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IGNOU BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022 , BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23, BANC 102 Assignment 2022-23 , BANC 102 Assignment, IGNOU BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

IGNOU BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note – IGNOU BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).

Assignment – I

a. Discuss the historical background of the development of Social and Cultural anthropology.

Ans. Almost to the end of the 19th century, evolutionism determined the complexion of the new science. A major task of cultural anthropology was thought to be that of classifying different societies and cultures and defining the phases and states through which all human groups pass—the linear interpretation of history. Some groups progress more slowly, some faster, as they advance from the simple to the complex, from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous, from the irrational to the rational. It suffices to quote an American anthropologist, Lewis Henry Morgan:

As it is undeniable that portions of the human family have existed in a state of savagery, other portions in a state of barbarism, and still other portions in a state of civilization, it seems equally so that these three distinct conditions are connected with each other in a natural as well as necessary sequence of progress (Ancient Society, 1877).

Other quotations from a Scotsman, John F. MacLennan, or an Englishman, Edward B. Tylor, would take the same position.

Cultural anthropology, then, set out to analyze the totality of human culture in time and space. But by assuming a linear conception of history, it too often neglected the discontinuities and interferences of concrete history. Morgan, and particularly Tylor, however, sometimes felt the necessity of introducing the concept of the “diffusion,” or spread, of cultural characteristics from one people to another—thus suggesting that characteristics could develop independently and converge and that a people could leap over “stages” of evolution by borrowing knowledge from others. Moreover, because it based itself on a theory that all mankind had a similar psychic outlook or that something called “human nature” was universal, anthropology also failed to take into account the fact that the same cultural trait can mean different things depending on the society in which it is found.

Marxism and the collectors

At the same time, in the second half of the 19th century another kind of evolutionism developed, that of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Partly independent of anthropological evolutionism (Marx’s Critique of Political Economy dates from 1859), partly linked to it (Engels’ most important work appeared after Morgan’s Ancient Society and made use of it), the Marxist theory laid stress on the causes of human evolution. A society was defined by its mode of production, on which its political, juridical, and ideological superstructures were allegedly based. These superstructures continued to exist after the mode of production had changed; and in the conflict that followed, this contradiction opened the way to a new type of society. Numerous anthropologists have taken the Marxist analysis into account, even if only to retain its historical view and to reject its economic determinism.

IGNOU BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23

b. Describe fieldwork tradition in anthropology.

Ans. Anthropology is popularly known as a “field science”. This is because in its study of humans, both socially and biologically, it depends on authenticating its data from real experiences and knowledge. This reality is captured not by suppositions and theories but by gathering first hand knowledge on it. This is where fieldwork as an approach of study comes in. This module will discuss the relevance of fieldwork and its tradition in anthropology and put forward how, it as a methodology since its inception and evolution has played an important role in anthropological study.

Fieldwork

Fieldwork is central to the inquiry of anthropology. It can be said to have formed the foundation of the discipline. The famous anthropologist, Margaret Mead notes: “We still have no way to make an anthropologist except by sending him into the field: this contact with living material is our distinguishing mark” Traditionally the word “field” indicates the area where the members of the group to be researched by the investigator, live in. However today, the “field” may also be the internet, a museum, a school, a library, a hospital, a lab, a market, an urban eating joint, a virtual space etc. The “field” becomes the readymade laboratory for the researcher. Fieldwork is investigation in anthropology where the researcher stays in or visits the place of investigation for long periods of time, not less than a year, receives firsthand experience and collects data. Powdermaker defines fieldwork as “the study of people and of their culture in their natural habitat. Anthropological fieldwork has been characterised by the prolonged residence of the investigator, his participation in and observation of the society, and his attempt to understand the inside view of the native people and to achieve the holistic view of a social scientist” (cited in Robben and Sluka 2007: 7). Others like Luhrmann points out that, “Anthropology is the naturalist’s trade: you sit and watch and learn from the species in its natural environment” Fieldwork is equally important to the socio-cultural anthropologists, the physical anthropologists and the archaeological anthropologists. It is one methodology they follow in their distinct branches throughout their academic lifetime due to the remarkable awareness it provides. Anthropologists depend on fieldwork as their ultimate source of gathering valid data. It is because as Srivastava puts it, “compared to the other methods, fieldwork yields a lot of data about the lifestyles of people and the meaning they attribute to their actions. Fieldwork also teaches the distinction between ‘what people think’, ‘what people say’, ‘what people do, and ‘what people say they ought to have done’” Fieldwork is a kind of characteristic custom, a procedure that assists anthropologists in the inquiry of human life. It offers a huge level of flexibility to the fieldworker as s/he can modify approaches and techniques of investigation and collection of data, create and add newer processes and formulate “on-the-spot strategies to come to grips with unforeseen challenges of fieldwork.

