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IGNOU BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23

IGNOU BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23 : BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022 , BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23, BANC 101 Assignment 2022-23 , BANC 101 Assignment, IGNOU BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU Assignments 2022-23- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for MEG Programme for the year 2022-23. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself.

IGNOU BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).

Assignment – I

a. Define Physical/biological Anthropology. Discuss its aims and scope

Ans. Physical or biological anthropology deals with the evolution of humans, their variability, and adaptations to environmental stresses. Using an evolutionary perspective, we examine not only the physical form of humans – the bones, muscles, and organs – but also how it functions to allow survival and reproduction.

Biological anthropology, also known as physical anthropology, is a scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their extinct hominin ancestors, and related non-human primates, particularly from an evolutionary perspective.

As a subfield of anthropology, biological anthropology itself is further divided into several branches. All branches are united in their common orientation and/or application of evolutionary theory to understanding human biology and behavior.

Bioarchaeology is the study of past human cultures through examination of human remains recovered in an archaeological context. The examined human remains usually are limited to bones but may include preserved soft tissue. Researchers in bioarchaeology combine the skill sets of human osteology, paleopathology, and archaeology, and often consider the cultural and mortuary context of the remains.

Evolutionary biology is the study of the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor. These processes include natural selection, common descent, and speciation.

Evolutionary psychology is the study of psychological structures from a modern evolutionary perspective. It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations – that is, the functional products of natural selection or sexual selection in human evolution.

Forensic anthropology is the application of the science of physical anthropology and human osteology in a legal setting, most often in criminal cases where the victim’s remains are in the advanced stages of decomposition.

Human behavioral ecology is the study of behavioral adaptations (foraging, reproduction, ontogeny) from the evolutionary and ecologic perspectives. It focuses on human adaptive responses (physiological, developmental, genetic) to environmental stresses.

Human biology is an interdisciplinary field of biology, biological anthropology, nutrition and medicine, which concerns international, population-level perspectives on health, evolution, anatomy, physiology, molecular biology, neuroscience, and genetics.

Paleoanthropology is the study of fossil evidence for human evolution, mainly using remains from extinct hominin and other primate species to determine the morphological and behavioral changes in the human lineage, as well as the environment in which human evolution occurred.

Paleopathology is the study of disease in antiquity. This study focuses not only on pathogenic conditions observable in bones or mummified soft tissue, but also on nutritional disorders, variation in stature or morphology of bones over time, evidence of physical trauma, or evidence of occupationally derived biomechanic stress.

Primatology is the study of non-human primate behavior, morphology, and genetics. Primatologists use phylogenetic methods to infer which traits humans share with other primates and which are human-specific adaptations.

Biological Anthropology looks different today than it did even twenty years ago. The name is even relatively new, having been ‘physical anthropology’ for over a century, with some practitioners still applying that term. Biological anthropologists look back to the work of Charles Darwin as a major foundation for what they do today. However, if one traces the intellectual genealogy back to physical anthropology’s beginnings—before the discovery of much of what we now know as the hominin fossil record—then the focus shifts to human biological variation. Some editors, see below, have rooted the field even deeper than formal science.

IGNOU BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23

b.  Briefly discuss racialization of humans 

Ans. In sociology, racialization or ethnicization is a political process of ascribing ethnic or racial identities to a relationship, social practice, or group that did not identify itself as such. Racialization or ethnicization often arises out of the interaction of a group with a group that it dominates and ascribes a racial identity for the purpose of continued domination and social exclusion; over time, the racialized and ethnicized group develop the society enforced construct that races are real, different and unequal in ways that matter to economic, political and social life. These processes have been common throughout the history of imperialism, nationalism, racial and ethnic hierarchies.

Racial categories have historically been used as a way to enable an oppressive figure or group to discriminate against other groups or individuals which were seen as different from that of the oppressor. In nineteenth and early twentieth century Europe, artwork was a common form of racialization which targeted countries in the Middle East and Asia. The artwork, predominantly paintings, were portrayed in order to instill prejudice in the Western populations through sexualizing and manipulating images. One of the most prominent examples of Orientalist work in art is a piece by Eugène Delacroix titled Women of Algiers in their Apartment. Dating back to 1834, it portrays three women resting in a harem in exotic clothing while an African woman is dressed in plain clothing, depicting her role as a servant. Fine textiles, hookahs, and other paraphernalia adorn the room, which represents a European fantasy of an exotic scene. Attempts to portray these cultures as strange, foreign and exotic through Orientalism led to intolerance towards the Arab and Asian communities in Europe and the United States. Others argue that Delacroix, who travelled in North Africa sketching extensively, was depicting a realistic scene of the era based on his first-hand knowledge and experience. In such an interpretation the clothing, for example, is consistent with the times, as Arab North Africans dressed differently from Europeans, and kept black slaves who would not have been treated as equals.

