences, whether in the context of education (as exemplified by Binet; Hunt, 2011) or in the interest of developing theories about the structure of cognitive abilities (as exemplified by the factor-analytic/differential methods of Spearman, 1927, and Thurstone, 1948). Meanwhile, in psychology more broadly, the rise of behaviorism in the 1920s led to a strong focus on observable behavior and experimental methods, especially in the United States. Mental processes, along with everything else taking place within the “black box” of the mind, were not considered appropriate objects of inquiry if psychology was to establish itself as a serious science (J. B. Watson, 1913). Over the next few decades, the two branches of intelligence research (educational and differential) proceeded separately from the behaviorist approach to psychology, and largely separately from each other. In the 1960s, the field of psychology as a whole pivoted again, as theorists realized the limitations of behaviorism for explaining complex human behavior. As computers worked their way into the popular imagination, psychologists began to think of the mind as something like a computer, in that it took in information, processed the information, and generated output based on the information (Neisser, 1967). Psychologists began to develop cognitive models, which generated testable hypotheses about the cognitive architecture and the processes involved in various mental activities. Relying heavily on the experimental method that was refined during the heyday of behaviorism, researchers in the new subdiscipline of cognitive psychology devised tightly controlled laboratory studies in order to test predictions about how the human mind works. In just a few decades, cognitive psychologists made tremendous progress in understanding human attention (Broadbent, 1958; Treisman, 1964), memory (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968), knowledge representation (Collins & Quillian, 1969), problem-solving (Newell & Simon, 1972), and reasoning (Wason, 1968). All of these topics are relevant to intelligence, insofar as they play a role in intelligent behavior. According to colloquial definitions of intelligence, a person who has a better memory, who learns faster, and who solves problems and makes decisions more effectively, typically will be seen as more intelligent than another person who is not as able in these domains, all else being equal. But, if a student interested in intelligence reads a cognitive psychology textbook, he or she may be disappointed to find that it barely, if at all, covers research on intelligence.

IGNOU BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment – II

3.  Explain the differences between Indian and Western psychology.

Ans. The ideas such as cycles of birth and death, life after life, rebirth and reincarnation are not part of Western culture as much as they are of ours. It is this which makes all the difference between what we call Indian Psychology and Western Psychology.

But, they are not totally absent in Western societies. People did experience and report such phenomena, and the first Psychical Research Society was established in England to investigate them. That’s why Parapsychology as a branch of Psychology continues to exist.

From ancient times four life goals are recognized. They are not the biological needs for food, sleep, security and sex which we share in common with other animals. Instead, they are purushārtha, what human beings consciously chose as worth pursuing. They are dharma, artha, kāma, and moksha. They refer to leading a virtuous life, acquiring wealth, fulfilling desires, and aspiring to get liberated from the cycle of birth and death. The Kama here does not mean sexual need as often understood. It refers to our other psychological needs. The sequence of arranging these four goals has significance. The last one is the most important or the highest or supreme or ideal goal of human existence. Hence, it is called parama purushārtha. Humans were urged to satisfy their need for wealth acquisition and fulfilling psychological desires keeping this as the goal post. In pursuing these needs, one should be guided first by certain norms, ethics,and values, which is dharma. So one was expected to aspire for other goals within the framework of dharma. Hence, dharma was the first goal of life. Dharma and moksha together served as guiding principles of life, as two forces, one pushing from behind and another pulling from the front in the journey of life. We should note here that moksha as the supreme life goal is highlighted only in our country for thousands of years. Probably in no other country, other than those South Asian countries which were historically influenced by Indian culture, we come across this belief in liberation from cycles of birth and death so widely held and also actively encouraged as a worthy life goal. So many seers, saints, and sages in our country reiterated about this possibility from ancient time onwards till today. While in all countries across the globe the other three goals are defined and pursued, we do not find moksha.

Life and death is a cycle and a continuous process. All organisms pass through this cycle. Humans undergo such repeated sequences, and bodily death is not the end of life force (jiva). It can continue the journey and return to earth through another fresh body, immediately or after a duration small or significant. The results of actions performed in one particular life time accumulate creating certain tendencies, impressions, habit patterns and constitute what is known as karma. The cumulative karma of several life times is the force that keeps the cycle of birth and death going. Karma is the prime motivating factor for our actions. But humans can consciously choose to break this cycle in a particular life period and put an end to this process. That is called liberation or moksha. Such liberated beings are venerated as Divine persons, and they have the freedom to return to earthly life to help others to get liberated. Western psychology having been influenced by Darwinian evolutionary theory treat humans as superior primates and hence the further evolutionary possibilities available for humans are not considered.

IGNOU BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23


4. Explain the measurement of intelligence.

Ans. The intelligence quotient (IQ) is a measure of intelligence that is adjusted for age. The Wechsler Adult lntelligence Scale (WAIS) is the most widely used IQ test for adults.

Brain volume, speed of neural transmission, and working memory capacity are related to IQ.

Although most psychologists have considered intelligence a cognitive ability, people also use their emotions to help them solve problems and relate effectively to others. Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to accurately identify, assess, and understand emotions, as well as to effectively control one’s own emotions (Feldman-Barrett & Salovey, 2002; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2000).

The idea of emotional intelligence is seen in Howard Gardner’s interpersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand the emotions, intentions, motivations, and desires of other people) and intrapersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand oneself, including one’s emotions). Public interest in, and research on, emotional intellgence became widely prevalent following the publication of Daniel Goleman’s best-selling book, Working with emotional intelligence.

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IGNOU BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23

5. Differentiate between aptitude and interest.

Ans. An aptitude is a component of a competence to do a certain kind of work at a certain level. Outstanding aptitude can be considered “talent”. Aptitude is inborn potential to perform certain kinds of activities, whether physical or mental, and whether developed or undeveloped. Aptitude is often contrasted with skills and abilities, which are developed through learning. The mass term ability refers to components of competence acquired through a combination of both aptitude and skills.

In finance and economics, interest is payment from a borrower or deposit-taking financial institution to a lender or depositor of an amount above repayment of the principal sum (that is, the amount borrowed), at a particular rate. It is distinct from a fee which the borrower may pay the lender or some third party. It is also distinct from dividend which is paid by a company to its shareholders (owners) from its profit or reserve, but not at a particular rate decided beforehand, rather on a pro rata basis as a share in the reward gained by risk taking entrepreneurs when the revenue earned exceeds the total costs.


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IGNOU Instructions for the BANC 103 PSYCHOLOGY OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES  

IGNOU BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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BANC 103 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23 We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. IGNOU BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. IGNOU BANC 103 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done – 8130208920

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