IGNOU EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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 Note: Attempt all questions. All questions carry equal marks.


Section1: Answer each question in about 500 words.

1 Write a note on the nature of early medieval Trade and Commerce.

Or

Describe the character and role of various types of Agrarian settlement patterns during early medieval times. 20

Trade and commerce in the medieval world developed to such an extent that even relatively small communities had access to weekly markets and, perhaps a day’s travel away, larger but less frequent fairs, where the full range of consumer goods of the period was set out to tempt the shopper and small retailer. Markets and fairs were organised by large estate owners, town councils, and some churches and monasteries, who, granted a license to do so by their sovereign, hoped to gain revenue from stall holder fees and boost the local economy as shoppers used peripheral services. International trade had been present since Roman times but improvements in transportation and banking, as well as the economic development of northern Europe, caused a boom from the 9th century CE. English wool, for example, was sent in huge quantities to manufacturers in Flanders; the Venetians, thanks to the Crusades, expanded their trade interests to the Byzantine Empire and the Levant, and new financial instruments evolved which allowed even small investors to fund the trade expeditions which criss-crossed Europe by sea and land.

In villages, towns, and large cities which had been granted the privilege of a license to do so by their monarch, markets were regularly held in public squares (or sometimes triangles), in wide streets or even in purpose-built halls. Markets were also organised just outside many castles and monasteries. Typically held once or twice a week, larger towns might have a daily market which moved around different parts of the city depending on the day or have markets for specific goods like meat, fish, or bread. Sellers of particular goods, who paid an estate owner, the town, or borough council a fee for the privilege to have a stall, were typically set next to each other in areas so that competition was kept high.

Sellers of meat and bread tended to be men, but women stallholders were often the majority, and they sold such staples as eggs, dairy products, poultry, and ale. There were middlemen and women known as regrators who bought goods from producers and sold them on to the market stallholders or producers might pay a vendor to sell their goods for them. Besides markets, sellers of wares also went knocking on the doors of private homes, and these were known as hucksters. Trade of common, low-value goods remained a largely local affair because of the costs of transportation. Merchants had to pay tolls at certain points along the road and at key points like bridges or mountain passes so that only luxury goods were worth transportation over long distances. Moving goods by boat or ship was cheaper and safer than by land but then there were potential losses to bad weather and pirates to consider. Consequently, local markets were supplied by the farmed estates that surrounded them and those who wanted non-everyday items like clothing, cloth, or wine had to be prepared to walk half a day or more to the nearest town.

In towns, the consumer had, besides markets, the additional option of shops. Tradespeople usually lived above their shop which presented a large window onto the street with a stall projecting out from under a wooden canopy. In cities, shops selling the same type of goods were often clustered together in the same neighborhoods, again to increase competition and make the life of city and guild inspectors easier. Sometimes location was directly related to the goods on sale such as horse sellers typically being near the city gates so as to tempt the passing traveller or booksellers near a cathedral and its associated schools of learning.

2 Discuss the nature of agrarian order in South India with reference to Nadu and Brahmadeya.

Or

Write a note on the revenue administration under the Sultan of Delhi. 20

During the Sultanate period the revenue administration was not that well organised. Even the fiscal resources of the state were very limited because the state’s authority extended over the limited territory in North and East of India, and the major parts of Central and Southern India remained beyond their influence. But the early Sultans were quite intolerant and tried to squeeze maximum of money from the Hindus. Ala-ud-Din Khilji intentionally and deliberately followed the policy of reducing the Hindus to poverty. As agriculture was the main occupation of the people the land revenue was the chief source of state income. But there was no fixed share which the cultivator had to pay to the state. This was determined by the different Sultans and ranged from 1/10 to 1/2. For example Ala-ud-Din Khilji charged 50 per cent of the agricultural produce as state share.

Ala-ud-Din Khilji paid some attention to improve the revenue administration and introduced a number of vital changes. His primary objective in introducing the changes was to collect the maximum revenue for the state so that he could maintain a strong army, which was needed both to combat the Mongol danger and to effect fresh conquests, ln the first instance he ordered the resumption of all landed grants which the nobles held as Inam (reward) or waqf (gifts) and turned them into crown lands.

Barni tells us how the Hindus, who had the monopoly of agriculture, were greatly impoverished so much so that there was no sign of gold or silver left in their houses and the wives of muqaddams used to seek jobs in the houses of Mussalmans, work there and receive wages. Apart from increasing state’s share in land revenue Ala-ud-Din Khilji took drastic steps to eradicate corruption prevailing in the revenue department. He increased the salaries of the Patwaris, but inflicted heavy punishment on them if they resorted to corrupt practices. He also ensured that the Patwaris properly assessed land revenue and did net show favour to any one. According to Dr. R. P. Tripathi, ”Ala-ud-Din was apparently the first Muslim ruler whose hands reached as far as Patwaris who were the best source of information in all matters pertaining to the land and its revenue.” The Revenue Administration set by Ala-ud-Din Khilji continued to work under his successors, but it lost much of efficiency. It was Ghias-ud-Din Tughlaq who softened the rigours of Ala-ul-Din’s revenue/ policy and administration. He found the state share of 50 per cent of the land revenue rather harsh and inconvenient, fie fixed the state share at one-tenth of the total produce. During his times many barren and ruined lands were brought under cultivation and paid much attention to the welfare of the peasants.

He disallowed the system of farming. According to Prof. S. R. Sharma, “We do not come across such tender consideration for the country until the days of Sher Shah Suri two centuries later.” Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, successor of Ghias-ud-Din also introduced important reforms in the revenue administration. He got prepared a comprehensive register of the income and expenditure of the Sultanate in order to introduce a uniform standard of land revenue and to bring every village under assessment.

Section-2  Answer each question in about 250 words.

3 Write a note on the territorial expansion of Delhi Sultanate under the Khaljis.

Or

Give an account of composition of ruling class under the Tughluqs. 12

4 Mongols were a constant threat to the Delhi Sultanate. Comment.

Or

Write a note on the nature of polities in the Rajputana between 14- 16th Centuries. 12

5 Critically evaluate the market control of Alauddin Khalji.

Or

Describe the currency system of the Delhi Sultans. 12

6 Write a note on the various stages of cloth making with reference to Ginning, Carding and Spinning.

Or

Write a note on the land and income rights during Vijayanagara Empire 12

Section 3: Answer in about 100 words each.

7 Write short notes on any two of the following:

  1. i) Arch and dome
  2. ii) Slavery and Slave trade

iii) Iqta

  1. iv) Development of Hindi Literature

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Important Note – You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Submission Date :

  • 31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)
  • 30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).

IGNOU Instructions for the EHI 03 INDIA FROM 8TH TO 15TH CENTURY

EHI 03 INDIA FROM 8TH TO 15TH CENTURY Solved Assignment 2022-23 Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

  1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.
  2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).
  4. Use only foolscap size paperfor your response and tag all the pages carefully
  5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
  6. You should write in your own handwriting.

GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

EHI 03 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

  1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.
  2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.
  3. Presentation: Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

IGNOU Assignment Front Page

The top of the first page of your response sheet should look like this: Get IGNOU Assignment Front page through. And Attach on front page of your assignment. Students need to compulsory attach the front page in at the beginning of their handwritten assignment.

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EHI 03 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

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