Many North African and Middle Eastern countries, such as Tunisia, Algeria, and Syria, were colonized by European nations. These countries were not fully independent until the mid-twentieth century, a time in which globalization began to rise both economically and politically With the rise of globalization came an expanding cultural influence and an increase in immigration to Western nations. New cultures, ethnic groups, and ideals have contributed to the process of racialization which is familiar in modern society. Racialization is a long process, and members of each group are categorized based on their perceived differences relative to those who are considered elite within a society. Another major contributor to the process of racialization is the media. News outlets, films, television shows, and other forms of public communication portray racial groups to often reflect stereotypes which contribute to the public’s opinion of certain cultural groups. These opinions and stereotypes may become institutionalized and racial groups must then encounter the institutionalized racism that is a result. Dominant groups in a society tend to racialize others because new cultural and racial groups are seen as threatening to their society. These threats instill fear into the dominant members of the society due to the possibility of downward mobility or perceived loss of national security. While threats can be imagined or real, they are most prominent when there is some other issue in the nation, such as a poorly performing economy. The effects of racialization are often more harmful to racial and ethnic groups than the actual racialization itself, a few examples being systemic and structural racism. Further significant research in this area is aiding politicians and policy makers in creating a more equal society that embraces and supports different racial and ethnic groups.

IGNOU BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23

a. Write short notes on any two of the following

i. Criticism of Lamarckism/Criticism of Darwinism

Ans. Jean Baptiste Lamarck put forth the theory of inheritance of acquired characters, which is also known as Lamarckism. It was published in ‘Philosophie Zoologique’ in the year 1809.

The four propositions of Lamarckism are as follows:

  1. Living organisms and their parts tend to increase in size continuously due to internal forces of life.
  2. New organs are formed in the body of organisms in response to a new need. For example, in the evolution of the horse, the plantigrade type of foot changed to unguligrade foot. The ancestor of the horse lived in soft ground for which the plantigrade foot was adequate. When the soft ground in the jungle was replaced by dry hard land, the foot changed to unguligrade type that suited running on hard ground.
  3. If an organ is used continuously and constantly, it tends to be highly developed, whereas misuse results in degeneration.

Some examples are:

  1. Aquatic birds develop webbed foot by stretching the skin between the toes.
  2. Limbs are absent in snakes, Proteus and some burrowing animals since they were of no use in crawling and were a hindrance in movement.

iii. The long neck of the giraffe developed due to constant stretching to reach food.

  1. The muscles of the external ear or pinna in man are reduced but functional and well developed in animals like the dog, rabbit etc. to collect sound waves.
  2. Changes acquired during the lifetime of an individual are inherited by its offspring.

Criticism of Lamarckism:

Lamarck’s theory was subject to severe criticism. Two scientists Cuvier and Weismann were great critics of Lamarck.

Some objections raised against Lamarckism are as follows:

  1. Though the tendency to increase in size has been shown in many forms, there are also instances where there is reduction in size. For example, trees that are primitive, are large in size, while the shrubs, herbs and grasses that evolved later are smaller in size.
  2. If new organs were to develop in response to a new need, then man should have developed wings by now.

IGNOU BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23

ii. Adaptive Radiation

Ans. Adaptive radiation is a rapid increase in the number of species with a common ancestor, characterized by great ecological and morphological diversity. The driving force behind it is the adaptation of organisms to new ecological contexts.

Adaptive radiation, as a phenomenon, has tremendous research potential: The existence of a suite of closely related species adapted to exploit different habitats or lifestyles allows one to make comparative studies on the processes of speciation and selection in natural populations. Molecular systematics is providing a much better understanding of the evolutionary history of groups of closely related species and provides the opportunity for testing mechanisms underlying adaptive radiation (Givnish, 1997).