IGNOU BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment – II

a. Discuss the Symbolic and Interpretive approach.

Ans. The Symbolic and Interpretive Anthropologists view culture as a mental phenomenon and reject the idea that culture can be modeled like mathematics or logic. When they study symbolic action in cultures, they use a variety of analytical tools from psychology, history, and literature. This method has been criticized for a lack of objective method. In other words, this method seems to allow analysts to see meaning wherever and however they wish. In spite of this criticism, Symbolic and Interpretive Anthropology has forced anthropologists to become aware of cultural texts they interpret and of ethnographic texts they create. In order to work as intercultural translators, anthropologists need to be aware of their own cultural biases as well as other cultures they research.

There are two schools of thought within Symbolic and Interpretive Anthropology. The British school was interested in how societies maintained cohesion and is illustrated by the work of Victor Turner and Mary Douglas. The American school is exemplified by Clifford Geertz and Sherry Ortner and was focused on “how ideas shaped individuals subjectivities and actions” (Johnson 2013: 842). An important contribution of Symbolic and Interpretive anthropologists, specifically Clifford Geertz, is “thick description,” which encourages rich descriptions and explanations of behaviors with an end goal of understanding their cultural significance. Geertz borrowed this concept from Gilbert Ryle, an Oxford philosopher. The classic example of thick description is the difference between a wink and a blink. A blink is an involuntary twitch (thin description) while a wink is a conspiratorial signal to another person (thick description). The physical movements are identical, but the meaning is different.

IGNOU BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23

b. Write a note on kinship, family and marriage.

Ans. When two people marry, they become kin to one another. The marriage bond connects together a wider range of people too. Parents, sisters, brothers & other blood relatives become relatives of the partner through marriage.

Basically, family relationships have kinship groups.

A nuclear family has two adults living together in a household with their own or adopted children. In conventional societies, the nuclear family was part of a larger kinship network of some type.

In an extended family close relatives apart from the married couple and children live in the same household.  For eg:  An extended family may include grandparents, sisters, and their husbands, brothers and their wives, aunts, and nephews.

A family is a group of individuals directly linked by connections. The older or adult members of which assume responsibility of taking care of children. Kinship ties are connections between individuals, established either through marriage or through the lines of descent that connect blood relatives. Eg.  mothers, fathers, siblings, offspring, etc. Learn the kinship in India here in detail.

Cultural norms and laws, recognize people as suitable or unsuitable marriage partners. Some marital standards promote endogamy, marriage between people of the same social category.

Endogamy curbs marriage prospects to others of the same age, race, religion, or social class.

Exogamy mandates marriage between people of different social categories.

In rural India, people are expected to marry someone of the same caste (endogamy) but from a different village (exogamy). The idea of endogamy is that people of homogeneous position pass along their standing to their little ones and hence maintain the traditional social hierarchy. However, Exogamy builds alliances and encourages cultural diffusion.

In high-income nations, laws prescribe monogamy (from the Greek, meaning “one union”), a marriage that unites two partners. Whereas monogamy is the rule in high-income countries, many lower-income countries especially in Africa and southern Asia the practice of polygamy is permitted. (from the Greek, meaning “many unions”), a marriage that unites three or more people.


IGNOU BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Answer the following questions in about 75 words each.

a. Religious institutions

Ans. Religious institution means any church, synagogue, mosque, temple or building which is used primarily for religious worship and related religious activities.

A religious institute is a type of institute of consecrated life in the Catholic Church whose members take religious vows and lead a life in community with fellow members. Religious institutes are one of the two types of institutes of consecrated life; the other is that of the secular institute, where its members are “living in the world”.

Societies of apostolic life resemble religious institutes in that its members live in community, but differ as their members do not take religious vows. They pursue the apostolic purpose of the society to which they belong, while leading a life in common as brothers or sisters and striving for the perfection of charity through observing the society’s constitutions. In some of these societies the members assume the evangelical counsels by a bond other than that of religious vows defined in their constitutions.

IGNOU BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23

b. Evolutionism

Ans. Evolutionism is a term used (often derogatorily) to denote the theory of evolution. Its exact meaning has changed over time as the study of evolution has progressed. In the 19th century, it was used to describe the belief that organisms deliberately improved themselves through progressive inherited change (orthogenesis). The teleological belief went on to include cultural evolution and social evolution. In the 1970s, the term “Neo-Evolutionism” was used to describe the idea that “human beings sought to preserve a familiar style of life unless change was forced on them by factors that were beyond their control.

c. Structural- functionalism

Ans. structural functionalism, in sociology and other social sciences, a school of thought according to which each of the institutions, relationships, roles, and norms that together constitute a society serves a purpose, and each is indispensable for the continued existence of the others and of society as a whole. In structural functionalism, social change is regarded as an adaptive response to some tension within the social system. When some part of an integrated social system changes, a tension between this and other parts of the system is created, which will be resolved by the adaptive change of the other parts.

IGNOU BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23

d. Rapport Building e. Tribes and Bands

Ans. Rapport (ra-PORE) is a close and harmonious relationship in which the people or groups concerned are “in sync” with each other, understand each other’s feelings or ideas, and communicate smoothly.

The word stems from the French verb rapporter which means literally to carry something back; and, in the sense of how people relate to each other means that what one person sends out the other sends back. For example, they may realize that they share similar values, beliefs, knowledge, or behaviors around politics, music or sports. This may also mean that the participants engage in reciprocal behaviors such as posture mirroring or in increased coordination in their verbal and nonverbal interactions.

IGNOU BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment – III

a. Select either Slums in India or Ethnography of a Village as a topic. Write the steps for preparing a synopsis emphasizing on the significance of your study, unit of study, methods, tools and techniques.

Ans. A protocol or a synopsis of a research project is a document submitted to an authority or an institution for the purpose of

Financial assistance from organizations like ICMR, DST, NACO, DGHS, and MHRD

Synopsis is the gist of your planned project submitted for approval from competent authorities. It gives a panoramic view of your research for quick analysis by the reviewers.

Thus, a protocol or a synopsis forms an integral part of a research project or a thesis. Many universities have made it mandatory for the postgraduate degree student to prepare a thesis as a part of their postgraduate training. A good knowledge about how a protocol or a synopsis is written is imperative to all people involved in medical research.

Literally, protocol (Greek word, protokollon – first page) means a format procedure for carrying out a scientific research. Synopsis (Greek word, sun – together, opsis – seeing) means brief summary of something. Frequently, both the terms are used as synonyms but the term ′synopsis′ is used more often.

A synopsis should be constructed in a manner that facilitates the reviewer to understand the research project at a glance. It should be brief but precise. A synopsis can be structured in the following manner:

  • Title
  • Statement of the problem and hypothesis
  • Aims and objectives
  • Review of literature
  • Research methodology
  • References
  • Official requirements

Title The title of the research project should be brief but informative; sensationalization of the title is best avoided. It should neither be too short nor too long. Any name of the institution, the number of cases to be studied should not be included. The hypothesis to be studied can be included.

Examples:

  1. “Study of ectopic pregnancy”

This was a title chosen for university registration. The title is too short. It does not state the problem or the hypothesis and is least informative. More meaningful title shall be, “Study of ectopic pregnancy in relation to morbidity, mortality, and intervention in a referral hospital”.

  1. “A novel sustained release matrix based on biodegradable poly (esteramides) and, impregnated with bacteriophages and an antibiotic shows promise in management of infected venous stasis ulcer and other poorly healing wounds”, (Int. J Dermat vol 8 2002). The title is long and ill conceived. It gives a confusing picture about the study problem. Such long titles are best avoided. Certain amount of sensationalization is also present by using term ′novel′. More meaningful title shall be, “Response of venous stasis ulcers and other poorly healing wounds to a biodegradable matrix impregnated with bacteriophages and an antibiotic”. The other details about the new method can be mentioned while stating the problem.
  2. “Fine needle aspiration, as a diagnostic tool for papulonodular skin lesions”. This is an acceptable, informative, and precise title. It states the hypothesis correctly.