 The diversity of Galapagos finches, discussed above, results from adaptive radiation. It can even be said that theirs is the most typical, most famous case of adaptive radiation studied by scientists. During the course of evolution, their beaks have changed in size and morphology so that they are now adapted to different diets: some species eat mostly animals (e.g. insects), others seeds or plants; some feed in the trees, and others on the ground.


IGNOU BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment – II

a. Answer any two of the following questions in about 150 words each.

i. Characteristics of Modern Human Skull

Ans. This skull of an adult male has developed relatively modern features including a higher forehead although it still retains some archaic features including a brow ridge and slightly projecting face. This specimen and others from the Middle East are the oldest known traces of modern humans outside of Africa.

The human skull is generally considered to consist of twenty-two bones—eight cranial bones and fourteen facial skeleton bones. In the neurocranium these are the occipital bone, two temporal bones, two parietal bones, the sphenoid, ethmoid and frontal bones.

The bones of the facial skeleton (14) are the vomer, two inferior nasal conchae, two nasal bones, two maxilla, the mandible, two palatine bones, two zygomatic bones, and two lacrimal bones. Some sources count a paired bone as one, or the maxilla as having two bones (as its parts); some sources include the hyoid bone or the three ossicles of the middle ear but the overall general consensus of the number of bones in the human skull is the stated twenty-two.

Some of these bones—the occipital, parietal, frontal, in the neurocranium, and the nasal, lacrimal, and vomer, in the facial skeleton are flat bones.

IGNOU BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23

ii. UNESCO Statement on Race

Ans. The establishment of the United Nations (UN) following World War II led to a surge in declarations, conventions, and organizations aimed at promoting human rights and equality. The legacy of Nazism and the failure of the League of Nations galvanized the UN to formulate two critical postwar documents: the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), and the Genocide Convention (1948). The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was established in 1945 to “embody a genuine culture of peace.” It was within this international atmosphere that UNESCO, as one of its early public acts, issued a Statement on Race in 1950.

Racism was the essence of Nazism, and the defeat of that regime provided an opportunity to pursue an egalitarian agenda. Despite the defeat of Nazism, racism in the late 1940s remained a powerful ideology. Segregation in the United States was in full force, and southern racism was yet to be challenged politically. UNESCO took up the challenge and established a committee of experts that published the 1950 Statement on Race, which declared that there was no scientific basis or justification for racial bias (The New York Times, July 18, 1950). The publication created a controversy that, in various forms, has lasted ever since. Nevertheless, the publication of the statement marked the emergence of a new scientific orthodoxy that continues into the twentyfirst century. This persistence is most remarkable given the ongoing changes in the study of the life sciences. But perhaps as noteworthy is how the specific makeup of the committee fanned the controversy, for while the subject matter reputedly dealt with issues of physical anthropology and biology, the scientists on the UNESCO committee were largely social scientists. The question of whether race is a biological phenomena or a social construct was, and remains, controversial.

IGNOU BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23

Assignment – III

a. Describe any one instrument used in somatometry.

Ans. Somatometry means the measurements of the living body including head and face.

Techniques of Measurements:

Measurements should not be taken with shoes on. Minimum number of clothes should be worn at the time of measurements. The subject must stand erect on a level floor against a wall where his back and buttock touches the wall.

Again the feet should remain parallel to each other and the heels need to touch the wall. Arms should hang to the maximum; the palms of hands need to touch the thighs. Both the shoulders should be on same plane.

The head should rest without any strain in the eye-ear plane or Frankfurt plane, i.e.; tragion and the right orbitable must lie in one plane. All measurements except those concerned with mid sagittal plane must be taken on the right side of the body as because it is easier to handle the instruments with right hand. The subject should be asked to seat on a low stool of about 40cm height at the time of taking the measurements on head and face. The head must be straight, looking forward.

Head and Face:

  1. Alare (al):

It is the most laterally projected place as a point on the nasal wing. It has to be determined at the time of measuring the nasal breadth.

  1. Chelion (ch):

This point is situated on the mouth-opening line where the lateral margins of the upper and lower lips meet. It denotes the extreme comer points of the mouth.

  1. Euryon (en):

It is the most laterally placed point on the parietal side of the head. Such a point is only determined by trial method at the time of measuring the maximum head breadth.

  1. Frontotemporale (ft):

The medial most point on the temporal line—the most anterior and inner point on the linea temporalis or temporal line on the frontal bone. The first finger must be placed on the margin of the anterior and lateral wall of the forehead above the orbits.