Statement of the problem or hypothesisThe problem being studied should be mentioned in precise and clear terms. Understanding the problem aids the researcher in constructing the research proposal. It also allows the person to formulate the hypothesis. The problem under study should be relevant to the present. A brief account of its utility at the local or national level has to be discussed. The present status of the problem and the necessity for taking up the study needs to be mentioned.

Hypothesis is mentioned as a tentative prediction or explanation of the relationship between two or more variables. Hypothesis should not be a haphazard guess but should reflect the knowledge, imagination, and experience of the investigator. Hypothesis can be formulated by understanding the problem, reviewing the literature on it, and considering other factors. A researcher can state the problem and the hypothesis in about 200 words covering all the aspects described above.

Aims and objectivesAll research projects should have objectives and aims and every effort should be made to achieve them. The objectives and aims should be only a few (2-3). They must pertain to the study problem. Usages of terms like “first study”, “the only study”, etc. should be avoided.

Review of literatureReview of literature is a very important part of a research project. It achieves the following:

Familiarizes the reader to the problem under study.

It describes the work done by others either at local or international level on it or similar subject.

It helps the researcher to understand the difficulties faced by others and the corrective steps taken or modifications made by them. The researcher can anticipate similar or additional problems during the study and review of literature helps him in anticipating them.

Research methodology of the researcher can be structured and modified after reviewing the literature.

The review assists in identifying various variables in the research project and conceptualizes their relationship.

Review of literature in a synopsis helps the reviewer in assessing the knowledge of the researcher. The reviewer can assess the work put in by the researcher and also assists in assessing the feasibility of the study.

The review of literature in a synopsis need not be exhaustive. The relevant information should be covered in about 300 words quoting 8-10 authentic, easily retrievable references. Literature can be reviewed by using various scientific-information-gathering methods. These are journals, national or international; bulletins of organizations like WHO, CDC, and ICMR; books; computer-assisted searches like Medline and Medlar; and personal communications with other researchers. Internet provides a vast avenue for information gathering. Care must be taken to retrieve only relevant information. In this era of information technology review of literature is literally “just a click away”.

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IGNOU BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23

b. Write a short essay in 500 words on your experience of spending time with your family during the lockdown owing to the pandemic COVID 19.

Ans. On March 10, 2020, Italy went into lockdown due to the Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. The World Health Organization highlighted how the lockdown had negative consequences on psychological well-being, especially for children. The present study aimed to investigate parental correlates of children’s emotion regulation during the COVID-19 lockdown. Within the Social Cognitive Theory framework, a path model in which parenting self-efficacy and parental regulatory emotional self-efficacy mediated the relationship between parents’ psychological distress and both children’s emotional regulation, and children’s lability/negativity, was investigated. A total of 277 parents of children aged from 6 to 13 years completed an online survey that assessed their psychological distress, regulatory emotional self-efficacy, and parenting self-efficacy. Parents reported also children’s emotional regulation and lability/negativity. A structural equation model (SEM) using MPLUS 8.3 was tested.

The spread of the pandemic COVID-19 in Italy from February 2020 and the subsequent health emergency led to several restrictive measures. Schools and universities have been closed at the end of February, and starting from March 9th, 2020, a quarantine measure became necessary leading to a general closure of almost all public businesses and work activities.

Children and families have been deprived of their educational, work, and sport activities, but also from all their friendship and relational contacts. Suddenly parents had to manage their children at home from school 24 h a day and, at the same time, most of them had to start smart-working from home, still carrying out their children’s school commitments. Many parents also had to manage difficulties and pain related to having sick or dead relatives, having had wages reductions, or in some cases, having lost their work. It is easy to understand how Italian families have been exposed to a very strong emotional and psychological stress.

Within the theoretical framework of Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997), the present study aimed to investigate a path model in which parenting self-efficacy and parents’ regulatory emotional self-efficacy (related to COVID-19 lockdown) mediated the relationship between parents’ psychological distress and both children’s emotional regulation, and children’s lability/negativity, in line with a previous study that stressed how parenting self-efficacy can mediate the relationship between parents’ psychological distress and children’s adjustment (Giallo et al., 2014). Additionally, in our model parents’ psychological distress was also predicted by being exposed to several risks related to COVID-19 quarantine and the pandemic.


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IGNOU Instructions for the BANC 102 INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY  

IGNOU BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BANC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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