And then by gradual sliding of the finger on the curved plane of the linea temporalis, the desired point can be located. Generally it lies slightly higher than a tangent which could be drawn on the highest elevation of the upper margins of the eyebrow ridges.

IGNOU BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23

b. Differentiate between morphological facial height and physiognomic facial height.

Ans. Estimation of stature from fragmented human remains is an important part of forensic identification of an unknown individual(1). Identification of human remains is of very much importance in medico legal examination. Forensic examination includes the determination of species of origin, age, sex and stature from bones(2). Many studies have elicited that there’s a positive co-relation between stature and length of long bones of humans. But only a very few studies have revealed that there’s a positive co-relation between stature and facial dimensions. Like any part of the human skeleton can be found as evidences, there is a need to investigate whether there is a co-relation between stature and facial dimensions(3). The height of the person or the stature is one of the vital factors to determine the physical identity of an individual as there’s a biological relationship of stature with all body parts(4).

So, this present study attempts to estimate the stature from facial dimensions such as morphological and physiognomic facial heights in South Indian population and to formulate regression models for this purpose.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A total of 100 young and healthy individuals, comprising of 75 females and 25 males were selected. This study was conducted in the South-Indian population in the year 2016

1) ANTHROPOMETRIC METHODOLOGY

The stature and the facial measurements of each subject were taken using standard anthropometric instruments, in centimeters. The anatomical landmarks used for taking measurements were identified by keeping the head in Frankfurt horizontal plane.

INSTRUMENTS USED:

The instrument used for data collection was a digital sliding vernier calliper. The     measurements include:

1)          STATURE :

The stature or height of the individual was measured in the standing position to the vertex using anthropometric rod.

2)     MORPHOLOGICAL FACIAL LENGTH :

It is measured from the nasion (depressed area directly between the eyes, just superior to the bridge of the nose) to the gnathion (the lowest point on the lower border of mandible in the mid sagittal plane) by using a sliding calliper.

3)     PHYSIOGNOMIC FACIAL LENGTH :

It is the straight distance, measured from trichion (the midpoint of anterior line) to the gnathion by using a sliding caliper.

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IGNOU BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23

c. What is somatoscopy? Record observation on nose forms and lip forms 10 people. 

Ans. Somatoscopy is a qualitative method using a descriptive characterization in evaluation of human body features (i.e. verbal evaluation). It belongs among the basic methods used to study biological variability of humans. And that is why it is used in anthropology, medicine or criminalistic and forensic fields. Even though at the present age, metric and morphometric approaches are becoming more and more preferred because of the struggle for higher objectivity and repeatability of methods, somatoscopy can be considered a rightful alternative in cases in which the use of metric methods is too difficult or even impossible.

The human nose is the most protruding part of the face. It bears the nostrils and is the first organ of the respiratory system. It is also the principal organ in the olfactory system. The shape of the nose is determined by the nasal bones and the nasal cartilages, including the nasal septum which separates the nostrils and divides the nasal cavity into two. On average the nose of a male is larger than that of a female.

The nose has an important function in breathing. The nasal mucosa lining the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses carries out the necessary conditioning of inhaled air by warming and moistening it. Nasal conchae, shell-like bones in the walls of the cavities, play a major part in this process. Filtering of the air by nasal hair in the nostrils prevents large particles from entering the lungs. Sneezing is a reflex to expel unwanted particles from the nose that irritate the mucosal lining. Sneezing can transmit infections, because aerosols are created in which the droplets can harbour pathogens.

Another major function of the nose is olfaction, the sense of smell. The area of olfactory epithelium, in the upper nasal cavity, contains specialised olfactory cells responsible for this function.

The nose is also involved in the function of speech. Nasal vowels and nasal consonants are produced in the process of nasalisation. The hollow cavities of the paranasal sinuses act as sound chambers that modify and amplify speech and other vocal sounds.

There are many plastic surgery procedures on the nose, known as rhinoplasties available to correct various structural defects or to change the shape of the nose. Defects may be congenital, or result from nasal disorders or from trauma. These procedures are a type of reconstructive surgery. Elective procedures to change a nose shape are a type of cosmetic surgery.


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IGNOU Instructions for the BANC 101 INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY  

IGNOU BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23  Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.



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BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. IGNOU BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. IGNOU BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: IGNOU BANC 101 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

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